Effect Of Population Growth On Land Resources Development

Project and Seminar Material for Quantity Surveying QS

Effect Of Population Growth On Land Resources Development


Abstract


This study examined the effect of population growth on land resources development in the Makurdi Metropolis, Benue State, Nigeria. A survey research design was used for this study. A sample of 120 respondents was used for the study. Primary data was obtained by the use of a structured questionnaire. The data collected was analyzed using multiple regression analysis. Also, the hypotheses of the study were tested using the probability value of the regression estimates. The result indicates that birth rate has a negative and significant effect on land resource development in Makurdi Metropolis in line with a priori expectations. Immigration has a positive and significant effect on land resource development in Makurdi Metropolis. It was concluded that optimal indices of population growth are necessary for efficient land resource development. It was recommended, among others, that the government should designate layouts and provide allocation papers for members of the communities in the study area to expand building into areas that were hitherto not inhabitable. This will help to control population growth as a result of the increased birth rate in the study area.


Table of Content


  • Title Page
  • Certification
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Table of Content
  • List of Tables
  • Abstract

Chapter One:

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3 Objective of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Research Hypothesis
  • 1.6 Significance of the Study
  • 1.7 Scope of the Study
  • 1.8 Limitation of the Study
  • 1.9 Definition of Terms
  • 1.10 Organisations of the Study

Chapter Two:

Review of Literature

  • 2.1 Conceptual Framework
  • 2.2 Theoretical Framework
  • 2.3 Empirical Review

Chapter Three:

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Population of the Study
  • 3.3 Sample Size Determination
  • 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
  • 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
  • 3.6 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
  • 3.8 Validity of the Study
  • 3.9 Reliability of the Study
  • 3.10 Ethical Consideration

Chapter Four:

Data Presentation and Analysis

  • 4.1 Data Presentation
  • 4.2 Analysis of Data
  • 4.3 Answering Research Questions
  • 4.4 Test of Hypotheses

Chapter Five:

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • References
  • APPENDIX
  • QUESTIONNAIRE

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background to the Study

Due to the high birth rate, the human population is constantly growing. 2.6 million people are born every second. As a result of this rapid birth rate, the human population exceeded seven billion people in 2011.

Humanity has not always had such a large population. Around 10,000 years ago, prior to the invention of agriculture, the global human population was estimated to be only a few million people. Following the invention of agriculture, the human population began to grow slowly until the early 1900s, when it began to grow rapidly. The human population reached three (3) billion in the 1960s as a result of technological advancements and medical advances. The population has more than doubled and continues to grow since that time. Human population growth brought about dramatic changes in how people interact with natural and largely publicly administered forested environments as a result of immigration. These changes are primarily the result of large-scale spatial shifts in the human population.

According to the most recent United Nations estimates elaborated by Worldometer, the world population is 7.9 billion. According to UN data, Nigeria’s population was estimated to be 206,139,589 people at the midpoint of the year. Nigeria’s population is equivalent to 2.64 percent of the total world population. Nigeria ranks at number 7 in the list of countries (and dependencies) by population (United Nations Population Division, 2020). The population density in Nigeria is 226 per km2 (586 people per m2). Benue State is one of the North Central states of Nigeria. According to the 2006 population census, it has a population of 4,253,641 and a land area of 32,518 square kilometers. According to the 1963 population census, the population of Makurdi (Benue state capital) was 16,716. In 1973, the figure rose to 53,973 and in 2006, it rose to 300,377 people (National Population Census (NPC), 2006). The town’s population increase has resulted in a huge demand for land resources development, especially housing and other services that go along with it.

Human behavior demonstrates a powerful desire to survive, reproduce, and attain some measure of prosperity and quality of life. Individuals and societies, however, have divergent views on what constitutes a satisfactory lifestyle. The majority of countries, including Nigeria, reveal numerous disparities in lifestyles, which are frequently determined by the quantity and quality of natural resources available to each individual. This is because population has a significant impact on these countries’ economic, social, and physical development, most notably in Makurdi metropolis, Benue state, Nigeria. As a result, it is certain that the population factor can significantly influence whether a state’s primary development objective is achieved or not (Yaser and Muna, 2016). Additionally, the majority of these fundamental resources (land, water, energy, and biota) do not have an infinite supply and many are finite. As the world’s population increases, prosperity and quality of life are expected to deteriorate as resources must be shared with an increasing number of people (UNFPA, 1991).

