Effect Of Political Apathy On Nigeria Politics

Project and Seminar Material for Political Science

Effect Of Political Apathy On Nigeria Politics


Abstract


This study was carried out on the findings on the effect of political apathy on Nigeria politics among Oshogbo residents in Osun state. The study was carried out to determine the extent of prevalence of political apathy among Oshogbo residents in Osun state, Nigeria, identify the causes of political apathy in Osun state, Nigeria, ascertain the effects of political apathy in Nigeria. The survey design was adopted and the simple random sampling techniques were employed in this study. The population size comprised of residents of Oshogbo in Osun state. In determining the sample size, the researcher purposefully selected 147 respondents and 141 were validated. Self-constructed and validated questionnaire was used for data collection. The collected and validated questionnaires were analyzed using frequency tables, and mean scores. While the hypotheses was tested chi-square statistical tool. The result of the findings reveals that the extent of prevalence of political apathy among Oshogbo residents in Osun state, Nigeria is high. Furthermore, the study revealed that The effects of political apathy in Nigeria includes: political apathy mitigates the idea democracy, poor turnout of voters, poor leadership structure, increases corruption, conflicts, bad government. Therefore, it is recommended that there is urgent need for political education in Nigeria especially the people in the riverine and rural areas. Political education should not be limited to the school system. Both formal and informal approaches should be adopted to orientate the citizens on the need for active participation in the political system. There is the need for mass political enlightenment through the media, adult education programme and civil associations. The citizens should be conscious of the danger of their political apathy. To mention but a few.


Table of Content


Chapter One:

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3 Objective of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Research Hypothesis
  • 1.6 Significance of the Study
  • 1.7 Scope of the Study
  • 1.8 Limitation of the Study
  • 1.9 Definition of Terms
  • 1.10 Organization of the Study

Chapter Two:

Review of Literature

  • 2.1 Conceptual Framework
  • 2.2 Theoretical Framework
  • 2.3 Empirical Review

Chapter Three:

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Population of the Study
  • 3.3 Sample Size Determination
  • 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
  • 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
  • 3.6 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
  • 3.8 Validity of the Study
  • 3.9 Reliability of the Study
  • 3.10 Ethical Consideration

Chapter Four:

Data Presentation and Analysis

  • 4.1 Data Presentation
  • 4.2 Analysis of Data
  • 4.3 Answering Research Questions
  • 4.4 Test of Hypotheses

Chapter Five:

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • References
  • APPENDIX
  • QUESTIONNAIRE

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

Nigeria is a country with over 200million population and we are still facing the issues of low level of political participation across the country and this has been one of the major problems facing the Nigeria politics since it gained it independent till date. Nigeria gained its independent on the 1st of October 1960 and since then Nigeria has never recorded 95percent votes from its citizens at large. With this, there is a need to look deeply on everything that revolves around politicking in Nigeria, because it through politics that all the affairs both external and internal affairs of the country is being run and executed.

Therefore, with the situation concerning the Nigeria politics and non-participation from its citizens I was prompted to make research and write on the “EFFECT OF POLITICAL APATHY ON THE POLITICS IN NIGERIA”. Firstly looking at the word APATHY holistically and vividly, Political apathy can be described as lack of interest or apathy towards politics. It can consist of interest apathy, voter apathy, and information apathy. It can be categorized as the indifference of an individual and a lack of interest in participating in political activities. According to Lucien B. Politics Tutor “Political apathy is generated through feelings of disinterest or indifference towards politics and political activities, it includes civic responsibility, civic engagement, and participation in electoral process”.
Political apathy can come in different forms part of which includes. The citizens may refuse to register for voting, the individual may decides not to vote during elections, the people may refuse to attend political rallies, meetings and campaigns, the individual may refuse to hold political posts and party posts. All this are forms in which citizens exhibit their disinterest in politics. When we look deeply on the situation in Nigeria a lot of citizens refuses exhibit almost all the afore mentioned form of political apathy.

