The Effect Of Price Increase In Petroleum Products (PMS) On Commercial Vehicle Transporter
Fuel is a major factor among many others influencing transport costs and transport rates in Nigeria. This aim of this study to examine the effect of price increase in petroleum products (PMS) on commercial vehicle transporter using ABC Transport Company Plc Abuja as a case study. The study made of simple random sampling and responses were derived from the staffs of the company using questionnaires . findings from the study reveals that the increase in fuel prices affects both passengers and the profitability of transport companies. The study recommends above all thing that government should ensure they bring back the fuel subsidy policy and more so transportation companies should seek for more strategies that would help them remain in business in the face of low patronage from passengers during fuel increment.
Table of Content
- Title Page
- Table of Content
- List of Tables
- 1.1 Background of the Study
- 1.2 Statement of the Problem
- 1.3 Objective of the Study
- 1.4 Research Questions
- 1.5 Research Hypothesis
- 1.6 Significance of the Study
- 1.7 Scope of the Study
- 1.8 Limitation of the Study
- 1.9 Definition of Terms
- 1.10 Organisations of the Study
Review of Literature
- 2.1 Conceptual Framework
- 2.2 Theoretical Framework
- 2.3 Empirical Review
- 3.1 Research Design
- 3.2 Population of the Study
- 3.3 Sample Size Determination
- 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
- 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
- 3.6 Method of Data Collection
- 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
- 3.8 Validity of the Study
- 3.9 Reliability of the Study
- 3.10 Ethical Consideration
Data Presentation and Analysis
- 4.1 Data Presentation
- 4.2 Analysis of Data
- 4.3 Answering Research Questions
- 4.4 Test of Hypotheses
Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation
- 5.1 Summary
- 5.2 Conclusion
- 5.3 Recommendation
1.1 Background of the Study
Oil is one of the natural resources that is considered significant to the socio-economic development of the entire citizen and all the sectors of the economy. Petroleum product (fuel) obtained from refinery processing of crude oil is significant to the transport sector as it serves as fuel for vehicles being used for the transportation of commuters and goods from one place to the other.
The manufacturing sector of the economy also make use of petroleum products (fuel) for the operation of machines and lubrication of the machineries. In the same vein, the petroleum product is significant to Agriculture sector, since it is used to operate the tractors and other agricultural machineries. Thus, the effects of scarcity or increase in price of the petroleum affects all the sectors of the economy. Attempt at increasing the price of petroleum product (fuel) is often accompanied by scarcity of the commodity in the society, this situation often bring about long queued in the filling stations which often result in stampedes sometimes causing commotion and fight among commercial drivers and other petroleum users in the society.
As a result of these negative effect on the lives of the citizenry, the people often prefer an increase in the pumping price of the product so much as the products shall be available than situations whereby there is no change in pumping price, but excavating due to hoarding which often stampedes commotion and sometimes avoidable loss of lives at the filling stations. However, experience has shown that the resultant increase in pumping price of petroleum products (fuel) bring about hardship to the society in the first instance, the commercial vehicle operators increase the fare price which effect often bring disaffection of the commuters, also the price of agricultural products will also skyrocket as a result of the increase in pump price which is shifted to the consumer by traders who transport these products from the rural areas to the metropolis. Prices of other goods such as vehicle spare parts also skyrocket for the same reason.
Price fluctuation in the market for fuel has a constantly evolving effect on the logistics industry. Rapid increases in the price for fuel can have a delayed and devastating effect on freight management companies, and a sudden fall could result in short-term boosts in profit and a surge of competition within the market to provide consumers with the lowest price.
