The Effect Of Pre-Primary School Education On The Speech Development Of The Primary School Child

Primary Education Project and Semina Material

The Effect Of Pre-Primary School Education On The Speech Development Of The Primary School Child


Abstract


The study attempted to investigate the effect of pre-primary school education in the speech development of the primary school child in Mainland Local Government Area of Lagos State. The descriptive research survey was used in this study to carry out the objective assessment of the opinions of 200 respondents selected for this study. In addition, the questionnaire was adopted for the collection of data necessary for this study. Two null hypotheses were generated and tested in this study, with the application of both chi-square and simple percentage. At the end of the analyses, it would be concluded that children will differ in their mother tongues if they passed through the pre-primary schools than those who did not. It is believed that children who underwent the pre-primary schools develop faster in their speeches than those who went to the primary schools without passing through the pre-primary education.


Chapter One


1.0 Introduction

1.1 Background to the Study

A baby is in the making as soon as conception takes place. Normally, it takes 9 months for a full grown baby in the womb to be born into the world, barring all accidents and pre-mature delivery. A baby right from conception, is a unique individual with his or her special characteristics, Caplan and Caplan (1995). According to them, the nature of children is such that no two children are completely the same or alike in everything not even identical twins. Thus, there are obvious differences that differentiate one child from another. Nwagbara (2003), the complexities in children result both from nature and nurture. Children go through different stages of development that is, from birth to young adults. This early years from 2 years to 6 years are critical in their development. During this period, children’s physical, mental and psychological development take a leap as they are in a constant state of flux. They are in the process of undergoing great changes and making significant development strides, especially in the area of language acquisition and development.

As Chukwu (2000) puts it, a child first communicates with her mother non-verbally, but as she starts walking, he/she finds his/her tongue too. As the child starts walking, it is important for the child to know or learn the language of communication with adults around the environment. The adult could be the mother, the father, family members or strangers in the community. This therefore, calls for the acquisition of words. A toddler for instance, deciphers how important it is to communicate thus, moves towards those listening and interested adults who are willing to put a label to her actions.So, when for instance, the child picks a ball, he is told the name of what he picked. More often, the child repeats the word again and again, and the child becomes pleased with herself that she was able to pronounce the word; he/she picks up another thing. Thus, the child gradually learns the names of every objects around her/him. According to Onuoha (1990), language does not just unfold, it must be learned. For instance, a child needs a teacher; the first one, being the mother, the father, and or siblings in the home. For example, the word ‘hot’ may stand for many things to the child. It may mean fire, hot water, hot food etc. With time, the child may be able to decipher the difference between fire, hot water, hot food as she would try to visualize ‘hot’ in the absence of these representations of ‘hot’. This of course, will take place as the child grows older. Also, a child needs to listen, make sound discrimination, mimic sounds, use them correctly, name objects and arrange words in a meaningful sequence.
Uzozie (1984) opined that it is amazing how a child acquires languages in the very early years, especially if he/she has no brain damage or speech impairment or even psychic disorders.

Nwagbara (2000) is of the opinion that the vocabulary acquisition during early childhood spans from 12 months with an average number of 3 words to 72 months with an average number of 2562 (two thousand, five hundred and sixty two) words. So, children to speak without any deliberate instruction needed to read or write. Much of what they say, have their own rules and often not the same as in adult and speech. Research in this area supports the theory that children do not acquire grammar through practice or imitation like adults do. They have their own rules of grammar. For example, “it does not run”, becomes “not run”. This conforms to their idea of negative statement or sentence. Even when adults give past tense of eat as ate, children will add ‘ed’ to it saying ‘eated’ and stick to it.
Caplan and Caplan (1999) claim that there are many theories about how very young children develop linguistic strategies and learning abilities during their critical period of learning to communicate. According to them, one theory that gets little attention is that children acquired language when they discover the power to play. At this stage, they fantasize and practice language combinations and grammar without fear of failure. They advised that the significant adults should capitalize on this period to introduce songs and rhymes to them as they carry this special sensitivity to their adult life. All sections of language: sounds, grammar, rhythm and rhymes – lend themselves to play. It is only natural that children at this early childhood period, 2 – 6 years discover these play potentials in their emerging language acquisition.

