Effect Of Quality Culture On Building Construction Project In Nigeria

Project and Seminar Material for Quantity Surveying QS

Effect Of Quality Culture On Building Construction Project In Nigeria


Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

Construction impacts the quality of life for building facilities and plays a major role in a nation’s economy and development. Safety, Health and Welfare at Work Act (2005) Section 17(4) basically sets out that construction work is an activity on structure that includes building work, civil engineering or engineering construction work. Furthermore, the end-products of construction works had been in the centre of economic development of a nation. According to Farooqui. Mashood and Aziz (2008) construction sector is globally considered to be a basic industry on which the development of the country depends. To a great extent, the growth of a country and its development status is generally determined by the quality of its infrastructures and construction projects.

Construction project development involves numerous parties, various processes, different phases and stages of work and a great deal of input from both the public and private sectors, with the major aim being to bring the project to a successful conclusion (Takim and Akintoye, 2002). Hence, the success of any construction project can be expressed in terms of performance. Blismas, Slier and Thorpe (1999) reckon that project performance is the act of fulfilling the project goals at the inception by the client and the project team in terms of the budget, duration, and quality and client satisfaction. According to Egemen and Mohamed (2006), performance evaluation in construction generally focuses on a limited number of performance elements related to the product, which are completing the project on time, within budget and with the required quality.

According to Jackson (2004), quality is contained in the tripod of construction management; it does not only impact appearance and durability but also the performance of a project. In today’s construction climate, public sector owners are finding themselves under increasing pressure to improve project performance, complete projects faster, and reduce the cost of administering their
construction programs.

However, Abdul-Rahman, Wang and Yap (2010) mentioned that clients and customers, both from the public and private sectors, nowadays place more emphasis on the quality of products rather than the cost and time which was the major concern in the past. In terms of quality in construction, Arditi and Gunaydin (1997) opined that ‘high quality building project depends a great deal on factors such as the design being easily understandable and applicable, conformity of design with specifications, economics of construction, ease of operation ,ease of maintenance and energy efficiency.


1.2 Research Aim and Objectives

The aim of this study is to assess the quality culture on building construction works in Kwara State, Nigeria. To accomplish this aim, a number of research objectives have been established:

These include:

  1. To assess the perception of quality in construction industry in Nigeria
  2. To evaluate the factors affecting the implementation of quality culture in construction works in Nigeria
  3. To examine the factors affecting the maintenance of quality culture in construction works in Nigeria
  4. To evaluate the constraints encountered in the implementation of quality culture in construction works in Nigeria.

1.3 Research Questions

  1. What is the perception of quality on building construction industry in Nigeria?
  2. What are the factors affecting the implementation of quality culture on building construction works in Nigeria?
  3. What are the factors affecting the maintenance of quality culture on building construction works in Nigeria?
  4. What are the constraints encountered in the implementation of quality culture on building construction works in Nigeria?

1.4 Research Hypothesis

This study intends to test the hypothesis that:

  1. There is no significant difference between the level of quality culture in public and private organizations in Nigeria.
  2. There is no significant difference between the perception of quality in public and private organizations in Nigeria.

1.5 Significance Of Study

There has been little research into quality culture. The intention of this study is to provide information on quality culture in construction industries in Kwara state, Nigeria. The findings of this study amongst other things will highlight the level of quality culture in construction industries in Kwara state. It is the conviction of the researcher that this study will complement existing works and add to the growing literature on the subject matter of quality culture. It is also hoped that the study would provide a springboard on which further studies could be conducted.


1.6 Delimitation and Scope of Study

In pursuing this research the focus of attention is on the level of quality culture in construction and the construction project itself. The construction project is thus the unit of analysis. Works and the research covers small, medium and large scale contracting, client and consulting organizations involved in civil engineering and building projects, as well as the different types of facilities (e.g. commercial or educational). The targeted respondents in these organizations include the project manager, construction manager, architect, engineers, quantity surveyors and other people who have a stake in or can influence the construction project.