One of the major components of globalization is the transportation sector, which plays a very significant role in daily activities and the economy. During the 20th century, trade scale changed from local to global and therefore freight transport system became a global network. In particular, freight transportation is one of the most important economic activities. Freight transport has been growing even more rapidly than passenger transport and is expected to continue to do so in the future (Ribeiro et al, 2007). Truck, train, and ship are the three common transport vehicles being used for movement of containers, which are characterized by a number of advantages and disadvantages. The cost of transportation is an important selection criterion among influential parameters on identifying the appropriate mode of transportation mode for freight shipment. The main challenge of today’s transport costs is oil price. Freight movement in most modes remains largely dependent on expensive and finite fossil fuels, predominantly diesel fuel (Russell et al, 2014). The foremost single factor affecting the retail price of diesel fuel is the price of crude oil (Noordin et al, 2009). Crude oil as an energy source is a vital component that determines the condition of the world economy (McSweeney et al, 2008). Its price fluctuations impact on all industrial sectors whether directly or indirectly, be it in banking, energy, retailing or transportation industries. The impact of oil prices on transport sector depends upon three issues, which are, the relevance of the oil price on the cost of the energy used for each transport mode, to what extent oil price is transferred to transport fuel prices, and the relative weight of the energy cost on total operating costs for each mode (Casamassima et al, 2009). Fuel prices are a cost to transportation industries and a direct cost to consumers. Fuel price is one of the most important factors affecting transport cost, which comprises more than 50 percent of the total operating cost for the transportation industry nowadays (Ribeiro et al, 2007). Since the sensitivity of transport operating cost to the oil price change varies significantly across shipment modes, the oil price has become an important factor in freight mode choices. Casamassima et al. Noordin et al, (2009) revealed that the sensitivity of fuel costs of road mode and railway crude oil price was 40%, while maritime was 100% since marine fuels are exempted from government taxation. In addition, they estimated the influence of doubling of crude oil price on transport cost of road and rail freight was 10%, while for maritime was 50%.
As the cost of fuel rises, carriers are forced to raise prices or take losses. In turn, the cost of fuel does not only effect the logistics company, but also the shipper and the profit source of the shipper as well. It is an outward domino effect: If it costs more for the freight carrier to transport the freight, the shipper is going to be charged more to make up for this. If the shipper is going to be charged more to transport the freight, the receiver is going to be charged more to make up for their added costs.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
The Petroleum Products Pricing Regulatory Agency (PPPRA) announced on Thursday 11th March, 2021 that the Nigerian government has increased the pump price of petrol to N212.61 per litre. According to the agency, the landing cost stands at N189.61 per litre while fuel depot owners will sell to marketers at N206.42, (Premium Times reports).
This announcement comes days after Nigerians suspected there would be a hike in fuel price as depot owners were reportedly hoarding the product, and increasing prices with expectations of fuel price increment by the government, even though the NNPC responded to the speculations via a statement by its Group General Manager, Group Public Affairs Division, Kennie Obateru.
As the price of fuel increases, other basic needs of Nigerians including transportation and the cost of goods and services, to name a few, are also expected to increase in price, making it more difficult for the average citizen to afford food and other basic needs, especially without any increase in their income.
Nigerians have since taken to social media with the hagtag #FuelPriceHike to object to the decision, with several people calling for a protest in Ojota, Lagos State. Many Nigerians on there social media pages have been complaining that Nigeria no longer use coins and with the increase of fuel price to N212.61 per litre, how would they be able to get their balance when ever they purchase petrol. In 1978, fuel price per liter was 0.5 kobo. Today, #FuelPriceHike is a major problem to the Nigeria’s economy especially for an average Nigerian. Hence, this study seeks to investigate the effect of price increase in petroleum products (PMS) on commercial vehicle transporter.
1.3 Objective of the Study
The main purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of price increase in petroleum products (PMS) on commercial vehicle transporter using ABC Transport Company Plc (ABC), Abuja as a case study. The study specifically aimed to:
- Examine the effect of fuel price hike on passengers of ABC, Abuja.
- Investigate the effect of fuel price hike on the profitability of ABC, Abuja.
1.4 Research Questions
- What is the effect of fuel price hike on passengers of ABC, Abuja?
- What is the effect of fuel price hike on the profitability of ABC, Abuja?
1.5 Research hypotheses
The following null hypothesis will be tested in this study:
- Fuel price hike does not have any effect on passengers of ABC, Abuja
- Fuel price hike does not have any effect on the profitability of ABC, Abuja
1.6 Significance of the Study
This study will enable the government of Nigeria to see the need to put measures in place to subsidize fuel in the country and avoid unnecessary hiking of the fuel price. This study will also help transport companies to draft a good strategy and mechanism to always curb the fuel hike issues in the nearest future. This study will further serve as an eye-opener to the general public to know that when ever there is a fuel hike in the country, transportation tends to be expensive. This study will also serve as a reference piece for future research on this or related domain.
1.7 Scope of the Study
This study will focus on investigating the effect of price increase in petroleum products (PMS) on commercial vehicle transporter. This study will also examine the effect of fuel price hike on the profitability of ABC, Abuja. This study will be delimited to only the staffs of ABC, Abuja.