It is believed that children’s reading matter should be linked to their own spoken language as well as to their interest and experiences for intellectual growth. The focus on the cognitive growth of children is a welcome development (Anyanwu, 1991). This is because the brain of a youngster is “tabula rasa” ready to be occupied. Realizing that, educators go into searching for the appropriate stimuli that can yield the best result for the children. Webber (1970) opines that it must be recognized that something can be done about children’s intelligence as a result of the type of experiences provided for them.

Aiyedun (1984) is of the opinion that story books provide such experiences that can make for the intellectual growth of children. According to him, stories provide and improve reading, writing and thinking skills especially as they stimulate the intellect. Stories foster understanding of human actions. Just one story can form the bases for more detailed exploration of other actions. Selected experiences as reflected in story books give children the opportunity to use words that are familiar to them through their family life. Children are thus encouraged to extend vocabulary appropriately. Not only that they learn the vocabulary of colours, shapes, textures etc early in life as their story books are almost always pictorial. For the intellectual development of children, story books give the practice of the four language skills – listening, speaking, reading and writing. They also help children to learn new words as well as alternative meanings of words contextually. This is possible, especially if the language of the stories is not too simple.

According to Ejiogu (1991), stories enrich language use, and gives opportunity for the acquisition of precarious experiences as children learn to identify with characters and learn how others feel. They also help release tension and enlarge experiences of the world especially when introduced at the appropriate time to children. For example a child may compare a bird he/she has seen in the garden to the one he/she has seen in the story book, and may ask his/her teacher to clarify on the aspect that is confusing to him/her. This provides shared experiences leading to greater understanding of birds. Thus, inculcating the habit of reading story books which in increases the intellectual level of children as well as their linguistic competence.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

Language acquisition is of paramount importance in the life of a child. This is because any child with one form of language or the other in the society, cannot be expected to be a normal child.

Often times, most parents, especially mothers who are supposed to be the first teachers of their children fail to inculcate the habit of reading story books by their young ones so as to acquire the use of words fast and accurately. No wonder children of these days instead of learning good spoken words from their parents and significant others, rather learn bad languages from their peers due to the fact that they were not taught the proper and appropriate language use and or application.

Many children fail to develop the appropriate language skill may be because their teachers in the school, their parents at home have lost the focus and have failed to see the need in assisting the child to develop his/her linguistic prowess or skills which is very important in human life. As children were not taught by those who are in position to teach how to develop appropriate language skills, these children grow up loosing the grip of either their mother tongue or the English Language which is the second official language of instruction to the child.

Children do not know or master speeches due to the fact that the teachers who teach them at the primary school do not have the mastery content or the methods with which to teach these children and develop their speech. For the fact that children’s speeches are not developed at the grassroots, it affected them even at the adult age. This is why many adults find it difficult to speak fluently either in the private or public arenas.

At the primary stage of development in the lives of most children, they were not taught or directed by older persons or the significant others in the society or at the school, and by their teachers on the appropriate way to develop their language for later life in adolescence and adulthood. The poor language – teaching and poor speech development among primary children is therefore, the issue that gave rise to the investigation of this study.


1.3 Purpose of the Study

This study sets out to examine the effect of pre-primary school education on the speech development of the primary school child.

Other specific objectives include:

  1. To examine whether there is relationship between pre-primary school education and speech development among children in schools.
  2. To investigate whether there is a difference between pre-primary school education and speech development among children in schools
  3. To differentiate between the speech development of children who were taught by their parents and those who were taught by teachers.
  4. To investigate whether there is general difference in the speech development of children who had pre-primary education and those who did not.

