Effect Of Punishment And Reward On Academic Performance Of Senior Secondary School Students (A Case Study Of Oredo Local Government Area)

Project and Seminar Material for Education

Effect Of Punishment And Reward On Academic Performance Of Senior Secondary School Students (A Case Study Of Oredo Local Government Area)


Abstract


This study aims to investigate the effect of punishment and reward on the academic performance of senior secondary school students in Shomolu Local Government Area of Lagos State. The sample size was three hundred (300) students from selected secondary schools in Oredo local government area of Edo State, Nigeria. Data collected will be analyzed using frequency table, percentage and mean score analysis while the nonparametric statistical test (Chi-square) was used to test the formulated hypothesis using SPSS (statistical package for social sciences). Findings from the study revealed that majority of the respondents were of the opinion that punishment and rewards system will help reduce the imbalance in the process of teaching and learning. There is no significant effect of corporal punishment on the Academic Performance of Senior Secondary School students. Extrinsic reward is the best and most stable way to increase motivation without resorting to punishment which is associate with a great number of adverse outcomes.


Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

Students are priceless assets and most essential elements in education. It is absolutely necessary to direct students to exhibit acceptable attitude and behavior within and outside the school. In an attempt to achieve an organized and peaceful school environment and maintain law and order, school management specifies rules and regulations to guide the activities of members of the educational organization. Student’s discipline is a prerequisite to almost everything a school has to offer students (Selfert and Vornberg, 2002). Seifert and Vornberg further linked discipline with both the culture and climate of the school thus. In schools where discipline is a serious problem, for example, where students bully others, parents tend to transfer their children to ‘better’ schools, and because the well behaved usually perform well (Rigby, 2000), their transfer can affect the overall performance of that school. Troublesome students can sometimes make teachers react emotionally to the extent of using punishment. But punishment, instead of curbing behavior, can aggravate it (Dreikurs, Grunwald and Pepper 1998). Currently, schools have different types of reward and penalty policy in place, but almost all of them have one common goal which is to motivate students to learn. Educators nowadays are aware that giving penalties are counterproductive.

Punishment is the use of physical or psychological force or action that causes pain in an attempt to prevent undesirable behavior from recurring. Scolding, threats, deprivations, and spankings are all forms of punishment. Back in the nineteenth century, Froebel wrote that the use of punishment was a good way for adults to make a child “bad”. If the goal for child is the development of morality, of making good choices on his /her own, then punishment should not be involved .conditions should be created that not only allow but strongly induce children to be or become moral and disciplined individuals who can make good choices on their own (Bettelheim,1985;Ramsburg,1997). Punishment tends to generate anger, defiance, and a desire for revenge. Moreover, it also gives encouragement to the use of authority rather than reason thus this would tend to break the relationship between adult and child (Kohn, 1994).Punishment teaches a child that those who have the power can force others to do what they want them to do (Bettelheim, 1985; Samalin and Whitney, 1995)

Children can be categorized as intrinsically or extrinsically motivated. Every teacher in the classroom uses strategies to acknowledge and encourage appropriate social and academic behavior by their students. These strategies take many forms, some overt and some dramatic (presentation of tokens or recognition at an assembly). Since Thorndike (1874-1949) described the Law of effect, educators and psychologists have noted that when a behavior is successful it is more likely to occur again in similar circumstances. Many teachers believe that motivation can be “jump started” by providing tangible rewards such as stickers, candy or prizes. They assert that reinforcing appropriate behaviors can have positive results since children tend to continue or repeat an action that is rewarded. Others argue that rewards devalue learning and counteract the development of self –discipline and intrinsic motivation. These opponents assert that tangible rewards produce short-term changes and only serve as motivators if students wants them. They contend the use of rewards fosters competition and the “what’s in it for me?” attitude; the more they are used, the more incentives students expect. The simple message is that the consequences of a behavior affect future performance of that behavior. If, following the contingent delivery of a consequence, a behavior becomes more likely in the future, then that consequence was reinforcing or rewarding. An effective rewards and penalty system promotes positive behavior and regular attendance. It is the essential foundation for a creative learning and teaching environment. The ultimate goal of rewarding children is to help them internalize positive behaviours so that they will not need a reward. Eventually, self-motivation will be sufficient to induce them to perform the desired behaviour, and outside reinforcement will no longer be necessary.

This research therefore, points out that in order to impart knowledge and facilitate students learning, teachers make use of different strategies (punishment and reward). The forms of punishment under study in this research are corporal punishment, suspension, and expulsion and the types of reward under study in this research are intrinsic and extrinsic rewards.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

In Nigeria and the world all over, academic performance remains a vital means through which students learning is measured and evaluated. The increasing poor performance in public examination has over the years been a great concern to stakeholders in education. Government, educational administrators and managers, captain of industries and professionals from all walks of life have continued to show their concern for the dwindling academic performance of senior secondary school students in public examinations such as WAEC(West Africa Examination Council), NECO (National Examination Council),  JAMB (Joint Admissions and Matriculation Board), and NABTEB (National Business and Technical Examinations Board.

However, the dwindling performance of students in public examination can be attributed to several factors such as poor study habits, lack of concentration in class, indiscipline, ineffective use of punishment and reward, family issue, peer influence, absenteeism, failure to reward appropriate and punish inappropriate behavior and the likes.

The falling standard of education is a pressing problem of the society and it has become a cankerworm which must be tackled. Efforts made to identify the cause of these problems and to suggest possible solution has led educational researchers and scholars to investigate some teacher, school environment and students variable as correlates of students’ academic performance. Although these have led to improvement in students’ academic performance, it appears that such improvement is adjudged to be insignificant.

