Effect Of Poor Administration In Business Education Programme
This study focused on the effect of poor administration in business education program, Lagos State as case study. The study is was specifically focused on Identifying the core problems that have been hindering operation effective and efficiency of business education program, the effective and efficient utilization of all resources both human and material in nature; the contributions of appointment to the executive positions and seek remedies where necessary; serving as resource information of signal to the government in its efforts to revamping business education program, this is so because prevention they say is better than cure and finally to proffer suggestion solution to the problems of poor administration where necessary.
The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 120 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondent are staff of Lagos State University. A four point scaled questionnaire was used for data collection, validated by two experts and the reliability coefficient using the Cronbach alpha method was 0.82. The results showed that there are administrative challenges facing business education programme. It also showed how the possibilities of overcoming the challenges of business education programme would help in promoting national development. Logical conclusion was drawn based on these findings. It was recommended, among others, that government and other major stakeholders should invest their resources (financially and otherwise) to ensure the possibilities of overcoming the challenges facing business education for national development.
Table of Content
- Title Page
- Table of Content
- List of Tables
- 1.1 Background of the Study
- 1.2 Statement of the Problem
- 1.3 Objective of the Study
- 1.4 Research Questions
- 1.5 Research Hypothesis
- 1.6 Significance of the Study
- 1.7 Scope of the Study
- 1.8 Limitation of the Study
- 1.9 Definition of Terms
- 1.10 Organisations of the Study
Review of Literature
- 2.1 Conceptual Framework
- 2.2 Theoretical Framework
- 2.3 Empirical Review
- 3.1 Research Design
- 3.2 Population of the Study
- 3.3 Sample Size Determination
- 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
- 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
- 3.6 Method of Data Collection
- 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
- 3.8 Validity of the Study
- 3.9 Reliability of the Study
- 3.10 Ethical Consideration
Data Presentation and Analysis
- 4.1 Data Presentation
- 4.2 Analysis of Data
- 4.3 Answering Research Questions
- 4.4 Test of Hypotheses
Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation
- 5.1 Summary
- 5.2 Conclusion
- 5.3 Recommendation
1.1 Background to the Study
Business education is one of the occupational areas that are richly provided by vocational and technical education in Nigeria. Business education refers to a programme of instruction that offers various skills in accounting, marketing and Office Technology and Management (OTM). Major topics include: office practice, book keeping, business mathematics, business communication, secretarial duties, word processing, advertising (Ajisafe, Bolarinwa & Edeh 2015). Edokpolor and Egbri (2017) had stipulated that the actual goals of business education shall be to:
- Prepare students for specific career in office occupations;
- Equip students with the requisite skills for job creation and entrepreneurship; and
- Expose students with knowledge about business, including a good blend of computer technology, which incorporates Information and Communication Technology (ICT).
They further explained that the first two goals involve education ‘for’ business, which is aimed at equipping recipients with the requisite attributes (knowledge, skills, competencies, and attitudes) to become gainfully employed in the world of work, whereas the later addresses education ‘about’ business, which is aimed at providing a sound basis for further studies at the graduate and post-graduate levels.
Some contemporary thinkers in education and training conceive of business education as a major contributor to human resource, entrepreneurial and national development. Despite these laudable roles, available indications have shown that Nigeria have been handling business education with levity (Ekpenyong, 1992; Ekpenyong & Nwabuisi, 2003; Oladunjoye, 2016; Edokpolor & Egbri, 2017). Edokpolor and Egbri (2017) added that this situation has consequently deprived business education from adequate provision of funds, qualified manpower, modern facilities, quality curriculum, and proper attention. Although, business education have attracted bulk of research within these areas (Nwodoh, n.d; Ohiwerei, 2006; Nino, 2010; khan, Shah, & Azam, 2011; Shalini & Ullash, 2012; Ojimba, 2012; Ugwuogo, 2013) leaving a gap in literature pertaining to empirical support. Also, it remain unclear how the possibilities of overcoming the issues and challenges of business education would help in promoting national development. However, adequate optimization of resources for the effective delivery of business education in Nigeria is receiving a growing attention (Agbo, 2012; Ekpenyong & Edokpolor, 2015a; Edokpolor, Edokpolor & Olupajimo, 2016; Edokpolor & Imafidon, 2017; Edokpolor & Oduma, 2017). This is because vocational education in general has been considered as a viable programme that helps to promote sustainable economic growth and development (Cantor, 1985; Ul-Haq & Haq, 1998; Tilak, 2002; Asian Development Bank, 2004; Agrawal, 2013). It is believed that for any nation to helpin promoting sustainable economic growth or development, effort shall be made to invest sufficient amount of financial resources on business education programme.