1.7 Definition of Terms

Quality:

In the construction industry, quality can be defined as meeting the requirements of the designer, constructor and regulatory agencies as well as the owner (Arditi and Gunaydin, 1997).

Quality Culture:

(International practical seminar Quality Culture Development, 2010) defines quality culture as an organizational value system that results in an environment that is conducive to the establishment and continual improvement of quality.

Project Performance:

Project performance is a measure of the outcome of a project that is the level to which desired project objectives are achieved (Idoro, 2008).

Total Quality Management:

Is a management philosophy, a paradigm, a continuous improvement approach to doing business through a new management model (PHCC, 1996).


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

5.1 Introduction

This chapter present major discussion drawn from the result of this study, appropriate conclusion and recommendation suggested that the research is focused to achieve the factors affecting quality culture in building construction and how it can be evaluated


5.2 Summary

According to the result of this survey, the Nigerian construction industry perceived quality as conformance to specification, Elimination of defects and meeting the contract requirement. Nevertheless, some construction personnel in Nigeria view quality as an asset of value, a competitive advantage, minimization of rework, minimization of cost, scope of achievement, an organisational ideology, a tool to increase profit and a cultural phenomenon.

The study recommends that companies should embark on cultural audits before implementing quality culture so that shared values, objectives and behaviours can be aligned to the goals of the quality plan. Also, an extensive awareness and training programs should be initiated to improve the clients’ understanding and approach toward quality and hence increase their willingness to implement quality culture, which would in turn improve coordination, teamwork, productivity, and construction industry performance.


5.3 Conclusion

The results of this survey show that there is need for construction industry in Nigeria to focus on improving the practices and implementation of quality culture, especially reward and recognition, training and education and quality planning, in order for quality culture to flourish. Furthermore, to assure quality of construction projects, companies should impose a quality plan to be followed by all key players involved in construction projects, subcontractors and testing laboratories.

From the above discussion and analyses, the findings of this survey have shown some positive aspect of quality culture. To a limited extent, some factors of quality culture are prevailing in construction works in Nigeria while others are still in their maturing stage.

The top constraints involved in the implementation of quality culture in Nigeria include; perception of quality, lack of standardization and tendency to cure symptom rather than get to the root cause of a problem. In addition, the following were discovered to be the major factors affecting the maintenance of quality culture in construction works in Nigeria; Management commitment, goal setting and feedback analysis.

Conclusively, the current state of quality culture in Nigeria shows that some factors of quality culture have been implemented to a certain level, however great effort is required by all parties involved in construction works to attain a strong culture of quality.


5.4 Recommendation

In order to assure quality of construction projects, companies should impose a quality plan to be followed by all key players, subcontractors involved in construction projects and testing laboratories. To encourage construction industry in Nigeria to continually maintain a good quality culture, some kind of incentive schemes must be further developed. Moreover, clients should advance from the accustomed practice of awarding tenders to the lowest price and promote rewarding the best team and suppliers who could provide the best service.

With proper training and quality awareness can spread widely throughout the construction industry in Nigeria and the achievement of quality culture can be maintained. Arditi and Gunaydin (1997) argue that transient nature of workforce may make it more difficult to train workers, particularly craft labour, for the construction industry. In addition to the aforesaid, great effort is required from the management to develop the whole company quality culture.

The research recommends that companies should embark on cultural audits before implementing quality culture so that shared values, objectives and behaviours can be aligned to the goals of the quality plan. Also, an extensive awareness and training programs be initiated to improve the clients’ understanding and approach toward quality and hence increase their willingness to implement quality culture, which would in turn improve coordination, teamwork, productivity, and construction industry performance.


5.5 Area of further study

The prime aim of this research was to assess the level of implementation of quality culture in construction works in Nigeria. Future research should be carried out on the cost of implementing quality culture, benefits of implementing quality culture and comparison between quality culture in large, small and medium scale firms. Furthermore, study should be carried out to find the level of success in quality culture implementation. This will certainly increase the chances of obtaining a thorough and accurate outcome on the level of quality culture implementation and practice in Nigeria.


Effect Of Quality Culture On Building Construction Project In Nigeria


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