1.8 Limitation of the Study
Finance, availability of time and relevant materials were the major constraints that the researcher encountered while carrying out this study.
1.9 Definition of Terms
A change which is a result or consequence of an action or other cause.
A sudden or large increase in prices, rates, taxes, or quantities.
Transportation is the movement of humans, animals and goods from one location to another
1.10 Organization of the Study
This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows.
- Chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the (overview, of the study), historical background, statement of problem, objectives of the study, research hypotheses, significance of the study, scope and limitation of the study, definition of terms and historical background of the study.
- Chapter two highlights the theoretical framework on which the study is based, thus the review of related literature.
- Chapter three deals on the research design and methodology adopted in the study.
- Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding.
- Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study.
Conclusion and Recommendation
This chapter summarizes the findings into the effect of price increase in petroleum products (PMS) on commercial vehicle transporter using ABC Transport Company Plc as case study. The chapter consists of summary of the study, conclusions, recommendations and suggestions for further studies.
5.1 Summary of Study
In this study, our focus was to examine the effect of price increase in petroleum products (PMS) on commercial vehicle transporter Using ABC Transport Company Plc Abuja as a case study. The study aimed at examining the effect of fuel price hike on passengers of ABC, Abuja. It Investigated the effect of fuel price hike on the profitability of ABC, Abuja. The study made use of random sampling. 80 eighty responses were elicited from the field survey. Staffs of Ascent Transportation Company form the population of the study.
The following conclusion was drawn from the finding of the study
- Fuel price hike has a significant negative impact on Nigeria Transport system and passengers as a whole.
- The increase in fuel price limit mobility of passengers who would have love to travel because of the fright that cost of transportation is on the increase
- Increase in fuel has a negative impact on transport companies as they tend to invest more on low energy vehicles and reduce the number of their vehicles on the road.
- Moreso fuel price hike affects transport companies as they limit the number of route they toll. This is because their might be a low tide of patronage from passengers.
- By limiting the number of vehicles makes cost of operation high for transportation companies and their over heads increased as they might be forced to shut down a bit until fuel price comes back to normal.
The following recommendation was made due to finding of the study
- Government of Nigeria should see the need to put measures in place to subsidize fuel in the country and avoid unnecessary hiking of the fuel price.
- Transport companies should draft a good strategy and mechanism to always curb the fuel hike issues in the nearest future
- Fuel subsidy will reduce the overall transport costs and rates incurred on transport distance and accessibility, also, the removal of fuel subsidy will increase the overall transport cost and rates incurred on transport distance and accessibility;
- Fuel subsidy will reduce the overall transport costs and rates incurred on product packaging, special handling, bulky or perishable products also, the removal of fuel subsidy will increase the overall transport cost and rates incurred on product packaging, special handling, bulky or perishable products;
- If goods are transported in large quantity, more fuel will be required; therefore, the advantage incurred on transporting large volumes of goods is a disadvantage to the amount of fuel to be consumed. If fuel is been subsidized, the cost of fuel to be consumed when transporting large volumes of goods will be minimized but in the case of subsidy removal, the cost of fuel to be consumed will be at a very high rate and transport service provider must be critical and analytical in taking decisions of cost;
- In a nation that has no close substitutes to vehicle fuel or energy, fuel subsidy is mostly preferable and will results into reduced transport costs and rates but in the case of fuel subsidy removal, transport costs and rates will increase. It is quite better that before subsidy removal, other sources of energy or fuel to power a vehicle such as hydrogen gas, electric, solar and others should be made readily available, for it will normalize the high effects on transport cost and overall production cost;
- If fuel is subsidized, the import costs will be minimized but if fuel subsidy is removed, import cost will be very high and this will significantly increase the cost of the products and consumables. If Nigeria will rely on importation, there is need for fuel subsidy. The present shifting in the diversification of the economy should also results into shifting from fuel subsidy to fuel subsidy removal. This will also improve the development of Nigeria economy;
- Efficient transport infrastructures results into low fuel consumption and the better if fuel subsidy removed. Also, poor transport infrastructures results into high fuel consumption and fuel subsidy is needed. Hence, fuel subsidy removal should be better considered if the government must have provided a smooth transport network for easy accessibility.
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