The Effect Of Resource Utilization On Student Achievement In Chosen Secondary Schools

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The Effect Of Resource Utilization On Student Achievement In Chosen Secondary Schools

Chapter One


1.1 Background of the Study

The background of the study, the statement of the problem, the purpose of the study, the research objectives, the research questions, the significance of the study, the scope, limitations, assumptions, operational definitions of terms, and conceptual frameworks are all presented in this introductory chapter. Education’s main goal is to help people modify their behavior by teaching them new skills, attitudes, competences, and critical and creative thinking. Teaching is a difficult and time-consuming job that needs highly specialized skills, knowledge, and resources in order to have a substantial influence on student learning (Philip, 2005). In order to fulfill an organization’s goals and objectives, its resources must be available and used. The effective use of school resources has an impact on students’ learning outcomes. Investing in educational resources is critical to ensuring that schools become institutions where students collaborate, learn from one another, and benefit from a supportive school environment, thereby maximizing student learning and ensuring that all students reach their full learning potential (United Nations Scientific and Cultural Organization, 2010). (UNESCO, 2007). The physical, human, and financial resources spent in schools have an impact on not just the curriculum that children receive, but also elements of teacher and student motivation, and hence educational results. The Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) of the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) reveals that resource constraints impede instruction and reduce student performance (OECD, 2007). Furthermore, gaps in student educational achievement frequently mirror inequities in school resources (OECD, 2008). There are fears in certain education systems that schools will not only lack the resources to satisfy their students’ educational needs, but will also have less resources with which to deliver teaching (OECD, 2008). There are several resources in schools that are directly or indirectly connected to educational results. Student learning outcomes in schools, according to Okorie (2001), are highly dependent on the availability and effective use of resources, because children gain skills through using these resources. Buildings, furniture, a playground, a courtyard, bathroom facilities, lights, books, and instructional materials are among the resources available. By meeting the physical and emotional requirements of staff and students, these facilities play a critical role in achieving educational goals and objectives. By meeting the physical, emotional, and cognitive requirements of staff and students, these facilities play a critical role in achieving educational goals and objectives. According to Abayomi (2006), school resources are vital in education because learning occurs best when students discover, explore, and engage with their internal and external contexts. As a result, one of today’s major focuses in education is the change from a teacher-centered to a learner-centered approach. This entails putting the learner’s requirements at the forefront of all actions. Teachers must employ a wide range of materials to attain this aim, which can improve the learning environment. Educators have been concerned about the adequacy of physical resources and teaching materials, as well as their effective use. Because it excites and inspires pupils, the use of resources in education results in positive learning outcomes. (2001, Okorie) Although instructors are expected to offer formal education in a classroom, much of the day-to-day teaching occurs outside the classroom as a result of interactions between learners and their physical environment, according to Pearls (2000). Knowing what resources are accessible can assist to improve teaching and learning, resulting in a move to a learner-centered approach. A learner-centered approach allows students to collaborate with their professors, other students, and even on their own. This is especially beneficial because learning opportunities exist in almost every activity that students engage in; formal teaching sessions are not always available. The effective use of resources assists instructors in shifting their focus from providing instruction to supporting learning. According to Wenglinsky (2005), research has repeatedly identified optimal resource usage in schools as a critical factor of students’ academic progress. According to the findings, in order for kids to learn well, they want an enabling atmosphere that is both mentally and physically pleasant to them. Effective schools have strict accountability mechanisms, a strong emphasis on teaching and learning, and interesting and safe learning environments. Bad academic performance is linked to a poor learning environment resulting from inadequate infrastructure. Learning, according to Lyons (2012), is a complicated activity that involves the interaction of students’ motivation, physical condition, instructional resources, teaching abilities, and the curriculum. All of these are critical to a student’s growth. He also came to the conclusion that there is a clear link between a school’s physical infrastructure and its educational performance. Because the physical structure might limit the learning experience, good upkeep, current technology, and adaptable designs are essential. Flexible school facilities should be able to adapt to changing learning patterns and approaches. Ibe-Bassey (2002) agrees with this viewpoint and points out that various studies have found a strong link between the physical environment and student academic achievement. The availability of physical facilities and the general milieu in which learning takes place, according to Reedy (2006), has a direct bearing on the quality of education that kids get in schools. According to Johan (2004), educational results in schools are connected to the usage and appropriateness of teaching/learning resources in a variety of ways; poor utilization, underutilization, and unprepared instructors all contribute to low educational attainment. The lack of adequate physical and material resources in schools is a crucial issue influencing pupils’ learning outcomes. Schools with insufficient facilities, such as workshops, labs, classrooms, and teaching learning materials, are difficult to achieve satisfactory outcomes. The elements of effective learning and teaching include having practical skills and putting the students’ own experiences into practice (Olukayode, 2005). They take inputs from the outside world in the form of people and material resources, process them, and then dump the results back into society as completed goods and services. The quality of the goods is directly related to the quality of the facilities used in the manufacturing process. Stakeholders in education are responsible for providing and utilizing facilities. The government ensures that the national education strategy is implemented by creating an enabling environment. In 2003, the government established numerous standards for each school to meet in order to be eligible for the money known as Tuition Waiver (TW). These government monies are expected to be used to buy textbooks, exercise books, laboratory equipment and chemicals, teaching and learning aids reference materials, teacher’s manuals, chalk, dusters, registers, and internal examinations, among other things. When the above-mentioned purchase objectives are met, monies can be used to purchase things from other categories (Ministry of Education, 2003). Overcrowding in classrooms may be mitigated with more finances by providing enough furniture and equipment to improve teaching and learning conditions. This will require the construction of new classrooms as well as the renovation and upkeep of existing ones.

