Effect Of Poor Implementation Of Educational Policies On Nigeria’s Educational Development

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Effect Of Poor Implementation Of Educational Policies On Nigeria’s Educational Development


Abstract


This study was carried out on the effect of poor implementation of educational policies on Nigeria’s educational development using some selected secondary school in Yakurr Local Government Area of Cross Rivers State as a case study. The study was set to find out the factors contributing to poor implementation of educational policies in Nigeria, find out whether poor implementation of educational policies affects the standard of Nigerian educational system, find out whether poor implementation of educational policies affects the effectiveness of Nigerian educational sector and find out whether the effective implementation of educational policies facilitates the development of Nigerian educational system. The survey design was adopted and the simple random sampling techniques were employed in this study. The population size comprise of teachers and principals of some selected secondary schools in Yakurr Local Government Area of Cross Rivers State. In determining the sample size, the researcher conveniently selected 200 respondents and 150 were validated. Self-constructed and validated questionnaire was used for data collection. The collected and validated questionnaires were analyzed using frequency tables, and mean scores. While the hypotheses were tested using Chi-square statistical tool. The result of the findings reveals that the factors contributing to poor implementation of educational policies in Nigeria: inadequate funding, corruption, inadequate skilled, qualified and experienced teachers, poor accountability, ineffective Management and Governance and lack of Continuity of Education Policies. Further findings showed that poor implementation of educational policies affect the standard of Nigerian educational system. Therefore, it is recommended that government agencies should visit all schools frequently to ensure the necessary equipment/facilities, instructional materials, infrastructures and all that are necessary things needed for effective teaching and learning are provided so that the purpose for the educational policy will be achieved. To mention but a few.


Table of Content


Chapter One:

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3 Objective of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Research Hypothesis
  • 1.6 Significance of the Study
  • 1.7 Scope of the Study
  • 1.8 Limitation of the Study
  • 1.9 Definition of Terms
  • 1.10 Organisations of the Study

Chapter Two:

Review of Literature

  • 2.1 Conceptual Framework
  • 2.2 Theoretical Framework
  • 2.3 Empirical Review

Chapter Three:

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Population of the Study
  • 3.3 Sample Size Determination
  • 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
  • 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
  • 3.6 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
  • 3.8 Validity of the Study
  • 3.9 Reliability of the Study
  • 3.10 Ethical Consideration

Chapter Four:

Data Presentation and Analysis

  • 4.1 Data Presentation
  • 4.2 Analysis of Data
  • 4.3 Answering Research Questions
  • 4.4 Test of Hypotheses

Chapter Five:

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • References
  • APPENDIX
  • QUESTIONNAIRE

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

In education as in other fields of human endeavour, every official action of an organization must have a backing or a basis. It is this purpose that a policy serves. A policy defines the area in which decisions are to be made, but it does not make the decision. It usually provides a general guide that facilitates decision-making. Educational policies provide the direction for educational activities. The formulation of an educational policy sets the stage for implementation which, according to Ukeje (1986), is perhaps the most important aspect of planning. Planning is usually an action which succeeds policy formulation but precedes implementation.

Unfortunately, educational policies and goal attainment have been irreconcilable due to implementation constraints. Perhaps this accounts for the observation made by Governor Oyakhilome of Rivers State in an address sent to the Convention of the Nigerian Association for Educational Administration and Planning in 1986. He expressed concern about the problem of policy implementation thus: We know it is difficult to realize planned objectives one hundred percent. But our experience in planning education in this country shows a disturbing gap between planned objectives and attained results … As professionals in the field of education, it may be pertinent to identify whether those critical gaps are results of faulty planning or faulty implementation (Oyakhilome 2014). Policy implementation in education is a conspicuous national problem that has taken centre stage in Nigeria. This paper examines the problem in some detail and explores its implications for the development of Nigeria.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

Over the years, the gap between educational policies and goal attainment due to inadequate implementation of these policies has become of great concern to many observers. Nigeria is desirous of joining in the league of developed nations by 2020. This vision can be realized if the wells spelt out educational policies are adequately implemented to stabilize and solidify our educational system. Educational policy is the bedrock upon which the educational system of every nation is founded. This explains why some educational policies are made in Nigeria to guide how educational system should be operated. However, it has also become almost normal to articulate beautiful authoritative statements and practical administrative guides for the development of educational objectives in Nigeria with little or no effort to implement them. This is a gross educational fraud that requires investigative, diagnostic, and curative attention. Thus, there is a need to look into the problems and prospects of educational policy implementation in the Africa’s biggest nation.

The study is interested in identifying the implementation constraints and to explore the implications of poor educational policy implementation for national development. Following a clarification of the causes and effects of the problem of poor policy implementation, the study will advance remedial measures.


1.3 Research Objectives

The broad objective of this study is to ascertain the effect of poor implementation of educational policies on Nigeria’s educational development.

Other specific objectives includes:

  1. To find out the factors contributing to poor implementation of educational policies in Nigeria.
  2. Find out whether poor implementation of educational policies affects the standard of Nigerian educational system.
  3. Find out whether poor implementation of educational policies affects the effectiveness of Nigerian educational sector.
  4. Find out whether the effective implementation of educational policies facilitates the development of Nigerian educational system.

1.4 Research questions

In course of this examination, the following questions will be addressed.