1.4 Research Questions

The following research questions will be asked in this study thus:

  1. Is there any relationship between pre-primary school education and speech development among children in schools?
  2. To what extent can there be any difference between pre-primary school education and speech development among children in schools?
  3. How can we differentiate between the speech development of children who were taught by their parents and those who were taught by their teachers?
  4. How can we investigate whether there is general difference in the speech development of children who had pre-primary education and those who did not?

1.5 Research Hypotheses

The following research hypotheses will be formulated and tested in this study:

  1. There will be no significant relationship between pre-primary school education and speech development among children in schools.
  2. There will be no significant difference between pre-primary school education and children’s school achievement in schools.
  3. There will be no significant difference between the speech development of children who were taught by their parents and those who were taught by teachers.
  4. There will no significant gender difference in the speech development of children due to pre-primary education.

1.6 Significance of the Study

The study will be of great benefit to the following individuals:

  1. Children will benefit from the findings and recommendations of this study because it will help their teachers and parents to be in good positions to help in teaching or instructing them on the appropriate language to be learned in their communities.
  2. With the recommendation of this study, teachers would be exposed to know how best to go about teaching or handling children at the lower level of our school system, the primary school. Not only that, they would be exposed to the appropriate methods to be used in teaching language to the child in school, especially at the primary school system.
  3. Parents would have a better insight on the essence of teaching the child to gain mastery of the language of his/her environment. Most parents do not know that they are the first teachers of the child at home. This study will expose them to the knowledge that they should be the first people to impart knowledge to the child, especially concerning children’s language development. With this study and its recommendations, parents would be able to know the best techniques to be always used in teaching language to the children.
  4. The society will be exposed to the proper knowledge of language acquisition to the child in the society. With the recommendations, the society will be able to know how best to assist the child in the area of acquisition and mastery of language.

1.7 Scope and Limitation of the Study

This study will cover all the schools (primary) in Mainland Local Government Area of Lagos State. Its main focus will be on the investigation of the effect of preprimary education on speech development of the child in the primary school.

Time Constraint:

The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work.

Inadequate Materials:

Scarcity of material is also another hindrance. The researcher finds it difficult to long hands in several required material which could contribute immensely to the success of this research work.

Financial Constraint:

Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).


1.8 Operational Definition of Terms

Pre-primary school

A preschool, also known as nursery school, pre-primary school, playschool or kindergarten, is an educational establishment or learning space offering early childhood education to children before they begin compulsory education at primary school.

Speech development

The exact pace at which speech and language develop varies among children, especially the age at which they begin to talk. Receptive language is the understanding of words and sounds. Expressive language is the use of speech (sounds and words) and gestures to communicate meaning.

School child

A child who attends primary school. Your baby will grow into a tantrum-throwing toddler, an awkward schoolchild, a difficult adolescent.


1.8 Organization of the Study

This research work is presented in five (5) chapters in accordance with the standard presentation of research work.

  • Chapter one contains the introduction which include; background of the study, statement of the problem, aim and objectives of study, research questions, significance of study, scope of study and overview of the study.
  • Chapter two deals with review of related literature.
  • Chapter three dwelt on research methodology which include; brief description of the study area, research design, sources of data, population of the study, sample size and sampling technique, instrument of data collection, validity of instrument, reliability of instrument and method of data presentation and analysis.
  • Chapter four consists of data presentation and analysis while
  • chapter five is the summary of findings, recommendations and conclusion.

Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

5.1 Introduction

It is important to ascertain that the objective of this study was to examine the effect of pre-primary education on the speech development of primary school child.

In the preceding chapter, the relevant data collected for this study were presented, critically analyzed and appropriate interpretation given. In this chapter, certain recommendations made which in the opinion of the researcher will be of benefits in addressing the challenges of pre-primary school education in Nigeria.


5.2 Summary

Based on the findings, it was discovered that pupils who had pre-school education perform better in academics and speech development than pupils who did not attend preschool education. Children who have gone through the experience take more interest in their studies. They were more responsible and complete the given assignments in time. Most of the students understand the learning material quickly and easily. The students attended pre-school are confident and ask more questions during teaching learning process. Majority of the children participate actively in classroom activities.