Generally, inadequate provision of financial resources has been identified as greatest challenge facing education in Nigeria (Nwadiani & Omoike, 2006; Asiyai, 2015), especially vocational and technical education sector because of its capital- intensive nature (Adeyanju, Adekunle, Osifila, 2007), of which business education programme is a major component. By virtue of this nature, every item within the business education instructional environment is subjected to adequate optimization of financial resources. However, in view of the contending demands for financial resources by various sectors of the Nigerian economy, business education have been finding it difficult to employ manpower in terms of quality and quantity, develop or renew curriculum, and offer a wide-range of modern infrastructure and facilities, such as the state-of-the-art lecture halls, workshops, studios, libraries, entrepreneurial research centres, and Information Technology (IT) services. The existence of all these identified issues and challenges are mere pointer to the fact that business education programme is currently delivered theoretically, and as such not capable of equipping recipients with the requisite attributes (knowledge, skills, and attitudes) for gainful employment and further education. Commenting on this unpleasant situation, Obunadike (2015) argued that the practical courses that are supposed to expose individual students to real-practical training in order to strike a balance with or match the theory learnt in the classroom have become a myriad.
Another challenge facing the effective delivery of business education is inadequate supply of qualified manpower. There is shortage of qualified manpower in business education both at the secondary and tertiary levels of education. This situation is more pronounced at the tertiary level. This is to be expected since there are no enough funds to employ qualified manpower. Ilusanya (2005) observed that the state of vocational education generally in Nigeria is becoming embarrassing. He lamented on the inadequacy of personnel as well as their lackadaisical attitude towards the teaching of the subject. In the same direction, Ilemobade (1994) also commented on the state of vocational education in general. The author argued that teachers are not committed to the teaching of vocational and technical subjects. Where there is inadequate provision of teaching personnel in terms of quality and quantity, the realization of the broad goals of business education will be difficult.
Business education is also faced with the problem of inadequate provision of infrastructural facilities. Presently, in virtually all institutions involved in the teaching of business education, there is an acute shortage of laboratories, libraries, studios and entrepreneurship research centres. In support of this, Aworanti (2015a) observed that the basic infrastructural facilities have declined both in quality and quantity. Even where these infrastructural facilities are available, they are not only in bad and non-functional state but also very obsolete. According to Abassah (2011), the federal and state governments have not been providing proper financial resources to address this critical area. The author claim that all we are getting is just lip-service to vocational education. The author also lamented that even when the teachers are ready to improvise instructional materials, the little amount of funds needed could still not be received from the school authorities. This situation has hindered the proper application of instructional delivery of business education.
Business education is equally faced with the challenge of the use of outdated curriculum. The curricula of most business education are outdated, as such, needs overhauling. Elaborating on this, Aworanti (2015a) tells us that it is regrettable that most vocational education curricula are outdated having been in use for over fifteen years. Looking at this situation closely, it is clear that current business education may not be able to meet the need of industries or employers of labour genuinely. This situation has consequently created a huge gap between business education and industries in Nigeria. This may be the reason why, Majumdar (2011) asserts that the challenges on how to develop curriculum and training programme that would help to respond to the skills needed by industries seem to be a common concern. He stressed that many authors have mentioned the gap between the skills needed by industries and those students acquire at the end of training programme.
Another notable challenge of business education is low public interest. This issue seems to have contributed to limitation faced by business education today. Business education is still generally perceived as a form of education for the ungifted and under-privileged child. This situation has made parents and elites to shun this type of education for they erroneously believed that it is meant for the less academically endowed. The low status associated with business education has made parents to have a strong preference towards white colour careers (Gambo, cited in Idialu, 2007). Parents and elites clamor for other types of education and only opt for business education as their last resort. Most parents prefer their children or wards to study prestigious courses like medicine, engineering and law (Federal Ministry of Education, 2005). Parents are further discouraged by the low quality of business education, which seem to be attributed to a number of factors, such as the inadequate provision of financial, human,as well as material resources. Today, business education no longer commands prestige and reputation in Nigeria. Rather, it is generally regarded as a blue colour career often reserved for dropouts (Nwachokor, 2002), or for people with low intelligent quotient (Osuala, 1995).