This however is an indication that more investigation needs to be conducted for students’ academic performance to be improved upon significantly. This study therefore filled this gap by investigating the effect of punishment and reward on senior secondary school students’ Academic Performance in Shomolu Local Government Area of Lagos State.


1.3 Purpose of the Study

The purposes of this study are to:

  1. Determine the effect of Corporal Punishment on the Academic Performance of Senior Secondary School students in Shomolu Local government Area of Lagos State.
  2. Determine the effect of Suspension on the Academic Performance of Senior Secondary School Students in Shomolu Local government Area of Lagos State.
  3. Determine the effect of Expulsion on the Academic Performance of Senior Secondary School Students in Shomolu Local government Area of Lagos State.
  4. Determine the effect of Intrinsic Reward on the Academic Performance of Senior Secondary School Students in Shomolu Local government Area of Lagos State.
  5. Determine the effect of Extrinsic Reward on the Academic Performance of Senior Secondary School Students in Shomolu Local government Area of Lagos State.

1.4 Significance of the Study

The study will be of much importance to teachers in Shomolu Local Government area of Lagos State on how to effectively make use of punishment and rewards in their relationship with the students.

The study will also help students to understand the appropriate behaviors to exhibit in and outside the school. For the parents, the study will help them to know which behavior exhibited by the child requires reward and which requires punishment.

Through this study, the stakeholders in education sector may come to appreciate the implications of punishment and reward in the Senior Secondary Schools. It is hoped that this study will help the Senior Secondary Schools administrators in Shomolu Local Government Area of Lagos State to b improve on the academic performance of students in various schools.

This study will also help to discover the effects of punishment and reward on learning in some selected Secondary Schools in Shomolu Local Government area of Lagos State.


1.6 Research Questions

  1. What effect does corporal punishment have on the academic performance of Senior Secondary School students in Shomolu Local government Area of Lagos State?
  2. 2. What is the effect of suspension on the academic performance of Senior Secondary School Students in Shomolu Local Government Area of Lagos State?
  3. What is the effect of expulsion on the academic performance of Senior Secondary School students?
  4. What is the effect of extrinsic reward on the academic performance of Senior Secondary School students?
  5. What is the effect of intrinsic Reward on the academic performance of Senior Secondary School students?

1.7 Research Hypotheses

  1. There is no significant effect of corporal punishment on the academic performance of Senior Secondary School students.
  2. There is no significant effect of suspension on the academic performance of Senior Secondary School students.
  3. There is no significant effect of expulsion on the academic performance of Senior Secondary School students.
  4. There is no significant effect of intrinsic reward on the academic performance of Senior Secondary School students
  5. There is no significant effect of extrinsic reward on the academic performance of Senior Secondary School students

1.7 Scope of the Study

The research will be carried out in selected Secondary Schools in Shomolu Local Government Area of Lagos State.


1.8 Operational Definition of Terms

The following terms were used in the work,

Punishment:

An act of correcting a wrong ‘act’ or character exhibited.

Reward:

An act of appreciating a job well done.

Motivation:

An act of rewarding or providing with an incentive.

Reinforcement:

An act of giving more force or effectiveness to; strengthen.


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations

5.1 Summary of Findings

The objectives of the study were;

  1. To determine the relationship between punishment and students’ performance in school.
  2. To determine the relationship between reward and students’ performance in school.
  3. To determine the extent to which time management can significantly affect students’ performance in schools.

Findings from the study revealed that majority of the respondents were of the opinion that punishment and reward system will help reduce the imbalance in the process of teaching and learning (see Table 4.3.4) and that punishment and reward system can lead to improvement in academic performance of secondary school students (see Table 4.3.5).


5.2 Conclusion

In conclusion, it is possible to note that studies in Nigeria and outside Nigeria are not consistent. Unfortunately, physical punishment is still seen in Nigerian schools. Most often, extrinsic rewards are used to motivate students without paying attention to intrinsic rewards. Studies in developed countries indicate that physical punishment has ceased to exist subsequent to the 18th century and these countries are looking for ways to motivate students to find better inner rewards. Taking all the research effort inside and outside Nigeria into consideration, it is possible to conclude that intrinsic reward is the best and most stable way to increase motivation without resorting to punishment which is associate with a great number of adverse outcomes. However, punishment is an integral part of education and must be used from time to time although with sufficient caution.


5.3 Recommendations

Based on the findings of this study, the following recommendations were made;

  1. Reward system should be properly introduced in secondary schools in order to get the attention of students in learning.
  2. School administrators should implement adequate punishment system in their schools to avert indiscipline in schools.
  3. Government should support schools in the proper implementation of punishment and reward system in schools.

Get Complete Project Material

5,000 5000

The Complete Material Will Be Sent to You in Just 2 Steps

Quick & Simple…


Step One Purchase

Make Payment (Through Transfer) of ₦5,000 to the Account Below

Zenith BankAcc No: 1225513212
Samphina Academy
Current Account

Or CLICK HERE To Pay With Debit Card


FOR STUDENTS OUTSIDE NIGERIA
CLICK HERE To Purchase Material ($15)

Step Two Purchase

Send the Following Details on WhatsApp ( 08143831497) After Payment

  1. Payment Details

  2. TOPIC: Effect Of Punishment And Reward On Academic Performance Of Senior Secondary School Students (A Case Study Of Oredo Local Government Area)

The Complete Material Will Be Sent To You On WhatsApp After Receiving Your Details
T & C Apply


  Contact Our Help Desk


Need a Different Topic? Perform a Quick Search



List of Related Works

Click on Any Topic to Preview the Content

samphina.academy

Samphina Academy

Samphina Academy is an Online Educational Resource Center that is aimed at providing students with quality information and materials to aid them in succeeding in their academic pursuit.