5.3 Conclusion

In conclusion, the importance of the early years in early childhood learning and overall development and longer term outcomes is well documented in research. Parents play a critical role in their children’s early learning as their first and foremost teacher. Initially, parent’s role early in their child’s life is to provide warm, sensitive and responsive care-giving that will promote a sense of belonging, security and healthy attachment. From birth and throughout the preschool period, parents and other caregivers play a vital role by providing a safe and stimulating environment rich in adult guided experiential play experiences. Parents can take a role in their children’s learning by comforting and responding to children’s needs as well as reading, talking, singing, dancing and exploring the world with their children. The types of interactions that parents have with their children and early experiences lay the foundation for children’s early learning and all subsequent learning experiences. This in turn, has a tremendous impact on individual longer term health, well-being, and success in life. The importance of early childhood learning experiences in shaping children’s development throughout their lives is well documented. Current research has provided a better understanding of how children learn in the early years and the importance of quality early learning opportunities.


5.4 Recommendations

The following recommendations were made from the findings and conclusion of the study:

The process of formal education and schooling should therefore begin well before the fifth year in a child’s life.
Pre-school has enormous positive impact on the future social and educational life of a child that’s why it receives so much importance in developed countriesWe are spending a very high amount of funds on improving our higher education. It is suggested that policy makers give top priority to pre-school education and thus pay due attention to providing a strong foundation to the basic building block of our education sector.

Pre-school education should be encouraged by the government by providing pre-school educational facilities (classrooms, instructional materials, and equipments) needed for the success of the program.

There should be proper enlightenment campaign on the importance of pre-school education.

Parents should be involved in their children’s early education experience by providing the necessary materials.

It should also have minimum fees that children coming from lower class of the society can also benefit from learning in pre-schools.


How To Get The Complete Material For The Effect Of Pre-Primary School Education On The Speech Development Of The Primary School Child


Project Material Download

3,000 Naira


The Complete Material will be Sent to You in Just 2 Steps

Quick & Simple…


Step One Purchase

Make a Mobile Transfer or POS Payment of ₦3,000 to any of the Account Below

Access Bank PlcAccount No.: 0811003731
Name: Samphina Academy
Account Type: Current
Zenith BankAccount No.: 1225513212
Name: Samphina Academy
Account Type: Current

Or CLICK HERE To Pay With Debit Card

FOR CLIENTS OUTSIDE NIGERIA
CLICK HERE To Pay With Debit Card ($15)
GHANA – Make Payment of 80 GHS to MTN MoMo, 0553978005, Douglas Osabutey 

Step Two Purchase

Send the Following Details on WhatsApp ( 08143831497) After Payment

  • Payment Details
  • Email Address 
  • The Effect Of Pre-Primary School Education On The Speech Development Of The Primary School Child

The Complete Material Will Be Sent To Your Email Address After Receiving Your Details
T & C Apply


  Contact Our Help Desk


⚠️ Need a different topic? Perform a quick search



Get A Complete Business Plan For Any Business In Nigeria

Business Plan for Businesses in Nigeria

  Business Plans in Nigeria


Disclaimer


This research material “The Effect Of Pre-Primary School Education On The Speech Development Of The Primary School Child” is for research purposes and should be used as a guide in developing your research project / seminar work. For no reason should you copy word for word (verbatim) as samphina.com.ng will not be liable for any who copied the material.

The aim of providing this material is to reduce the stress of moving from one school library to another all in the name of searching for research materials. This service is legal because, all institutions permit their students to read previous projects, books, articles or papers while developing their own works. According to Austin Kleon “All creative work builds on what came before”.

samphina.com.ng is only providing this material “The Effect Of Pre-Primary School Education On The Speech Development Of The Primary School Child” as a reference for your research. The paper should be used as a guide or framework for your own paper. The contents of this paper should be able to help you in generating new ideas and thoughts for your own research. Use it as a guidance purpose only.


Frequently Asked Questions


Does pre-primary education affect subsequent primary school test performance?