  1. What are the factors contributing to poor implementation of educational policies in Nigeria?
    • inadequate funding
    • Corruption
    • Inadequate skilled, qualified and experienced teachers
    • Poor accountability
    • Ineffective Management and Governance
    • Lack of Continuity of Education Policies
  2. Does poor implementation of educational policies affect the standard of Nigerian educational system?
  3. Does poor implementation of educational policies affect the effectiveness of Nigerian educational sector?
  4. Will the effective implementation of educational policies facilitate the development of Nigerian educational system?

1.5 Research Hypothesis

  • Ho: Poor implementation of educational policies has no effect on Nigeria’s educational development.
  • Ha: Poor implementation of educational policies has an effect on Nigeria’s educational development.

1.6 Significance of the Study

This study will provide empirical evidence to the various stakeholders particularly, governments, programme managers, administrators, policy makers among others on the extent to which the programme has helped to improve the quality of schooling and the education sector in general. The study will provide school administrators and managers on the need to revamp their instructional supervision as this is necessary for the attainment of UBE programme. The study will also be useful to State Universal Basic Education Board as it will provide them with information that will assist them improve the training of teachers, providing teachers with adequate instructional material and payment of teachers salaries as this can motivate them to ensure the effective implementation of UBE programme. Empirically, the study will contribute to the body of knowledge, serving as reference material and opportunity for further studies.


1.7 Scope of the Study

The scope of this study borders on the effect of poor implementation of educational policies on Nigeria educational development. The study will further discuss factors or constraints have made the implementation of educational policies difficult, implications of poor implementation of educational policies for national development. The study is however delimited to selected secondary school in Yakurr Local Government Area of Cross Rivers State.


1.8 Limitation of the Study

his research project, like all human endeavors, had some challenges that threatened to derail the study’s completion. One of the reasons is that the time allotted for this work was so limited that the researcher did not have enough time to complete the task thoroughly. During data collection, the researcher also had to put forth extra effort to understand the respondents’ interview schedules, several of whom fell into the incomprehensible age group. Also, there were financial and transportation constraints to deal with. Insufficient funds tend to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing the relevant materials, literature, or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire, interview).


1.9 Definitions of Terms

Implementation:

Translation of government policies and programmes regarding UBE into reality.

Management:

Getting things done throughout people’s effort by Federal State and Local Government.


1.10 Organisations of the Study

The study is categorized into five chapters. The first chapter presents the background of the study, statement of the problem, objective of the study, research questions and hypothesis, the significance of the study, scope/limitations of the study, and definition of terms. The chapter two covers the review of literature with emphasis on conceptual framework, theoretical framework, and empirical review. Likewise, the chapter three which is the research methodology, specifically covers the research design, population of the study, sample size determination, sample size, and selection technique and procedure, research instrument and administration, method of data collection, method of data analysis, validity and reliability of the study, and ethical consideration. The second to last chapter being the chapter four presents the data presentation and analysis, while the last chapter(chapter five) contains the summary, conclusion and recommendation.


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations:

5.1 Introduction

This chapter summarizes the findings on the effect of poor implementation of educational policies on Nigeria’s educational development using some selected secondary school in Yakurr Local Government Area of Cross Rivers State as a case study. The chapter consists of summary of the study, conclusions, and recommendations.


5.2 Summary of the Study

In this study, our focus was on the effect of poor implementation of educational policies on Nigeria’s educational development using some selected secondary school in Yakurr Local Government Area of Cross Rivers State as a case study. The study was specifically set to find out the factors contributing to poor implementation of educational policies in Nigeria, find out whether poor implementation of educational policies affects the standard of Nigerian educational system, find out whether poor implementation of educational policies affects the effectiveness of Nigerian educational sector and find out whether the effective implementation of educational policies facilitates the development of Nigerian educational system.

The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 150 responses were validated from the enrolled participants, where all respondent arescience teachers and students in four selected secondary schools in Oro LGA, Kwara State.


5.3 Conclusions

Based on the findings of this study, the researcher made the following conclusion.

  1. The factors contributing to poor implementation of educational policies in Nigeria: inadequate funding, corruption, inadequate skilled, qualified and experienced teachers, poor accountability, ineffective Management and Governance and lack of Continuity of Education Policies.
  2. Poor implementation of educational policies affect the standard of Nigerian educational system.
  3. Poor implementation of educational policies affect the effectiveness of Nigerian educational sector.
  4. The effective implementation of educational policies facilitate the development of Nigerian educational system.

5.4 Recommendations

Based on the findings of the study, the following recommendations are proffered.

  1. Government at all levels must commit vast resources towards the school infrastructures and education manpower to the extent that the propagation of worthwhile knowledge can be guaranteed.
  2. There should be continuity in government educational policy even if there is change in government. The government should allocate funds to the education system to run the school.
  3. Government agencies should visit all schools frequently to ensure the necessary equipment/facilities, instructional materials, infrastructures and all that are necessary things needed for effective teaching and learning are provided so that the purpose for the educational policy will be achieved.
  4. Every effort should be made to eradicate corruption from all spheres of Nigeria’s various programs so that available resources can be utilized for public interest.
  5. Discontinuation of the National Policy on Education fashioned after the American system and the adoption of the model practiced by Asian countries such as Japan, China and India which takes the culture of the people into consideration.
  6. Provision of qualitative education should be made compulsory and entrenched into the Constitution in order to encourage result-oriented implementation.

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