Effect Of Political Instability On Students Academic Performance In Suleja Public Secondary School

Political Science Education Project and Seminar Material

Effect Of Political Instability On Students Academic Performance In Suleja Public Secondary School


The study examines the effect of political instability on students academic performance in Suleja public secondary school. Despite the role of the government which aimed(s) at education development, the quality of education is very low in Nigeria. The paper relied on survey research conducted with the teachers of basic education in Nigeria, 500 questionnaires were distributed but only 378 were returned. Secondary data such as text books, journals, newspapers and government publications were also used. The findings revealed inherent institutional constraints are the key issues to education development such as lack of commitment of government, inadequate funding and poor coordination leading to crises such as terrorist group (Boko Haram), armed robbery, prostitution, militancy and bomb blast. The paper recommends increased commitment of state, proper accountability, public private partnership and ensuring rule of law as a way of improving performance of the institution.

Table of Content

  • Title Page
  • Certification
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Table of Content
  • List of Tables
  • Abstract

Chapter One:


  • 1.1 Background of the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3 Objective of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Significance of the Study
  • 1.6 Scope of the Study
  • 1.7 Limitation of the Study
  • 1.8 Definition of Terms
  • 1.9 Organization of the Study

Chapter Two:

Review of Literature

  • 2.1 Conceptual Framework
  • 2.2 Theoretical Framework
  • 2.3 Empirical Review

Chapter Three:

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Population of the Study
  • 3.3 Sample Size Determination
  • 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
  • 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
  • 3.6 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
  • 3.8 Validity of the Study
  • 3.9 Reliability of the Study
  • 3.10 Ethical Consideration

Chapter Four:

Data Presentation and Analysis

  • 4.1 Data Presentation
  • 4.2 Analysis of Data
  • 4.3 Answering Research Questions
  • 4.4 Discussion of Findings

Chapter Five:

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • References

Chapter One


1.1 Background of the Study

The Nigerian educational system is characterized by many challenges. One such challenge in the Nigerian educational system is beset with educational policy instability. The major issue in educational development is educational policy instability. One of the most serious problems threatening the sustainability and development of Nigerian educational systems is inconsistency in the various educational policies at every level of government. This inconsistency in the educational system affects the implementation of educational plans and programmes. Nigerian education cannot perform optimally without stable educational policies.

Nigeria’s educational system has witnessed a series of changes in policies and programmes. Some of the changes seem to be desirable while some will make one wonder why some of the other changes were ever initiated (Manafa, 2011; Aluede, 2006). In addition, Manafa (2011) and Ayeni (2000) conclude that many of the changes in educational policies in Nigeria have beendescribed as the product of confusion. There is, therefore, a high level of uncertainty which is affecting the implementation of Educational policies negatively in Nigeria.

Ogunode& Samuel (2020); Yaro (2017); Philip, Okoroafor, &Iro (2015) and UNICEF (2017) observed that the Nigerian government attached great importance to educational policies due to its relevance which includes among others the provision of sound knowledge to the citizens for adaptation into the larger society. Certain factors impede education policy development which adversely affects the implementation of the policies and subsequent non-accomplishment of educational policy goals including ensuring quality education (Yaro 2017; Odukoya 2011).
The major problem of the system of education is the frequent changes in policies. Several studies confirmed that politics affect the implementation of the National policy on education (Ogunode, Solomon, & Jegede 2021a; Ogunode, Gregory & Abubakar 2020; Ogunode& Jegede, 2021; Odukoya 2011; Ogbonnaya, 2010).

The Nigerian education system has been subjected to a lot of educational policy changes. For instance, Odukoya, Bowale, &Okunlola, (2018) submitted that for about forty years now, Nigeria has been unable to successfully implement the National Policy on Education [NPE]. The policy which came into existence in 1977, after over four years of deliberations at various levels, appeared to have solutions to virtually all core educational problems (FME, 1977). The National Policy on Education, revised in (1989; 1998; 2004, 2007 and 2014), contains every necessary ingredient for the achievement of the goals of the education system.

Odukoya, Bowale, &Okunlola, (2018) cited Mrs. Bola Mosuro, the Proprietress of Access Universal College, Lagos lamented that: “Our problem in this country [Nigeria] is that we often pick and drop policies as we want. There is nothing wrong with the 6-3-3-4 system. We simply have not implemented it well and now we have picked another one”. Based on this, it is imperative to examine the causes of educational policy instability in Nigeria and its implications on educational development.