Moreover, the issue of political apathy can be stem from a lot of reasons which could range from ignorance or distrust of the system. There is lot of reasons why people chose not to be concerned about the political affairs in the country. High level of corruption is a basic cause of political apathy in Nigeria because there is a lot of dishonesty and fraudulent act in the system and process of Nigeria administration. Illiteracy and ignorance among majority of the citizens in Nigeria is also one of the causes of political apathy, a lot of citizens lacks political education and liberation thereby seeing political activities as dirty game and time wasting. High level of insecurity across voting centers is also a major cause of political apathy, for example according voanews.com “Nigeria election officials say they have recorded at least 42 attacks on its facilities since 2019 poll”. This particular issue is also one of the factors of buttressing political apathy in Nigeria. Another leading cause of political apathy is poverty, the high level of poverty among Nigeria citizens is making them lost interest in politics, there is an adage that states “An hungry man is an angry man”, there is no way you can persuade an hungry man into politicking because is mentality will be different from other people in the society until he get something in his stomach

Strategies to eradicate political apathy in Nigeria The level of political apathy in Nigeria has shown that there is a need to deploy some certain up in order to ensure smooth running of politics.

Activation of electoral laws in the country is one of the key strategies to eradicate political apathy from the country. Nigeria does not need a National Conference to deliberate on new Electoral Act. They are in existence already all what the government needs to do is to implement it efficiently and effectively. If all the prohibited conducts which Y on the electoral process are effectively checkmated by relevant bodies with relevant electoral laws, electoral violence will be a thing of the past and political apathy will decline considerably. Public enlightment is one of the basic strategies to eradicate political apathy in Nigeria because if the public are enlightened on their basic political rights and responsibilities there will be room for public participation politics. Also the government of Nigeria should try as much as possible be transparent with the citizen because failure to be transparent can make people lost the trust they have on the government. The government of Nigeria can make use of the mass media to educate and inculcate political norms in the minds of Nigerian because the media serves as information pipe that brings government activities to door steps or ears of the people.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

The effectiveness of any democratic governance is to a large extent Premised on popular participation in the political process and Activities surrounding political decisions. Contrarily the Experience in Nigeria shows that most registered and eligible voters Do not see the issue of actively participating in all political activities Before, during and after elections as important. As a result, many Researchers have at various times in the past, conducted both theoretical and empirical studies on the possible causal factors responsible for the deep rooted and pervasive political apathy demonstrated by the majority of Nigerians. For example, the Independent National Electoral Commission (INEC, 2011) reported that the actions of politicians are a major causative factor of political apathy among the voting population in Nigeria. Agu, Okeke and Idike (2013) in their study on voter apathy revealed that political apathy can be correlated with the age, occupation and gender of the voters. Also, Idike (2014) blamed political parties and its key players (politicians) in Nigeria as the major cause of political apathy among the voting populace. However, Nuka, Kia and Nwibor (2015) argued that politically-induced violence is a major challenge inhibiting citizens’ popular participation in politics. While it can be acknowledged that some empirical studies have been carried out in this area of research interest, there seem to be some research gaps arising from these previous studies, especially in terms of research locale, respondents and the instruments for data collection. In filling part of this research gap therefore, this study examines the effect of political apathy on Nigeria politics.


1.3 Purpose of the Study

The major purpose of the study was to examine the effect of political apathy on Nigeria politics. Specifically, the study sought to:

  1. Determine the extent of prevalence of political apathy among Oshogbo residents in Osun state, Nigeria.
  2. Identify the causes of political apathy in Osun state, Nigeria.
  3. Ascertain the effects of political apathy in Nigeria.

1.4 Research Questions

These research questions will be answered in this study:

  1. What is the extent of prevalence of political apathy among Oshogbo residents in Osun state, Nigeria?
  2. What are the causes of political apathy in Osun state, Nigeria?
  3. What are the effects of political apathy in Nigeria?

1.5 Research Hypotheses

The following hypothesis will be tested in this study:

Ho: The prevalence of political apathy in Osun State is low.

Ha: The prevalence of political apathy in Osun State is high.


1.6 Significance of the Study

This study (Effect of political apathy on politics in Nigeria) will be a tremendous benefits to the male and female resident of Oshogbo Osun state in sensitizing their political perception and mentality. It will help expose the people to their right and obligations in the process of steering the affairs of the country at large. This study would also help to ensure popular participation among the residents of Oshogbo Osun state so as to facilitate an effective and collective governing.

This study would also widen the political horizon of the people, eradication of bad governance and promotion of good governance in the country.