The effect of the above-mentioned challenges such as inadequate provision of funds, qualified manpower, modern facilities, and quality curriculum, coupled with low public interest, is that skilled and competent graduates may not be produced. Edokpolor and Egbri (2017) opined that this situation has devalued the image of business education both in education and labour market. Ekpenyong and Edokpolor (2015a) also stated that this situation has contributed to the increasing rate of unemployment and level of poverty among business education graduates. Looking at the issue of unemployment and poverty closely, one would observe that most graduates find themselves at cross roads after completion of their education programmes. Unemployment and poverty have become a national crisis, which has to be addressed if Nigeria is to enjoy sustainable development, with relatively peace and security. Ekpo (2011) argued that the insecurity in Nigeria, such as the spate of terrorist attacks, kidnappings, suicide bombing, crime, break down of law and order, is not unconnected with the high rates of unemployment and poverty.
The high rates of unemployment and poverty in Nigeria has necessitated the need for all stakeholders to collaboratively invest sufficient amount of resources on business education. This strategic approach according to Edokpolor, Edokpolor and Olupayimo (2016) can help to serve various purposes, which include financial management, staff development, curriculum renewal, service delivery, students mentoring, equipment donation, raising course awareness, facilities management, and lots more. Edokpolor and Egbri (2017) stated that the effective optimization of resources would further help in promoting the development of Nigerian economy.
The concept of development has to do with the identification of basic needs of families, individuals, interest groups, communities and their abilities to meet these needs, which are channeled or targeted towards sustainable development (Ogunduyile, 2004). Accordingly, national development can be described as the attainment of economic growth, leading to economic competiveness, high standard of living and self-reliance (Ekpenyong & Edokpolor, 2015a). From the foregoing, one would observe that ensuring the optimization of resources (both human and material) and re-orienting the mindset of Nigerians towards the surpassing worth of business education would help in producing skilled graduates, who are useful for the development of the society. This strategic means of ensuring implementation of business education would help to improve quality of human lives and capabilities by raising their levels of life sustenance, self-esteem, and freedom from servitude. Enu-Kwesi and Asitik (2012) remarked that these core values of development are concerned with the provision of basic needs, such as housing, clothing, food, and education as well as self-respect, and independence. Todaro and Smith (2011) also indicated that no country across the globe can be considered as fully developed, if it remains in economic and political subjugation to another powerful nation. The realization of these basic components of national development will further help in stimulating people’s belief about the usefulness of business education in Nigeria.
The introduction of administration and supervision in business education in Nigeria dates back to the colonial era, to the time of the missionaries. For long, administrators and supervisors of business education were selected from among lecturers/classroom teachers, such, administrators and supervisors depend solely on, their experiences gained from the classroom to administer and supervise the various organs of business education in their respective area.
According to Nwankwo (2002), administration is an organization what the central nervous system is to the body. In business education an administrator initiates, activates, directs, controls, and monitors the functioning of the various organs of the system.
Wannke (2010) highlighted that in modern times it has become rapidly clear that experience alone does not constitute a valid base for administering and supervising business education, hence tertiary institutions have become very difficult. The numbers of lecturers in our tertiary institutions have highly increased with varied qualifications.
Moreover, the students come to school from different backgrounds that often confuse the supervisor and unprepared administrator. It is discovered that the facilities and services for business education programme are becoming more complex to manage
Moreover Denga (2011) opined that the field of administration and supervision in business education is becoming famous in the country’s educational environment and graduates of the programme are awarded complimentary
Keeling and Callus (2012) saw administration as the process of planning organizing controlling leading and directing people to attain the objectives of the organization. An administrator is an officer who supervises others using all the techniques, methods, procedures and even the personnel in operating on organization or carrying out polices that have been established by a polity making body. The administrator of business education is responsible for planning, arrangement and organization of human and material resources aimed at attaining ‘the ‘objectives of business education. According to Isinenyi (2005) supervision is act of influencing workers in organization to carryout work and service. Supervisor should also be seen as a person that directs another person’s work. Nworgu (2010) defined educational supervision as a process of bringing about improvement in instruction by working both working with people. It is a meansof helping teachers to help themselves.
Warmk (2010) stated that supervision provides resources, consultation Ieaci6rship and cooperative service designed to improve instruction through leadership. It is imperative effort directed towards a common objective. Meanwhile, supervision is carried out in educational institutions in order to ensure that the process will lead to the attainment of desired goals. Supervision actually’ means overseeing, controlling, dealing with situations immediately as they arise where as management means operating far by using administrative techniques. Supervision can also be seen, as an art of workingwithagroupof people over whom authority is exercised in such a way as to achieve the progressive effectiveness in getting work done. Administration and supervision in business education are linked in teaching and learning. Administration covers the formal structure of tertiary institutions management. Administrators in business educationare on the apex level of management making polices, planning, taking decision’s while supervisors in business education are highly responsible and control at the technical board.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Business education is a programme of instruction that equips recipients with the requisite attributes for job creation and further education. Despite these dual missions, available evidence has shown that Nigeria is handling this sector with levity (Ekpenyong & Nwabuisi, 2003; Obunadike, 2015; Oladunjoye, 2016). This situation has consequently starved business education of proper funding, qualified staff, modern facilities, and quality curriculum, coupled with proper attention. This situation has devalued the image and reputation of business education both in the education and labour market, and has contributed to the high rate of unemployment and poverty among business education graduates. The issue of unemployment and poverty is unconnected to spate of terrorist attacks, kidnappings, suicide bombing, high crime rate, vandalism, thurgery, and break down of law and order. The high rate of insecurity has further contributed to the under-development of Nigerian economy. It is based on these upsurges that the authors embarked on this research.
