Effect Of Refuse Dump Sites On Residential Real Estate Life In Owerri

Project and Seminar Material for Estate Management

Effect Of Refuse Dump Sites On Residential Real Estate Life In Owerri


Chapter One


1.0 Introduction

1.1 Background to the Study

In most cities in Nigeria, waste management issues have become a glaring challenge. In recent years, there has been a phenomenal increase in the volume of wastes generated daily in the country (Olanrewaju & Ilemobade, 2009). This is due to the huge volume of waste generated in the cities on a daily basis which calls for proper handling in order to protect the environment and the population. Hoornweg (1999) emphasized that waste is inseparable from life because as long as man is alive, he stores up, uses, and disposes off materials and the complexity of waste which modern civilization produced is directly related to the living standard, socio-economic and cultural attributes of that particular environment. Over the years, concerted efforts have been made to adequately solve the problems created by the emanation of wastes. Akaninyere and Atser (2001) examined the typology, characteristics and future trends of solid waste and asserted that the major components of waste are degradable materials (food remnants, paper, and rags) and non-biodegradable plastics, tins, metals, bottles, glass, and bones. The study asserted that in several Nigerian cities, garbage contributes substantially more than other components, this could be explained by the fact that most activities which affect the environment stem from the need for food; its production, processing and preparation.

Moreover, the high proportion of food remnants could be looked at from the fact that this component of waste encompasses all forms of food waste from both domestic and commercial origins. Oreyomi, (1998) maintained that improper disposal of solid waste poses serious danger to the handlers and the people living around the wastes as disposal sites carry along rodents, insects and other vermin, which could transmit diseases such as typhoid fever, dysentery, diarrhea, cholera, yaws, and other diseases.

A study carried out by Ogedengbe and Oyedele, (2006) showed that the rate of change in domestic waste quantities and composition in developing and developed countries is unprecedented. It further asserted that generally the greater the economic prosperity and the higher percentage of urban population, the greater the amount of solid waste generated. According to Akinola and Salami (2001), waste disposal is one of the important aspects of urban management crises in Nigeria. The study noticed that management of solid waste generated within the urban centers has become one of the most intractable problems of development due to a phenomenal increase in the volume and range of waste generated in many developing countries of the world, Nigeria inclusive. This is a direct consequence of urbanization.

Waste management in any city is of paramount importance due to the risk posed to human beings and to the environment. Encarta Dictionary, 2008 describes it as the activities that deal with waste before and after it is produced, including its minimization, transfer, storage, separation, recovery, recycling, and final disposal. Knowledge of the sources of waste and type in an area is required in order to design and operate appropriate solid waste management systems (Gumbo 1996, Famuyigbo 1998). Waste management is a labour and capitalintensive function that often consumes 20 to 50 percent of municipal operating budget (Oyinlola, 1998 and Thomas, 2000). Domestic waste constitutes the highest percentage of waste generated in Akure. The situation in several other South-Western Nigerian cities also shows that the percentge of domestic wastes is considerably high compared to wastes from other sources.

In Africa, particularly in Nigeria, rapid urbanization owing to economic growth and industrial activities has put pressure on the land within the cities and their neighbourhoods. There are increasing cases of indiscriminate dumping of solid waste resulting from the increasing urban population with an overwhelming influence on the ability of the municipal authorities to manage such wastes (Ajadike, 2001). In most urban centres in Nigeria, solid wastes are disposed of by dumping in open areas, which encourages the growth of organisms that can transmit diseases to people living around that vicinity (Peter et al., 2016; Igbara et al., 2016). This situation is worsened as these wastes in open dumps are sometimes burnt, which in turn, produces a form of air pollution.

Domestic solid waste generation continues to increase world-wide in tandem with increasing level of consumption. As such, solid waste management, which involves a systematic control of generation, storage, collection, transportation, separation, processing, recovery and disposal of solid wastes (Rogdgers, 2011) has become increasingly difficult. The complexities of waste which modern civilization produce is directly related to the living standards, socio-economic and cultural attributes of that particular environment (Hoornweg, 1999).

It is the major type of waste concerned in this paper due to the fact that aforementioned fact. It has a direct bearing on quality of housing of any urban residential area. It is different from other types of waste because it is directly related to households. The contents of household wastes are majorly food materials. Others are papers, broken furniture, plastic materials, disposable diapers, worn-out fabrics, etc. Most household wastes are biodegradable, hence attract organisms, insects and rodents that can transmit diseases to humans and this spreads very fast when in close proximity to residences. (Ogedengbe and Oyedele, 2006). When residents dispose wastes close to residences, as is the case with some residents in the study area, the organisms concomitant with such refuse can act as agent of degradation. This will make the residential environment to be of poor quality, hence, the buildings will require renovation or maintenance more frequently. The quality of man’s environment is an integral contributor to the overall quality of families and individuals quality of life (Adedeji, 2005). It is expected that when the environmental sanitation standards of a city improves, there will be improvement in the living condition and health security of the inhabitants. This will generally advance the quality and aesthetics of the environment at large.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

The proliferation of dumpsite has remained an intractable environmental sanitation problem in Nigeria. This problem has manifested in the piles of indiscriminately disposed heaps of uncovered waste and illegal dumpsite along major roads and street corners in cities and urban areas (Wokekoro and Uruesheyi, 2014). This problem is compounded by the rapid urbanization and population growth which has led to the generation of enormous quantities of solid waste often discarded by open dumping. In Port Harcourt and most fast growing cities in Nigeria like Lagos and Ibadan, it is not uncommon to see open waste dumps in close proximity to residential areas. This according to different scholars has had an adverse impact on the property values of the surrounding residential community.