Land resources are the resources available from the land, thus the agricultural land, which contains natural fertilizer for growth of the products sown, underground water, various minerals like coal, bauxite, gold, and other raw materials for human use. While population growth is frequently used as a proxy for land resource development, at smaller scales, a complex set of drivers is also significant. Increased food demand as a result of population growth has put additional strain on land resources (Gorit, 2017). Worldwide, food and fiber crops are grown on 12 percent of the earth’s total land area. Another 24% of the land is used for grazing livestock, which provides meat and milk products, and the remaining 31% is forested. In developed countries, land resource development is motivated by economic factors such as large-scale agriculture or urbanization, as well as an increasing need to conserve biodiversity and environmental quality for current and future generations, whereas in developing countries, rapid population growth, poverty, and economic conditions are the primary motivating factors (Uchendu, 2017).

Because the availability of all essential resources is rapidly diminishing due to population growth, the options for substitution are also diminishing. Africa’s rapid population growth has resulted in the growth of urban centers, which has led to encroachment into forests. This underlines the importance of conservation and the development of alternative land resource management practices. Natural resources (land) are under severe strain as a result of population growth. Land is the most valuable natural resource. Agriculture, animal husbandry, and forestry all rely on land productivity. The entire land ecosystem, which includes soil, water, plants, and soil biodiversity, is used to meet the community’s needs for food, energy, and water. The unsustainable use of these land resources is the primary cause of environmental degradation. Thus, in order to ensure the long-term viability of an area’s land development, it is necessary to conduct regular monitoring of land cover and land use changes (Garg, 2017).


1.2 Statement of Problem

Since the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) in Rio de Janeiro in 1992, achieving sustainable development, which includes land resource development, has been a top priority for many countries. Rapid population increase, owing to a high birth rate and immigration, has resulted in minimal land resource development in and around many urban and rural areas. Due to a rising human population, the Makurdi Metropolis has land/environmental development issues. Much of this data is speculative or based on assumptions. There is a scarcity of concrete data on population increase and land resource development based on scientific findings. Many places across the country are also dealing with identical issues, but there is a dearth of information. As a result, research into the effects of population growth on land resource development in the Makurdi Metropolis in Benue State, Nigeria is required.


1.3 Objectives of the Study

The main objective of the study is to examine the effect of population growth on land resources development in the Makurdi Metropolis, Benue State, Nigeria. The specific objectives of the study are to:

  1. Examine the effect of the birth rate on land resource development in Makurdi Metropolis, Benue State, Nigeria;
  2. Find out how immigration affects land resource development in Makurdi Metropolis, Benue State, Nigeria.

1.4 Research Question

  1. What is the effect of the birth rate on land resource development in Makurdi Metropolis, Benue State, Nigeria ?
  2. How does immigration affects land resource development in Makurdi Metropolis, Benue State, Nigeria ?

1.5 Hypotheses of the Study

  • H01: The birth rate has no significant effect on land resource development in Makurdi Metropolis, Benue State, Nigeria;
  • H02: Immigration has had no significant effect on land resource development in Makurdi Metropolis, Benue State, Nigeria.

1.6 Significance of the Study

  1. The findings of this research project will significantly be of a great benefit to the government of Nigeria during the formulation of policies regarding the land resource development plan of the country as well as population control.
  2. The findings of the study will also serve as a study guide and a bulk of reference to other students and researcher who will wish to obtained information in this domain of knowledge.
  3. This research project will also serve as a means of educating the Nigeria citizens on the negative effects of some decisions they take on the land resource development of the country.
  4. This research project will be of great benefit to the government in identifying those causes of over population (rapid growth of population) in the county.
  5. The findings of this research work will also bring about changes in peoples behaviour in the areas of family planning, polygamy etc.

