The Effect Of Poverty On Behavior And Academic Performance On Some Selected Secondary School

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The Effect Of Poverty On Behavior And Academic Performance On Some Selected Secondary School


Abstract


This study was carried out to examine the effect of poverty on behavior and academic performance on some selected secondary school.. Specifically, the study examined if there is a significant relationship between poverty and student’s academic performance. The study employed the survey descriptive research design. A total of 100 responses were validated from the survey. From the responses obtained and analysed, the findings revealed that lack of interest in subjects, poverty, language barrier are among the factors affecting the academic performance of students. The findings also revealed that there is a relationship between poverty and academic performance of students. This is as the Pearson correlation test showed a positive significant relationship (.867**) between poverty and academic performance of students. The study recommend government and donor organizations embark on poverty alleviation programmes that will make poverty stricken parent earn a living. Donor community is urged to consider funding education for orphans and those students who belong to impoverished families in order to reduce the rate of school drop-outs.


Table of Content


  • Title Page
  • Certification
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Table of Content
  • List of Tables
  • Abstract

Chapter One:

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3 Objective of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Research Hypothesis
  • 1.6 Significance of the Study
  • 1.7 Scope of the Study
  • 1.8 Limitation of the Study
  • 1.9 Definition of Terms
  • 1.10 Organisations of the Study

Chapter Two:

Review of Literature

  • 2.1 Conceptual Framework
  • 2.2 Theoretical Framework
  • 2.3 Empirical Review

Chapter Three:

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Population of the Study
  • 3.3 Sample Size Determination
  • 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
  • 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
  • 3.6 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
  • 3.8 Validity of the Study
  • 3.9 Reliability of the Study
  • 3.10 Ethical Consideration

Chapter Four:

Data Presentation and Analysis

  • 4.1 Data Presentation
  • 4.2 Analysis of Data
  • 4.3 Answering Research Questions
  • 4.4 Test of Hypotheses

Chapter Five:

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • References
  • APPENDIX
  • QUESTIONNAIRE

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background to the Study

Over the past decades, the unfortunate reality is that the income gap has widened between Nigerian families. Educational outcomes are one of the key areas influenced by family income. Children from low-income families often start school already behind their peers who come from more affluent families. The incidence, depth, duration and timing of poverty all influence a child’s educational performance, along with community characteristics and social networks (Evan, 2004). However, both Nigerian and international organizations have shown that the effects of poverty can be reduced using sustainable interventions.

Poverty has been defined in the literature from two perspectives the macroeconomic perspectives and the expansive cultural perspective. The economic perspective defined poverty in terms of the external circumstance that influence a person’s economic behaviors and transaction like the purchase of consumer good’s the acquisition of skills and provision of production service. In this regard, poverty is defined as a state of deprivation in terms of both economic and social indicators such as income, educations hearth care, portable water, access to food, social status, self-esteem and self-actualization (Okog 1998). Poverty is also said to exist when income or disposable resource are inadequate to support a minimum standard of decent living (ogwunmike, 1991).

Poverty is one of the most serious problems contorting Nigeria today; it is generally associated with condition under which people lived. Poverty can be simply put as a condition where a person is unable to satisfy the most basic and elementary equipment’s for human survival in the term of food, clothing, shelter, heath, transport, education and recreation. That is, it is the absence of access to the basic human needs of the citizen. The poverty level in Nigeria contradicts the country disposal; the country ought to have done better than it is doing presently. Poverty is a global phenomenon that is very dynamic, complex and multi- dimensional. It is currently one of the most serious problems in the world.

Meanwhile, poverty remains a stubborn fact of life even in rich countries. According to Harris (2006) complex web of social relationships student experience with peers, adults in the school and family members exerts a much greater influence on their academic performance. This process starts with student core relationship with parents or primary caregivers in their lives, which form a personality that is either secure and attached or insecure and unattached. Securely attached children perform better in school (Bali, Granger, Kivlighan, Mills-Koonce, Willongby & Greeberg, 2008). Once students are in school, the dual factors of socialization and social status contribute significantly to academic achievement. The school socialization process typically pressure student to be like their peer or risk social rejection, whereas the quest for high social status drives students to attempt to differentiate themselves in some areas, for example, socio-economic status forms a huge part in this equation. Children raised in poverty rarely choose to behave differently, but are faced daily with overwhelming challenges that affluent children never have to confront and their brains have adapted to suboptimal conditions in ways that undermine good school performance.

The human conditions which we might classify as being in poverty have a long history with a variety of interpretations; these conditions are influenced by a number of factors including resources, contemporary standards and public perceptions of what is minimally acceptable (Evans, 2004).

Poverty imposes significant barriers to academic success due to its influence on various factors related to education. One key area affected by poverty is access to educational resources. Johnson and Reed (2019) noted that students from low-income families often lack essential learning materials, such as textbooks, computers, and internet access, which are crucial for academic achievement. Without access to these resources, students may struggle to keep up with their peers, resulting in lower grades and decreased educational attainment.