1.7 Scope of the Study

This study focuses on the effect of political apathy on Nigeria politics. Specifically, it focuses on determining the extent of prevalence of political apathy among Oshogbo residents in Osun state, Nigeria, determining whether poverty influences political apathy among Oshogbo residents in Osun state, Nigeria, determining whether violence influences political apathy among Oshogbo residents in Osun state, Nigeria, determining whether education influences political apathy among Oshogbo residents in Osun state, Nigeria and determining whether voters fatigue influences political apathy among Oshogbo residents in Osun state, Nigeria.


1.8 Limitations of the Study

In the course of carrying out this study, the researcher experienced some constraints, which included time constraints, financial constraints, language barriers, and the attitude of the respondents. However, the researcher were able to manage these just to ensure the success of this study.

Moreover, the case study method utilized in the study posed some challenges to the investigator including the possibility of biases and poor judgment of issues. However, the investigator relied on respect for the general principles of procedures, justice, fairness, objectivity in observation and recording, and weighing of evidence to overcome the challenges.


1.9 Definition of Terms

1. Political Apathy:

Political apathy can be defined as the situation whereby the citizens of a particular country have no interest in the political affairs of the country. It is the act of disinterest and ignorance towards politics or other political affairs by the residents of a state.

2. Effects:

Effect can be define as a change which is a result or consequences of an action or other cause.

3. Politics:

The activities associated with the governance of a country or area, especially the debate between parties having power.


1.10 Organization of the Studies

The study is categorized into five chapters. The first chapter presents the background of the study, statement of the problem, objective of the study, research questions and hypothesis, the significance of the study, scope/limitations of the study, and definition of terms. The chapter two covers the review of literature with emphasis on conceptual framework, theoretical framework, and empirical review. Likewise, the chapter three which is the research methodology, specifically covers the research design, population of the study, sample size determination, sample size, and selection technique and procedure, research instrument and administration, method of data collection, method of data analysis, validity and reliability of the study, and ethical consideration. The second to last chapter being the chapter four presents the data presentation and analysis, while the last chapter(chapter five) contains the summary, conclusion and recommendation.


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations:

5.1 Introduction

This chapter summarizes the findings on the effect of political apathy on Nigeria politics among Oshogbo residents in Osun state. The chapter consists of summary of the study, conclusions, and recommendations.


5.2 Summary of the Study

In this study, our focus was to examine the effect of political apathy on Nigeria politicsamong Oshogbo residents in Osun state. The study specifically was aimed at to determine the extent of prevalence of political apathy among Oshogbo residents in Osun state, Nigeria, identify the causes of political apathy in Osun state, Nigeria, ascertain the effects of political apathy in Nigeria.

The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 141 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondents areresidents of Oshogbo in Osun state.


5.3 Conclusions

Based on the findings of this study, the researcher made the following conclusion.

  1. The extent of prevalence of political apathy among Oshogbo residents in Osun state, Nigeria is high.
  2. The causes of political apathy in Osun state, Nigeria includes: educational background, nature of jobs, political violence, dishonesty of politicians, government not providing basic amenities.
  3. The effects of political apathy in Nigeria includes: political apathy mitigates the idea democracy, poor turnout of voters, poor leadership structure, increases corruption, conflicts, bad government.

5.4 Recommendations

Based on the findings of the study, the following recommendations are proffered.

  1. There is urgent need for political education in Nigeria especially the people in the riverine and rural areas. Political education should not be limited to the school system. Both formal and informal approaches should be adopted to orientate the citizens on the need for active participation in the political system. There is the need for mass political enlightenment through the media, adult education programme and civil associations. The citizens should be conscious of the danger of their political apathy.
  2. The Independent National Electoral Commission should put in place machinery that will ensure mass participation of the electorates during future elections in Nigeria. INEC should be more transparent and impartial at every stage of the electioneering process. The electoral process should be devoid of sentiment, favoritism, fraud, violence and intimidation. Anyone who violates electoral procedure and policies should immediately be brought to book.
  3. Political class must not see public office as avenue of siphoning public fund. Public offices should be used to serve the people. Also, government should increase their involvement in the rural development. In this regard, provision of basic amenities such as roads, electricity, pipe-borne water, schools etc should be vigorously pursued. This will make life very easy for the rural dwellers and increase their participation in the business of politics. Invariably, this will help to install sanity and confidence in the electoral process and thereby enhance political participation in the rural areas and communities.

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