Nigeria has been a signatory to many international treaties on eradicating illiteracy, such as EFA, NEEDS and MDGs. UNESCO has developed educational norms which have come to provide an important guiding tool. The UNESCO constitution adopted in London at the end of World War II, committed the world to the great principle of full and equal opportunities for all (UNESCO, 2004). From this, came the convention on the rights of the child and the UNESCO convention on the elimination of all forms of racial discrimination. All these have been of great impetus to the ideas of our common ownership of the globe; they have provided the context facilitated by the globalizing forces of technological innovation, in which sense of ownership has taken the form of massive movement of people, goods, ideas and opportunities around the world. The Constitution of Nigeria,1999 recognized the importance of education when it stated that the government shall provide good and enabling environment for educational development based on science and technology which will help in the eradication of illiteracy; education should be free, qualitative and compulsory (Okoroma, 2006).

1.2 Statement of the Problem

According to the national policy on education (2001) education in Nigeria is more private enterprises, it is a huge government venture that has witnessed a progressive evolution of government complete and dynamic intervention and active participation in the new swatch editorial of December 12 2001:3 it states that Nigeria funded about thirty four thousand, two hundred and forty (34, 240) primary schools with an enrolment of eleven million, five hundred and forty thousand one hundred and seventy eight (11,540, 178) pupils and has 3, 105, 239 secondary school student and fifty (50) Tertiary institution. Even at this, we cannot pretend that it is well with our educational system. This is because of political instability. The root I our educational system has gone too far.

Political instability has hindered effective implementation of the national policy on education by inadequate provision of resources. There an object lack of funds, personnel equipment and infrastructure almost in all secondary school in particular and other higher institutions in general especially in the east. The effect of this is the massive production of scientist who have never seen elaborates engineers who were never in any workshop and graduate that cannot solve problems of their immediate environment. The resulted in educational crisis. A crisis that will continue to stare the nation straight on the face until we rescue education form politics.

1.3 Objective of the Study

The main objective of this study is to investigate the effect of political instability on students’ academic performance in Suleja Public secondary school. Specific objectives include to:

  1. Examine the impact of political will on quality education in Nigeria.
  2. Investigate the effect of policy coordination on quality education in Nigeria.
  3. Determine the relationship between political will, policy coordination, and quality education in Nigeria.

1.4 Research Questions

  1. What is the impact of political will on quality education in Nigeria?
  2. What is the effect of policy coordination on quality education in Nigeria?
  3. What is the relationship between political will, policy coordination and quality education in Nigeria?

1.5 Significance of the Study

This study is of great importance to students, scholars, and stakeholders in the field of education. The findings of this study will not only add to the prior knowledge of students and teachers, but it will also provide a direction for policy formulation. This study will provide possible remedies with respect to how quality education that will eventually improve the academic performance of public secondary school students in Suleja, and Nigeria in general.

1.6 Scope of the Study

This study investigated the effect of political instability on students’ academic performance in Suleja Public secondary school. The study covers the impact of political will and policy coordination on the quality of education in Nigeria.

1.7 Limitations of the Study

this study was constrained by several factors ranging from the limited time allocated for its completion, the unavailability of relevant materials meant for proper analysis both online and offline and the reluctant nature of a high proportion of the research participants. Financial constraint also contributed significantly to the extent to which the research could evaluate the subject matter of this study.

1.8 Definition of Terms


The set of activities that are associated with making decisions in groups, or other forms of power relations among individuals, such as the distribution of resources or status. The branch of social science that studies politics and government is referred to as political science.

It may be used positively in the context of a “political solution” which is compromising and nonviolent,[1] or descriptively as “the art or science of government”, but also often carries a negative connotation. The concept has been defined in various ways, and different approaches have fundamentally differing views on whether it should be used extensively or limitedly, empirically or normatively, and on whether conflict or co-operation is more essential to it.

A variety of methods are deployed in politics, which include promoting one’s own political views among people, negotiation with other political subjects, making laws, and exercising internal and external force, including warfare against adversaries.[3][4][5][6][7] Politics is exercised on a wide range of social levels, from clans and tribes of traditional societies, through modern local governments, companies and institutions up to sovereign states, to the international level.

In modern nation states, people often form political parties to represent their ideas. Members of a party often agree to take the same position on many issues and agree to support the same changes to law and the same leaders. An election is usually a competition between different parties.