This positive effect on behavioral skills provides evidence of possible pathways by which pre-primary education might affect subsequent primary school test performance as preschool education facilitates the process of socialization and self-control necessary to make the most of classroom learning ( Currie, 2001 ).

How does pre-primary school attendance affect third grade performance?

We find that one year of pre-primary school attendance increased third grade performance by 8% of the mean or by 23% of the standard deviation of the distribution of test scores. We also find that measures of classroom attention, effort, discipline, and participation are positively affected by pre-primary school attendance.

Does preschool make a difference to educational performance?

Thus, a somewhat crude interpretation of these results implies that the behavioral gains are not the only channel through which preschool improves educational performance. Because there is no test-score data for the sixth and seventh grade in 1998 we have run, for robustness purposes, all the regressions for third graders without this year as well.

How much does pre-primary school increase third grade test scores?

We estimate that one year of pre-primary school increases average third grade test scores by 8% of a mean or by 23% of the standard deviation of the distribution of test scores.

Does pre-primary school attendance affect student self-control in third grade?

We also find that pre-primary school attendance positively affects student’s self-control in the third grade as measured by behaviors such as attention, effort, class participation, and discipline. 1. Introduction

How does pre-primary education affect third grade test scores?

Specifically, we examined the impact of a massive pre-primary education expansion in Argentina and found that attending pre-primary school had a large positive effect on third grade standardized Spanish and Mathematics test scores and non-cognitive behavioral skills.

How does poor attendance affect a child’s learning?

Poor attendance can influence whether children read proficiently by the end of third grade or be held back. By 6th grade, chronic absence becomes a leading indicator that a student will drop out of high school. Read more…

How much does absenteeism predict poor attendance?

Absenteeism in the first month of school can predict poor attendance throughout the school year. Half the students who miss 2-4 days in September go on to miss nearly a month of school.

Does attending preschool make a difference in academic success?

As time passes, the academic benefits enjoyed by children who attended preschool tends to diminish. However, much depends on the quality of the child’s further education. Attending a good quality preschool is not going to make as much of a difference if the child’s subsequent schooling is inadequate.

Does preschool or elementary school quality matter?

On the other hand, when participants are compared to very similar students who did not attend preschool, the benefits of participation are found to be substantial. Both preschool and elementary school quality also make a difference for the strength of ongoing effects in terms of achievement, school progress, and attainment.

What are the benefits of preschool programs?

Students who attend preschool programs are more prepared for school and are less likely to be identified as having special needs or to be held back in elementary school than children who did not attend preschool. Studies also show clear positive effects on children’s early literacy and mathematics skills.

Does early education make a difference for children?

There’s actually not much evidence that starting education early makes any difference for children. What there is evidence for is that a safe daycare and a stable home environment make a big difference, and that greater family stability and wealth — which child care enables — produce lasting, positive results.

How does pre-primary education affect third grade test scores?

Specifically, we examined the impact of a massive pre-primary education expansion in Argentina and found that attending pre-primary school had a large positive effect on third grade standardized Spanish and Mathematics test scores and non-cognitive behavioral skills.

Does the preschool expansion program increase test scores?

Likewise, the public preschool expansion program may have caused migration from the private to the public school system. In both cases, the concern is that the increase in test scores may be an artifact of the change in the relative composition of students as opposed to the impact of attending preschool.

Does pre-primary school attendance affect student self-control in third grade?

We also find that pre-primary school attendance positively affects student’s self-control in the third grade as measured by behaviors such as attention, effort, class participation, and discipline. 1. Introduction

How do schools raise test scores in the US?

Seldom is it by chance that those scores have risen; it’s the result of a concerted effort by an entire staff — an effort that is very likely to include extensive data analysis, focused teacher training, frequent monitoring of student progress, practice testing throughout the year, student and staff incentives, and other strategies. 

Samphina Academy

Samphina Academy is an Online Educational Resource Center that is aimed at providing students with quality information and materials to aid them in succeeding in their academic pursuit.