Effect Of Qualification Of Christian Religious Teachers On The Performance Of Secondary School Students On External Exams

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Effect Of Qualification Of Christian Religious Teachers On The Performance Of Secondary School Students On External Exams


Abstract


This study was carried out on the effect of qualification of Christian religious teachers on the performance of secondary school students on external exams using some selected secondary schools in Arewa Dandi local government Area of Kebbi State as a case study. The study is was specifically set to find out if there is any significant relationship between teachers educational qualification and effective teaching of Christian Religious Studies, discover whether available Christian Religious Studies teachers possesses the educational qualification required for teaching the subject, examine the extent teachers qualification influences students’ comprehension and retention in Christian Religious Studies, determine whether CRS teachers qualification is a significant determinant of students academic performance in external exams. The survey design was adopted and the simple random sampling techniques were employed in this study. The population size comprise of Christian Religious Studies students and teachers of the selected secondary schools in Arewa Dandi local government Area of Kebbi State. In determining the sample size, the researcher conveniently selected 200 respondents and 150 were validated. Self-constructed and validated questionnaire was used for data collection. The collected and validated questionnaires were analyzed using frequency tables. While the hypotheses were tested using Pearson Correlation statistical tool, SPSS v23. The result of the findings reveals that there is a significant relationship between teachers educational qualification and students academic performance in Christian Religious Studies. The study also revealed that the extent teachers qualification influences students’ comprehension and retention in Christian Religious Studies is high. Therefore, it is recommended that schools should place more emphasis on the development of teachers qualifications and quality through training, seminars and workshops in order to improve students’ performance. To mention but a few.


Table of Content


Chapter One:

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3 Objective of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Research Hypothesis
  • 1.6 Significance of the Study
  • 1.7 Scope of the Study
  • 1.8 Limitation of the Study
  • 1.9 Definition of Terms
  • 1.10 Organizations of the Study

Chapter Two:

Review of Literature

  • 2.1 Conceptual Framework
  • 2.2 Theoretical Framework
  • 2.3 Empirical Review

Chapter Three:

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Population of the Study
  • 3.3 Sample Size Determination
  • 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
  • 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
  • 3.6 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
  • 3.8 Validity of the Study
  • 3.9 Reliability of the Study
  • 3.10 Ethical Consideration

Chapter Four:

Data Presentation and Analysis

  • 4.1 Data Presentation
  • 4.2 Analysis of Data
  • 4.3 Answering Research Questions
  • 4.4 Test of Hypotheses

Chapter Five:

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • References
  • APPENDIX
  • QUESTIONNAIRE 

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

In most countries as in Nigeria, curriculum is developed to meet the national goals and objectives in the various fields and stages of manpower needs and development. It is therefore pertinent to observe that the introduction of the 6-3-3-4 system currently referred to as the 9-3-4 (9-Year Basic Education: Primary 1 to Junior Secondary 3; 3-Year Senior Secondary Education and 4-Year Tertiary Education) educational system in Nigeria had the goals and the operation of the system in line with the country’s national education goals as highlighted in the National Policy on Education. The Nigerian national educational goals which are derived from the country’s philosophy and goals include, “the acquisition of appropriate skills and the development of mental, physical and social abilities and competencies as equipment for the individual to live in and contribute to the development of the society” (Federal Republic of Nigeria (FRN), 2004).

However, a study by Adeogun (2001) in Nigeria found that the quality of any education system depends on the quality of teachers. Related literature indicates that the most important school based determining factor of students performance is the teacher quality (Rockoff, 2004; Rivkin et al., 2005; Aaronson et al., 2007; Harris and Sass, 2008). Therefore, there is need to assess the characteristics of the secondary school teachers in terms of qualification, experience and teaching effectiveness in order to ensure quality of education given to the youths. According to Usman (2012), a qualified teacher can be defined as one who holds a teaching certificate and/or licensed by the state, owns at least a bachelor’s degree from a four-year institution and well qualified in his/her area of specialization. Moreover, Usman quotes the Pakistan Ministry of Education officials who described a qualified teacher as one who possesses knowledge of: the subject matter, human growth and development, ethical values, instructional planning and strategies, assessment, learning environment, communication and advocacy, collaboration and partnership, continuous professional development, code of conduct and skillful use of information communication technologies.

The high level of moral decadence and insurgencies in Nigerian nation is an indication that there is poor religious teaching in secondary school system. Christian Religious Studies (CRS) as one of the religious subjects taught in secondary school in Nigerian takes a central position in ensuring moral and spiritual well being of individuals in the society. The key roles of CRS in equipping the individuals and ensuring high level of morality is made clear in the objectives of CRS at the secondary school level which include; to provide more opportunities for Nigerian youths to learn more about God and thereby develop their faith in God; to enable the youths to accept Christ as their savior; to help the youths develop Christian attitude and moral values (such as humility, respect, love, and justice, etc); to instill in the youth the spirit of tolerance , reconciliation ,peaceful co existence and non-violence as well as to develop and foster in the youth the spirit of respect for all people and human life (Universal Basic Education Curriculum (UBA), 2013).