Furthermore, poverty is closely associated with inadequate nutrition and health disparities, which can further impede academic performance. Johnson and Reed (2019) emphasized that children living in poverty are more likely to experience food insecurity and have limited access to nutritious meals. Malnutrition and hunger can hinder cognitive development and impair concentration and memory, making it difficult for students to fully engage in learning activities.

Additionally, the stressors associated with poverty, such as unstable living conditions, familial conflicts, and financial insecurity, can significantly impact a student’s ability to focus on their studies. Johnson and Reed (2019) pointed out that the chronic stress experienced by children living in poverty can lead to emotional and behavioral problems, resulting in decreased motivation, increased absenteeism, and reduced academic performance.
Moreover, the quality of schools and educational opportunities available to students in impoverished areas often falls short. Johnson and Reed (2019) highlighted that schools located in low-income communities often face resource constraints, including inadequate funding, outdated facilities, and high teacher turnover rates. These challenges can limit the availability of quality education and extracurricular opportunities, depriving students of a supportive learning environment that fosters academic growth.

In conclusion, poverty exerts a detrimental influence on academic performance through various interconnected factors. Limited access to educational resources, inadequate nutrition and health disparities, chronic stress, and suboptimal school environments all contribute to the lower educational outcomes observed among students living in poverty. It is imperative for policymakers, educators, and communities to address these challenges and implement targeted interventions to mitigate the impact of poverty on academic achievement.

However, the overall goal of this study is to provide an insight into the influence of poverty on student academic performance.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

Strong, secure relationships devoid of poverty and lack help stabilize children’s emotionally and provide the core guidance needed to build lifelong social skills. Children who grew up with such relationships learn healthy, appropriate emotional responses to everyday situations. But children raise in poor homes often fail to learn these responses, to the detriment of their school performance. For example, students with emotional instability may get so easily frustrated that they give up on a task when success was just moments away. Social dysfunction may inhibit students’ ability to work well in cooperative groups, quite possibly leading to their exclusion by group members who believe they aren’t “doing their part” or “pulling their share of load”. This exclusion and the accompanying decrease in collaboration and exchange of information exacerbate at risk students’ already shaky academic performance. However, the researcher is examining the effects of poverty on the academic performance of the students .


1.3 Objectives of the Study

The following are the objectives of this study:

  1. To examine the effects of poverty on the academic performance of the students .
  2. To identify other factors affecting the academic performance of the students .
  3. To determine the factors encouraging poverty in the society.

1.4 Research Questions

  1. What are the effects of poverty on the academic performance of the students ?
  2. What are the other factors affecting the academic performance of the students ?
  3. What are the factors encouraging poverty in the society?

1.5 Hypothesis

  • HO: There is no significant relationship between poverty and student’s academic performance
  • HA: There is significant relationship between poverty and student’s academic performance

1.6 Significance of the Study

The following are the significance of this study:

  1. The result of this study will educate the general public on the effects of poverty on the performance of students.
  2. This research will be a contribution to the body of literature in the area of the effect of personality trait on student’s academic performance, thereby constituting the empirical literature for future research in the subject area.

1.7 Scope / Limitations of the Study

This study will cover the poverty level and its effect on the performance of the students .

Limitation of Study
Financial constraint

Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).

Time constraint

The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work.


1.7 Definition of Terms

Poverty:

Poverty can be defined as a situation where economic goods are not evenly distributed and the people are not able to maintain or meet expected standard of living.Poverty as a condition where several people are hungry, malnourished, illiterate, unemployed and under high infertile mortality rate (Akanbi 2001)

Poverty can also be described as the condition of being without adequate food, education, health, housing, income and transportation for one’s convenience and happiness.

Achievement:

A particular thing that you have achieved (Macmillan English Dictionary)

Rural:

Relating to country side.


1.10 Organization of the Study

This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows.

  • Chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the (overview, of the study), historical background, statement of problem, objectives of the study, research hypotheses, significance of the study, scope and limitation of the study, definition of terms and historical background of the study.
  • Chapter two highlights the theoretical framework on which the study is based, thus the review of related literature.
  • Chapter three deals on the research design and methodology adopted in the study.
  • Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding.
  • Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study.

Chapter Five


Conclusion and Recommendation

5.1 Conclusion

In this study, our focus was to examine the effects of poverty on the academic performance of the students . The study specifically was aimed at ascertaining if there is a significant relationship between poverty and student’s academic performance.

The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 100 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondent are active students .

The findings revealed that lack of interest in subjects, poverty, language barrier are among the factors affecting the academic performance of students. The findings also revealed that there is a relationship between poverty and academic performance of students.


5.2 Recommendation

Based on the responses obtained, the researcher proffers the following recommendations:

In light of the aforementioned conclusions, it is recommended that school administrators should find other more positive ways of encouraging poverty stricken students to pay school fees. For example, school heads can stagger the payments of fees in order to allow poverty stricken students to pay in small and affordable amounts throughout the year. While parents’ low level of education may be the cause of their unemployment and low incomes, it is recommended government and donor organizations embark on poverty alleviation programmes that will make poverty stricken parent earn a living. Donor community is urged to consider funding education for orphans and those students who belong to impoverished families in order to reduce the rate of school drop-outs.


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