A political system is a framework which defines acceptable political methods within a society. The history of political thought can be traced back to early antiquity, with seminal works such as Plato’s Republic and Aristotle’s Politics in the West, and Confucius’s political manuscripts and Chanakya’s Arthashastra in the non-Western cultures.


A deliberate system of guidelines to guide decisions and achieve rational outcomes. A policy is a statement of intent and is implemented as a procedure or protocol. Policies are generally adopted by a governance body within an organization. Policies can assist in both subjective and objective decision making. Policies used in subjective decision-making usually assist senior management with decisions that must be based on the relative merits of a number of factors, and as a result, are often hard to test objectively, e.g. work–life balance policy… Moreover, Governments and other institutions have policies in the form of laws, regulations, procedures, administrative actions, incentives and voluntary practices. Frequently, resource allocations mirror policy decisions.

Policy is a blueprint of the organizational activities which are repetitive/routine in nature.
In contrast, policies to assist in objective decision-making are usually operational in nature and can be objectively tested, e.g. password policy.

The term may apply to government, public sector organizations and groups, as well as individuals, Presidential executive orders, corporate privacy policies, and parliamentary rules of order are all examples of policy. Policy differs from rules or law. While the law can compel or prohibit behaviors (e.g. a law requiring the payment of taxes on income), policy merely guides actions toward those that are most likely to achieve the desired outcome.
Policy or policy study may also refer to the process of making important organizational decisions, including the identification of different alternatives such as programs or spending priorities, and choosing among them on the basis of the impact they will have. Policies can be understood as political, managerial, financial, and administrative mechanisms arranged to reach explicit goals. In public corporate finance, a critical accounting policy is a policy for a firm/company or an industry that is considered to have a notably high subjective element, and that has a material impact on the financial statements.

Education Policy:

The principles and policy decisions that influence the field of education, as well as the collection of laws and rules that govern the operation of education systems.Education governance may be shared between the local, state, and federal government at varying levels. Some analysts see education policy in terms of social engineering.

Education takes place in many forms for many purposes through many institutions. Examples of such educational institutions may include early childhood education centers, kindergarten to 12th grade schools, two- and four-year colleges or universities, graduate and professional education institutes, adult-education establishments, and job-training schemes. The educational goals of these institutions influence education policy.[3] Furthermore, these education policies can affect the education people engage in at all ages.

Examples of areas subject to debate in education policy, specifically from the field of schools, include school size, class size, school choice, school privatization, police in schools, tracking, teacher selection, education and certification, teacher pay, teaching methods, curricular content, graduation requirements, school-infrastructure investment, and the values that schools are expected to uphold and model.


A purposeful activity directed at achieving certain aims, such as transmitting knowledge or fostering skills and character traits. These aims may include the development of understanding, rationality, kindness, and honesty. Various researchers emphasize the role of critical thinking in order to distinguish education from indoctrination. Some theorists require that education results in an improvement of the student while others prefer a value-neutral definition of the term. In a slightly different sense, education may also refer, not to the process, but to the product of this process: the mental states and dispositions possessed by educated people. Education originated as the transmission of cultural heritage from one generation to the next. Today, educational goals increasingly encompass new ideas such as the liberation of learners, skills needed for modern society, empathy, and complex vocational skills.

1.9 Organization of the Study

This research work is categorized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows.

  1. Chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the (overview, of the study), background to the study, statement of problem, objectives of the study, research questions, significance of the study, scope and limitation of the study, definition of terms.
  2. Chapter two encompasses the conceptual review theoretical review and empirical reviews on which the study is based.
  3. Chapter three deals on the research design and methodology adopted in the study.
  4. Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding.
  5. Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study.

Chapter Five

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

5.1 Summary of Findings

The figure 4.3 above shows the mean for the variables which ranged from 5.1960- 5.6428. The highest mean is the quality education with 5.6428, followed by political will showing 5.2636. However the lowest mean is the coordination with 5.1960. Also political will has the standard deviation of 2.06434, while coordination has 2.02342 and quality education has 2.00091. The mean scores of the variables for this sample population are considered adequate. Therefore, the data is considered reliable.

The political will has the significant effect t = 7.177 to the quality education. The finding is in line with the work of Treadway, Iyochwarter, Kucmar&Feris (2005) in their work political will, political skill and political behavior which said that there is relationship between political will and achievement of a set of political objectives.The findings isalsointenderm with the work of (Kpundah,2000 cited in Abdullai,2009. As a result the first hypothesis of the study which stated that political will has effect on quality education is supported with significant level of value p < 0.00.

