Effect Of Different Rates Of Cattle Dung On Soil Physiochemical Properties And Growth And Yield Of Cucumber (Cucumis Sativus)

Project and Seminar Material for Agricultural Economics and Extension

Effect Of Different Rates Of Cattle Dung On Soil Physiochemical Properties And Growth And Yield Of Cucumber (Cucumis Sativus)


Abstract


The growth and yield of cucumber (Cucumus sativus L.) in response to application of goat dung and poultry dropping rates was investigated in 2010 and 2011. The experiment was laid out in randomized complete block design replicated three times in a split plot arrangement. The main plot treatment was organic manure source (goat dung and poultry dropping) while organic manure rate, 0, 2, 4, 6 and 8t/ha constituted the sub-treatments. Results revealed that organic manure application would enhance growth and yield of cucumber. There was no significantly (p<0.05) different between application of cattle dung and poultry dropping on growth and yield parameters except on leaf area. The result also showed significantly (p<0.05) different among the manure rates irrespective of manure source. Application of poultry dropping performed best in fresh fruit yield 7.66 and 7.73t/ha in 2010 and 2011 respectively while cattle dung produced 6.81 and 6.82t/ha in 2010 and 2011 respectively. The application of 8t/ha of poultry manure produced fresh fruits of 11.25 and 11.29t/ha in 2010 and 2011 respectively while cattle dung at 8t/ha rate produced 9.53 and 9.69t/ha of fresh fruit in 2010 and 2011 respectively.


Chapter One


1.0 Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

Cucumber (Cucumbis sativus), is an important vegetable and one of the most popular members of the Cucurbitaceae family (Lower and Edwards, 1986; Thoa, 1998). It is thought to be one of the oldest vegetables cultivated by man with historical records dating back 5,000 years (Wehner and Guner, 2004). The crop is the fourth most important vegetable after tomato, cabbage and onion in Asia (Tatlioglu, 1997), the second most important vegetable crop after tomato in Western Europe (Phu, 1997). In tropical Africa, its place has not been ranked because of limited use. Fertile soils are used for the cultivation of cucumber; infertile soils result in bitter and misshapen fruits which are often rejected by consumers. Bush fallowing has been an efficient, balanced and sustainable agricultural system for soil productivity and fertility restoration in the tropics (Ayoola and Adeniran, 2006), but as a result of increase in the population, the fallowing periods have decreased from ten years to three years and this has had an adverse effect on the fertility restoration leading to poor yields of crops. Therefore, the use of external inputsin the form of farmyard manures and fertilizer has become imperative.

Farmyard manure has been used as a soil conditioner since ancient times and its benefit have not been fully harnessed due to large quantities required in order to satisfy the nutritional needs of crops (Makinde et al., 2007). The need for renewable forms of energy and reduced cost of fertilizing crops, have revived the use of organic manures worldwide (Ayoola and Adeniran, 2006). Improvement in environmental conditions and public health are important reasons for advocating increased use of organic materials (Ojeniyi, 2000; Maritus and Vleic, 2001). However, because it is bulky, the cost of transportation and handling constitute a constraint to its use by peasant farmers. Farmyard manure release nutrients slowly and steadily and activates soil microbial biomass (Ayuso et al., 1996; Belay et al., 2001). Organic manures can sustain cropping systems through better nutrient recycling and improvement of soil physical attributes (El-Shakweer et al., 1998). The use of inorganic fertilizer has not been helpful under intensive agriculture because of its high cost and it is often associated with reduced crop yields, soil degradation, nutrient imbalance and acidity (Obi and Ebo, 1995).The complementary use of organic and inorganic fertilizers has been recommended for sustenance of long term cropping in the tropics (Ipimoroti et al., 2002). This study was therefore conducted to investigate theeffect of different rates of cattle dung on soil physiochemical properties and growth and yield of cucumber.


1.2 Statement of the Research Problems

New high yielding varieties of cucumber have continued to be released but the farmer’s yields continue to decline (Borna, 2002). Release of these varieties have not been matched with their nutrient demands and farming systems. Furthermore, most of the Nigerian farmers are resource poor and their population continues to grow at a rate of 3.26% (Legard, 2000) which has put more pressure on land through continuous cultivation hence resulting in soil fertility problems such as nutrient mining, depletion and land degradation. The use of cattle dung constitute a major source of nutrients for replenishing, improving soil productivity, and increasing the crop yields (Musara and Chitamba , 2014).


1.3 Objectives of the Study

The main objective of the study is to:

  1. Evaluate the effect of cattle dung on the physical and chemical properties of the soil;
  2. Evaluate the effect of different rate of cattle dung on the growth and yield of cucumber (Cucumis satisvus).
1.4.1 Significance of the Study

This study is important in contributing to improving food security through increased sustainable cucumber production utilizing low cost combination of inputs e.g. cattle manure. This will help farmers understand which combinations of cattle manure give the highest maize yields, improve and amend soil productivity, as well as mitigation of climate change. To the extension workers, more knowledge will be acquired for advisory services to the farmers on how best to integrate organic and inorganic fertilizers and new seed varieties. Researchers will be stimulated on how to manipulate the use of different combinations of organic and inorganic fertilizers, and scholars carrying out related research will find the results of this study as important literature.

1.4.2 Scope and Limitations of the Study

The scope of this study is limited to cucumbers planted in Use offot, University of Uyo, Nigeria.


1.7 Organisation of the Study

This study is organised as follows: Chapter one covers the background of the study, statement of the research problem, objectives of the study, significance of the study and definition of key concepts. Chapter two contains review of related relevant literatures, Chapter three dwells on the methodology used in the research. Chapter four contains the results and discussion . Chapter five presents the summary, contribution to knowledge, conclusion and recommendations for further studies followed by the references cited in the work and various appendices of relevant documents used in the dissertation.


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations

5.1 Summary

This study has shown that, the effect of combination of cattle dung and urea fertilizer on the soil properties, growth and yield of cucumber was significant. Therefore in sustainable low input agriculture systems like in the study area where nutrient depletion is a serious constraint to crop production and despite cultivation preferences by farmers, the alternative organic manure may not meet up plant nutrient demand due to low nutrient composition and release efficiency and limited availability. Thus, integrating organic manure with chemical fertilizer is ideal in achieving increased crop yield.


5.2 Conclusion

From the result generally, the study suggest that application of poultry manure and cattle dung improves the growth and yield of cucumber. From the above it can be suggested to farmers in Uyo to use up to 8t/ha of poultry manure in cucumber production. Also there is global trend towards organic farming, reducing environmental pollution, waste recycling and poverty alleviation. The use of poultry manure and goat dung as alternative sources of soil nutrients can assist to achieve this objective.


5.3 Recommendations

For sustainable production and increased yields of cucumbers, farmers should always use high yielding varieties and different levels of combination of cattle manure and NPK fertilizers as these are cost friendly to farmers.

The short-term nature of experimentation covering only two seasons, carried on station was insufficient and there is need to do more research on cattle manure and NPK fertilizer application in cucumbers using different farmers in the different agro-ecological zones of the country.


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