The value of individual properties usually depend on the property’s unique attributes, each of which creates utilities or disutility to individuals. These unique attributes can be related to those which are external and those that are internal to the property. While the external attributes can be associated with the general state of the economy, population, employment, finance, location, transportation and environmental attributes, the internal attributes relates to the specific details of the property such as size, accommodation, condition, design, age, type and plot size (Bell, R, 1999). These influences therefore form the value determinants of properties.

Property however, extends beyond shelter to include environmental attributes which relates to the quality of the neighbourhood. The environment attributes are revealed in the form of push and pull effect of the neighbourhood through negative and positive externalities. The pull effect may relate to good roads, proper drainage, schools, etc. while the push effect may be associated with air and water pollution, poor sanitation, indiscriminate dumping of waste, etc. (Bello, 2008). However, the association of properties with undesirable conditions like the presence of dumpsite can adversely impact values (Chalmers & Jackson, 1996) and tend to slow down property market transaction. It is ironical, that Port Harcourt which used to be known as the ”Garden city of Nigeria” because of her neatness have now been turned rather to a ”garbage city” because of piles of refuse dotting the entire city of which the case study dumpsite are part of. Although there are only two recognized dumpsites in Port Harcourt (the one at Iwofe), other dumpsters and collection points are located in public places surrounded by residential buildings such as tenements, blocks of flats, bungalows, duplexes, etc. According to Bello (2009), such dumpsites and dumpsters have been reported to release large amount of hazardous and deleterious chemicals to the air via leachates and poisonous gases respectively. The presence of this externality and land use may create an adverse public perception (stigma) that affects the marketability and the values of properties in the neighbourhood. Thus, the intention of this study is to determine the effect of refuse dump sites on residential real estate life in Owerri, Imo state, Nigeria.


1.3 Objectives of the Study

The main purpose of this study is to determine the effect of refuse dump sites on residential real estate life in Owerri, Imo state, Nigeria.

Specifically, the following objectives will guide the study;

  1. To determine the housing characteristics of households living close to dump sites in Owerri, Imo state.
  2. To examine the household solid waste disposal profile in Owerri, Imo state.
  3. To determine the effects of dumpsite on residential real estate Value in Owerri, Imo state.

1.4 Research Questions

  1. What are the housing characteristics of households living close to dump sites in Owerri, Imo state?
  2. What is the household solid waste disposal profile in Owerri, Imo state?
  3. What are the effects of dumpsite on residential real estate Value in Owerri, Imo state?

1.5 Research Hypothesis

  • HO1: There is no significant effect of refuse dump sites on residential real estate life in Owerri, Imo state
  • HA1: There is a significant effect of refuse dump sites on residential real estate life in Owerri, Imo state

1.6 Significance of the Study

The findings of this study may have far-reaching effects on community residents, regulatory environmental authorities and the. It is thus hoped that the result of this study would help to increase awareness and suggest appropriate interventions to foster improved environmental waste management among community residents and also increase levels of awareness of the public on effect of refuse dump sites on residential real estate life in Owerri, Imo state.


1.7 Scope of Study

The study will be conducted in Owerri Metripolis, Imo state. The respondents that will be used are the community residents.


1.8 Limitations of the Study

In the process of carrying out the current study, the researcher encountered some limitations. Firstly, Owerri Metripolis, Imo state, the conclusions drawn from this study cannot be generalized to other populations or areas. Secondly, the researcher faced time constraints and financial constraints.


1.9 Definition of Terms

Refuse Dump:

Refers to a place or area where waste materials are dumped.

Real Estate:

Real estate is the land along with any permanent improvements attached to the land, whether natural or man-made—including water, trees, minerals, buildings, homes, fences, and bridges. Real estate is a form of real property. It differs from personal property, which are things not permanently attached to the land, such as vehicles, boats, jewelry, furniture, and farm equipment.

Effect:

Refers to the adverse impact of refuse dump sites on residential real estate life in Owerri, Imo state, Nigeria


1.10 Organisation of the Study

This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding it is broken down as follows:

  • Chapter one kicks off with the introduction, which consists of the background of the study, statement of the problem, objectives of the study, research hypothesis, scope and significance of the study.
  • Chapter two begins with the conceptual framework on which the study is based, the theoretical literatures and also the empirical literature and thus the review of related literature.
  • Chapter three deals on the research design, the population of the state used as a case study, the sample size and the sampling techniques used, the data collected, data analysis and the limitations of the method used.
  • Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis, interpretation and presentation of finding.
  • Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study.

EK


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Effect Of Refuse Dump Sites On Residential Real Estate Life In Owerri

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