The coordination has the significant effect of t = 4.222 to quality education. The finding is in line with the work of Kirzner, 1998 who observed the relationship between coordination and organizational performance. The result is also in line with Klein, 1997. As a result the hypothesis which stated that coordination influences quality education is supported also with significance level of value p < 0.00.

From the data presented above, it was discovered that lack of commitment by government and the other stakeholders led to high level of illiteracy. The country is worse hit by poverty which was attributed to poor education and illiteracy (National office of statistics, 2012). The emergence of militant group known as Boko haram was attributed to low level of literacy in both states. Therefore for quality education, governments (federal, states and local governments) and other stakeholders need to be committed towardsthe realization of the aims and objectives of basic education.

5.2 Conclusion

The problem under investigation is political will, state and funding of primary education in Nigeria, primary education being the bedrock of the educational system is beset with many problems which include inadequate budgetary allocation to educational system, lack of political will on the part of government, and unclear role and responsibility between three tiers of government in financing primary education. As a result it create problems such as pupils drop out and decrease in quality of education which is fueling insecurity of lives and properties and emergence of militant groups such as Boko Haram, Niger Delta militancy, prostitution and armed robbery and kidnapping in Nigeria.

5.3 Recommendation

Based on analysis carried out in this study, the following are recommended;

  1. The government should ensure adequate budgetary allocation to the educational sector for the implementation of educational policies. The amount allocated to the education sector should at least conform with the recommendation of UNESCO of allocating at least 26% of a country’s budget to education. Not only this, the personnel responsible for utilizing such funds should be trained to have fiscal discipline so that the funds will not be misappropriated.
  2. Professionals should be employed in the formulation of educational policies to avoid poor planning and formulation of education policies.
  3. Educational policies should be properly planned, coordinated and systematically drafted for easy implementation. Many educational policy plans crashed during implementation stage due to poor planning.
  4. The government in power should ensure to involve all educational stakeholders, especially political parties whenever they are planning to come up with educational policies. The involvement of all stakeholders and the political factors will sustain the policy whenever there is a change in government.
  5. The government should ensure that persons appointed to various education boards and councils to manage educational institutions and agencies should be of high integrity, with relevant qualifications and cognate experience. This will help to reduce poor policy formulation and implementation in Nigeria.
  6. Adequate funding: The major problem facing basic education is inadequate funding of the program, government should ensure as a matter of urgency the meeting of the UNESCO threshold of 26% budgetary allocation to education in any member country..
  7. Private partnership: As a result of the enormous amount of funds involved in education, philanthropic organizations should as a matter of urgency be involved in funding basic education in Nigeria.
  8. he relationship between the three tiers of government with respect to funding basic education should be made clear with respect to who plays what role when and how as a matter of urgency. Government should enhance the autonomy of each and every tier of government especially state –local relations. The issue of joint account should be abolished.
  9. The commission should ensure proper record keeping of the income and expenditure of the primary schools.
  10. In addition to that, government should ensure that the money meant for enhancement of primary education commission is spent judiciously in accordance to the laid down rules and regulations. This could be achieved through transparency and accountability.

How To Get The Complete Material For “Effect Of Political Instability On Students Academic Performance In Suleja Public Secondary School“

Project Material Download

5,000 - 5000

The Complete Material Will Be Sent to You in Just 2 Steps

Quick & Simple…

Step One Purchase

Make Payment (Through Transfer) of ₦5,000 to Any of the Account Below

Access Bank Plc Acc No: 0811003731
Samphina Academy
Current Account
Zenith Bank Acc No: 1225513212
Samphina Academy
Current Account
PalmPay Main Logo Acc No: 8143831497
Samphina Academy
Digital Account

Or CLICK HERE To Pay With Debit Card

CLICK HERE To Purchase Material ($20)
Make Payment of 100 GHS to 0553978005 | Douglas Osabutey | MTN MoMo

Step Two Purchase

Send the Following Details on WhatsApp ( 08143831497) After Payment

  1. Payment Details

  2. TOPIC: Effect Of Political Instability On Students Academic Performance In Suleja Public Secondary School

The Complete Material Will Be Sent To You On WhatsApp After Receiving Your Details
T & C Apply

  Contact Our Help Desk

Need a Different Topic? Perform a Quick Search

List of Related Works


Samphina Academy

Samphina Academy is an Online Educational Resource Center that is aimed at providing students with quality information and materials to aid them in succeeding in their academic pursuit.