Without effective religious studies Nigerian nation will likely to end up in conflict, religious crisis, insurgencies and social unrest among other things. This is because religious control human actions in both social, political, economical and otherwise (Eluu, 2009). The teaching of CRS dates back to the 19th century with the pioneers of Nigerian education (Banjo, 2003). During the missionary administration because of the moral values it teaches the people. Following the government takeover of schools, Nigerian, secondary school curriculum was reviewed and more emphasis was placed on the studies of science and technological subjects. This shift affected the subject and students performance in CRS in school system leading to poor enrollment in CRS external exams. Gbenda (2004) stresses that student’s enrollment and performance in CRS could as well be as of result of inadequate provision of teaching aids, fewer professional teachers and lack of incentives among other things. Njoku (2009) equally adduced that poor enrollment and performance ofstudent in CRS could be attributed to teacher’s qualification and instructional delivery system.

CRS is taught in all the senior secondary schools in Nigerian as an elective subject. The elective nature of the subject in senior secondary schools in Nigeria equally reduced the number of students that register for the subject in West African examination council (WAEC) and national examination council (NECO) as well as other internal examination. CRS is a subject that bases its teaching on the life and teaching of Jesus Christ (Ugwu, 2001) as a teaching subject, it is not only geared towards converting people to Christianity, but is necessary for value formation, orientation and reorientation of value system as well as spiritual upliftment of the student. Ali and Akubue in Njoku (2009) observed that, CRS is a subject which aims at developing and fostering in the lives of the students Christian attitudes and values such as respect to life, obedience to constitutional authority, responsible self, selfless series to God and humanity. To them, CRS is seen as an academic discipline that is designed to provide the leaner with moral and spiritual transformation. This shows that CRS is the study of Christian lifestyles such as love, caring, patience, faith, forgiveness and hope in God as well as good relationship among men. Obanya in Njoku (2004) maintained that CRS like every other subjects has five features. These features are; a set of rational theoretical formulation, inherent capacity for growth, applicable solution to human problems, organized Body of the knowledge and a degree of uniformity with other area of academic activities. In the context of this study, CRS is defined as a social science subject that teaches students good moral behaviour, fearing of God, knowledge and skills that will make them to contribute their quota in socio-economic and moral development in senior secondary schools. The inclusion of sound religions and moral values in the life of students invariably could help in the development of spiritual and moral sound being of the students. These important values attached to the study of CRS in schools cannot be achieved if teachers do not utilized effective teaching method that appeals to all the senses of students in leaning situations.

According to Adeyemi (2010), teachers play an important role in determining the students’ interest in any subject. According to Onwum (1981) teachers are expected to make Christian Religious Studies more relevant, enjoyable, easy and meaningful to students. Moreover, based on the aforementioned statement, this study examined the effect of qualification of Christian Religious Studies teachers on the performance of secondary school students on external exams. Since teachers can make or mar the student interest in any subject; therefore, their adequacy and quality for better service delivery needs to be assessed on a regular basis.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

Despite the recent outcry of interactive classroom environment as an effective enhancing strategy, Christian Religious Studies teachers do not give regard to it, and recent research reaffirms the importance of teachers’ effectiveness at all times, since an inept teacher is ineffective for the teaching profession. This inefficiency may be caused not only by teacher qualities such as intellectual ability, poor training, and opposition to current educational approaches, but also by a negative attitude toward the teaching profession and a lack of commitment to professional tasks (Hakielimu, 2008). in addition, the conventional, docile, passive and teacher centered approach is still been preferred also majority of the Christian Religious Studies teachers are said to be unqualified educationally to teach the subject as many only studied related courses in the higher institution while some does not obtain there B.sc in the faculty/ college of education.

The importance of CRS in the present social, political and religious crisis in Nigeria cannot be over emphasized. Nevertheless, the trend of poor academic achievement among students’ over the years seems to be on the increase. It may be due to teachers’ use of lecture method of teaching which has been the prevalent mode of lesson presentation in secondary schools in Nigeria. This method is teacher-centered and does not inspire and motivate students’ interest towards the learning of the subject in senior secondary schools. The students may end up therefore having low interest which could lead to poor performance in CRS in schools and external examinations. Christian Religious Studies teacher must therefore employ interactive classroom environment in teaching the subject. Hence, this study sought to find out the effect of qualification of christian religious teachers on the performance of secondary school students on external exams.


1.3 Objectives of the Study

The overall aim of this study is to examine the effect of qualification of christian religious teachers on the performance of secondary school students on external exams. Hence, the study will be channeled to the following specific objectives;

  1. Find out if there is any significant relationship between teachers educational qualification and effective teaching of Christian Religious Studies.
  2. Discover whether available Christian Religious Studies teachers possesses the educational qualification required for teaching the subject.
  3. Examine the extent teachers qualification influences students’ comprehension and retention in Christian Religious Studies.
  4. Determine whether CRS teachers qualification is a significant determinant of students academic performance in external exams.