1.7 Scope of the Study

The scope of this project is to carefully assess the impact of over population in the land resource development of Nigeria with Makurdi Metropolis, Benue State, Nigeria as a case study. This study will also cover Makurdi Metropolis and various categories of people who live in it who will provide us well information which would be used in making conclusion and recommendations on this work.


1.8 Limitation of the Study

In the course of carrying out this study, the researcher experienced some constraints, which included time constraints, financial constraints, language barriers, and the attitude of the respondents. However, the researcher were able to manage these just to ensure the success of this study.


1.9 Definition of Terms

1. Population

The term population can be defined as the total number of people who reside in a particular area at a given period of time.

2. Over Population

Over population means in a situation where the population of a country is higher than the available resources.

3. Optimum Population

This is that type of population which is exactly equal to the available resources of the country.

4. Under Population

This is a population which is less than the available resources of the country.

5. Impact

The term impact has to do with the rate of change which something has on another thing.

6. Development

Development according to professor ollawa’s point of view (1981) is an all encompassing multi-dimensional process involving man in his political, economic, socio-cultural and psychological relations among others, in his effort to master and subjugate nature and natural forces of his environment to ensure improved living.

7. Census

The term census means a process through which the total number of people living in a particular place is determine at a given period of time.

8. Political/Census Population

This is a type of population obtained from the conduction of census which is believed to has increased or reduced in other to meet the political objectives of one ethnic group or the other, especially during the allocation of political seats, resources or developmental package.

9. Population Growth

This simple means the rate at which the population of a country increases from time to time with regards to their available resources.

10. Socio-Economic Development

In the words of Okoro, U.G and Kemjika, C.A (2006:9), social development means the total positive transformation of social norms, social institutions and social organisations of a society. It also involves access to qualitative education, cultural transformation, religious tolerance, healthy political process buttressed by mass political participation, political stability, respect for human rights, adherence to constitutionalism and respect for rule of law, ethnic tolerance and harmony.

On the other hand, Economic Development means improvement generally in the standard of living and improved quality of the living condition of the people of a particular society


1.10 Organization of the Study

This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows.

  • Chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the (overview, of the study), historical background, statement of problem, objectives of the study, research hypotheses, significance of the study, scope and limitation of the study, definition of terms and historical background of the study.
  • Chapter two highlights the theoretical framework on which the study is based, thus the review of related literature.
  • Chapter three deals on the research design and methodology adopted in the study.
  • Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding.
  • Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study.

Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

5.1 Introduction

This chapter summarizes the findings on the effect of population growth on land resources development, Benue State as case study. The chapter consists of summary of the study, conclusions, and recommendations.


5.2 Summary of the Study

In this study, our focus was on the effect of population growth on land resources development, Benue State as case study. The study is was specifically focused on examining the effect of the birth rate on land resource development in Makurdi Metropolis, Benue State, Nigeria; and finding out how immigration affects land resource development in Makurdi Metropolis, Benue State, Nigeria..

The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 120 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondent are households in Makurdi Metropolis.


5.3 Conclusion

The impact of population expansion on land resource development in Makurdi Metropolis, Benue State, was investigated in this study. The study looks at the evolution of land resources in the context of agricultural land usage and real estate utilization. The birth rate and immigration were used to analyze population growth. The findings show that the birth rate has a negative impact on land resource development because it puts pressure on agricultural land use as well as real estate land use. Overpopulation caused by increased birth rates is determined not just by the population’s size or density, but also by the population’s relation to available sustainable resources such as land. Immigration also has a positive impact on land resource development, according to the study. This could be due to the efforts of immigrants who have brought resources to the study region to help build the environment. It was determined that ideal population growth indices are required for efficient land resource development.


5.4 Recommendations

Based on the findings of the study, the following recommendations are made:

  1. The government should designate layouts and provide allocation papers for members of the communities in the study area to expand building into areas that were hitherto not accessible. This will help to control population growth as a result of the increased birth rate in the study area.
  2. Immigration into the study can be strengthened by the government through providing incentives to immigrants. This can be done through speedy processing of land titles such as certificates of occupancy and rights of occupancy by the government, and a waiver on basic land developmental levies.

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