1.2 Statement of the Problem

Teachers, resources, and the school environment all have an effect on teaching and, ultimately, student achievement (UNESCO, 2007). Without a doubt, the availability and wise use of input resources determine the quality of education. According to Wenglinsky (2005), the effectiveness of the educational system is determined by the availability and usage of human and nonhuman resources. According to Abudul (2003), quality and appropriate resources are required for teachers to achieve school success. In Yola South’s secondary schools, glaring discrepancies in academic achievement have been found. Despite the fact that the institutions enroll kids with similar entrance behaviors and receive similar support from the government and other stakeholders, this is the case. This research will look at how resource use affects education in Yola South, with the goal of bridging the academic achievement gap.

1.3 Objectives of the Study

The following goals served as a guidance for this research.

  1. To analyze the availability and usage of school resources in secondary schools in Youth South, as well as their effect on educational results.
  2. To analyze the nature and appropriateness of physical facilities in secondary schools in Yola South, as well as their effect on educational results.
  3. To examine the degree of qualification and preparedness of teachers in secondary schools in Yola South, as well as their influence on educational results.
  4. Evaluate resource use and how it affects achievement.

1.4 Research Questions

  1. What is the availability and usage of school resources in secondary schools in Youth South, as well as their effect on educational results?
  2. What is the nature and appropriateness of physical facilities in secondary schools in Yola South, as well as their effect on educational results?
  3. What is the degree of qualification and preparedness of teachers in secondary schools in Yola South, as well as their influence on educational results.
  4. What are resources used and how does it affects achievement?

1.5 Significance of the Study

The study’s conclusions will have far-reaching repercussions for the future of secondary schools in Yola South and across the country. The findings will inform the Board of Governors (B.O.G) on the resources available in their schools and how they effect education. It will also inform the Board of Governors on the need of providing appropriate teaching and learning resources in secondary schools. The Teachers Association will be able to have a better knowledge of the quantity of teaching personnel available in secondary schools and how this effects education as a result of the study. Curriculum makers may use the study’s findings to guarantee that teaching-learning resources suggested for secondary schools are those that positively contribute to strengthening students’ knowledge of the curriculum, resulting in improved achievement.

1.6 Scope of the Study

The research was carried out at Adamawa state’s Yola south local government. The study examined aspects such as the appropriateness of teaching/learning resources, the level of resource usage in teaching/learning, and the things that affect optimal resource utilization.

1.7 Definition of Terms

The following words are defined as they appeared in the research:

Academic Achievement:

In terms of external examination results, the school’s average score is.

Academic Qualifications:

The greatest level of education a teacher has received.


The total number of students enrolled at a certain school.

Primary Education:

All children in the first cycle of a school system, i.e. elementary level, get free primary education. Levies are not meant to be paid by students. The government pays for uniforms, meals, transportation, and medical expenses.

Free Secondary Education:

This is government-funded education in the second cycle of a school system, i.e. secondary. The government covers tuition costs, but parents are responsible for boarding costs.


The significant impact that something has on someone or something else.

Professional Qualification:

The instructor has received pre-service or in-service training.


A stock of anything that schools may employ to boost their performance.

Resource Utilization:

When a school uses something specifically to improve its performance, it is referred to as resource utilization.

Teaching Materials:

Textbooks, chalk, duster, charts, computer laboratory chemicals and equipment are examples of equipment and facilities that teachers utilize in the course of their teaching.

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Frequently Asked Questions

Does treatment affect achievement mean scores in high school students?

The main effect of treatment on the achievement mean scores of students is significant at 0.05 level (F = P< 0.05). 6. Discussion This study found that students in the experimental group performed better than students in the control group in their achievement mean scores.

Does instructional material affect students’ achievement?

The students taught with instructional materials have excellent achievement scores compared with those taught without any material. It was also noted in the study that there is no significant interaction effect of treatment and gender on students’ achievement in Social Studies.

Do instructional materials enhance academic achievement of female students in social studies?

This shows that the use of instructional materials will automatically enhance the academic achievement of female students in Social Studies. Hypothesis 4: The achievement of students in Social Studies will not be significantly different based on gender and treatment.

What can students do to promote academic performance in schools?

Based on the findings, the following recommendations were therefore made: 1. Students should corroborate the efforts of other stakeholders in improvisation of instructional materials to enhance learning and promote academic performance in schools.

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