1.3 Objective of the Study
- Identifying the core problems that have been hindering operation effective and efficiency of business education program.
- To identify the effective and efficient utilization of all resources both human and material in nature
- To look at the contributions of appointment to the executive positions and seek remedies where necessary.
- To serve as resource information of signal to the government in its efforts to revamping business education program, this is so because prevention they say is better than cure.
- Finally to proffer suggestion solution to the problems of poor administration where necessary
1.4 Research Question
- What is the core problems that have been hindering operation effectiveness and efficiency of business education program ?.
- What is the effective and efficient utilization of all resources both human and material in nature?
- What is the contributions of appointment to the executive positions and seek remedies where necessary.
- What solution to the problems of poor administration where necessary ?
1.5 Hypothesis of the study
The following hypothesis was formulated and tested by the study
- Ho: There is no significant effect of poor administration in business education program
- Hi: There is significant effect of poor administration in business education program
1.6 Significance of the Study
The Significance of the subject matter in raising the level of school achievement among students, which is the intermediate stage of the student’s age, and built upon many considerations in determining the future of academic students, and thus integrate them into national action in the state system.
It will reveal the importance of administration in the progress of business education program in Nigeria.
The student will benefit from this study as it will serve as reference for future studies.
1.7 Scope of the Study
The study will analyze the effect of poor administration in business education programme in Lagos State University. The study is limited to Lagos State University. Hence, the respondents for this study will be obtained from and among business students in the study area.
1.8 Limitation of the Study
In the course of carrying out this study, the researcher experienced some constraints, which included time constraints, financial constraints, language barriers, and the attitude of the respondents. However, the researcher were able to manage these just to ensure the success of this study.
1.9 Definition of Terms
Administration is the range of activities connected with organizing and supervising the way that an organization or institution functions.
Business education generally refers to the plethora of courses designed to provide students with any number of skills needed for success in business.
1.10 Organization of the Study
This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows.
- Chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the (overview, of the study), historical background, statement of problem, objectives of the study, research hypotheses, significance of the study, scope and limitation of the study, definition of terms and historical background of the study.
- Chapter two highlights the theoretical framework on which the study is based, thus the review of related literature.
- Chapter three deals on the research design and methodology adopted in the study.
- Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding.
- Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study.
Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations:
This chapter summarizes the findings on the effect of poor administration in business education program, Lagos State as case study. The chapter consists of summary of the study, conclusions, and recommendations.
5.2 Summary of the Study
In this study, our focus was on the effect of poor administration in business education program, Lagos State as case study. The study is was specifically focused on Identifying the core problems that have been hindering operation effective and efficiency of business education program, the effective and efficient utilization of all resources both human and material in nature; the contributions of appointment to the executive positions and seek remedies where necessary; serving as resource information of signal to the government in its efforts to revamping business education program, this is so because prevention they say is better than cure and finally to proffer suggestion solution to the problems of poor administration where necessary.
The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 120 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondent are staff of Lagos State University.
With respect to the analysis and the findings of this study, the following conclusions emerged;
The research study investigated the poor administration in business education program; and how the possibilities of overcoming the issues and challenges facing business education would help in promoting national development.
The research found that there are lots of poor administration in business education program. The research further found that the possibilities of overcoming the issues and challenges facing business education would help in promoting national development. It is, therefore, concluded based on these findings that inadequate optimization of resources, coupled with poor societal perception appeared to be the reason why graduates of business education are not equipped with the requisite attributes for gainful employment, poverty alleviation, and national development.
Based on the findings the researcher recommends that;
- Government and other major stakeholders should focus their attention and invest their resources on business education so as to help address the issues and challenges facing business education particularly at the tertiary level.
- Government and other major stakeholders should endeavour to invest their resources in order to help equip recipients with the requisite attributes for entrepreneurial development, poverty alleviation, and national development.
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