1.4 Research Question

The study will be guided by the following questions;

  1. Is there any significant relationship between teachers educational qualification and effective teaching of Christian Religious Studies?
  2. Does the available available Christian Religious Studies teachers possesses the educational qualification required for teaching the subject?
  3. What is the extent teachers qualification influences students’ comprehension and retention in Christian Religious Studies?
  4. Does CRS teachers qualification a significant determinant of students academic performance in external exams?

1.5 Research Hypotheses

H01: There is no significant relationship between teachers educational qualification and students academic performance in Christian Religious Studies.

Ha: There is a significant relationship between teachers educational qualification and students academic performance in Christian Religious Studies.


1.6 Significance of the Study

The findings of the research work will be of help to teachers, students, school management and educational planners as well as the entire society. It will guide the school management on what qualities and qualifications to look for in recruiting facilitators. It will also give teachers an insight into what is expected of them. Also, these findings can be used to guide educational planners about the need for qualified Christian Religious Studies teachers to facilitate secondary school students performance on external exams.


1.7 Scope of the Study

The scope of this study borders on effect of qualification of christian religious teachers on the performance of secondary school students on external exams. The study further seek to find out if there is any significant relationship between teachers educational qualification and effective teaching of Christian Religious Studies, and the extent teachers qualification influences students’ comprehension and retention in Christian Religious Studies. The respondent for this study will be obtained from some selected secondary schools in Arewa Dandi local government Area of Kebbi State.


1.8 Limitation of the Study

This research project, like all human endeavors, had some challenges that threatened to derail the study’s completion. One of the reasons is that the time allotted for this work was so limited that the researcher did not have enough time to complete the task thoroughly. During data collection, the researcher also had to put forth extra effort to understand the respondents’ interview schedules, several of whom fell into the incomprehensible age group. Also, there were financial and transportation constraints to deal with. Insufficient funds tend to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing the relevant materials, literature, or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire, interview).


1.9 Definition of Terms

Teacher Qualification:

This refers to the level of academic achievement of a teacher beginning from the level of teachers training to the level of in-service training.

Student Performance:

This refers to the ability and capacity of the student to achieve an educational aim.


1.10 Organisations of the Study

The study is categorized into five chapters. The first chapter presents the background of the study, statement of the problem, objective of the study, research questions and hypothesis, the significance of the study, scope/limitations of the study, and definition of terms. The chapter two covers the review of literature with emphasis on conceptual framework, theoretical framework, and empirical review. Likewise, the chapter three which is the research methodology, specifically covers the research design, population of the study, sample size determination, sample size, and selection technique and procedure, research instrument and administration, method of data collection, method of data analysis, validity and reliability of the study, and ethical consideration. The second to last chapter being the chapter four presents the data presentation and analysis, while the last chapter(chapter five) contains the summary, conclusion and recommendation.


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations:

5.1 Introduction

This chapter summarizes the findings on the effect of qualification of christian religious teachers on the performance of secondary school students on external exams using some selected secondary schools in Arewa Dandi local government Area of Kebbi State as a case study. The chapter consists of summary of the study, conclusions, and recommendations.


5.2 Summary of the Study

In this study, our focus was on the effect of qualification of christian religious teachers on the performance of secondary school students on external exams using some selected secondary schools in Arewa Dandi local government Area of Kebbi State as a case study. The study is was specifically set to find out if there is any significant relationship between teachers educational qualification and effective teaching of Christian Religious Studies, discover whether available Christian Religious Studies teachers possesses the educational qualification required for teaching the subject, examine the extent teachers qualification influences students’ comprehension and retention in Christian Religious Studies, determine whether CRS teachers qualification is a significant determinant of students academic performance in external exams.

The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 150 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondent are Christian Religious Studies students and teachers of the selected secondary schools in Arewa Dandi local government Area of Kebbi State.


5.3 Conclusions

Based on the findings of this study, the researcher made the following conclusion.

  1. There is a significant relationship between teachers educational qualification and students academic performance in Christian Religious Studies.
  2. The available Christian Religious Studies teachers does not possess the educational qualification required for teaching the subject.
  3. The extent teachers qualification influences students’ comprehension and retention in Christian Religious Studies is high.
  4. CRS teachers qualification a significant determinant of students academic performance in external exams.

5.4 Recommendation

Based on the responses obtained, the researcher proffers the following recommendations:

  1. Government agencies and professional bodies whose responsibility is to design and revise curriculum for secondary schools should incorporate and emphasize the use of role-play method in teaching of CRS in secondary schools.
  2. Schools should place more emphasis on the development of teachers qualifications and quality through training, seminars and workshops in order to improve students’ performance.
  3. There should be room for motivation and reinforcement for teachers as a way of making sure that they are motivated for effective teaching and educational practices.
  4. Teachers of CRS should endevour to note that gender does not account for students’ interest rather the method used by teachers in teaching a particular subject. Therefore they should often change their method of teaching in order to promote students’ interest in CRS and achievement in secondary schools in Nigeria.

Effect Of Qualification Of Christian Religious Teachers On The Performance Of Secondary School Students On External Exams


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