Effect Of Peer Group And Parental Socio-Economic Background On Career Choice Of Business Education Undergraduate In College Of Education In Lagos State

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Effect Of Peer Group And Parental Socio-Economic Background On Career Choice Of Business Education Undergraduate In College Of Education In Lagos State


Abstract


This study was carried out on the effect of peer group and parental socio-economic background on career choice of business education undergraduate in college of education in Lagos state. The survey design was adopted and the simple random sampling techniques were employed in this study. The population size comprised of business education undergraduate in college of education in Lagos state. In determining the sample size, the researcher purposefully selected 160 respondents and 141 were validated. Self-constructed and validated questionnaire was used for data collection. The collected and validated questionnaires were analyzed using frequency tables. While the hypotheses were tested using Pearson correlation statistical tool, SPSS v23. The result of the findings reveals that peer group and parental socioeconomic background has a significant effect on career choice of business education undergraduate in college of education in Lagos state. Furthermore, the study revealed that there is a positive relationship between peer group and career choice of business education undergraduate in college of education in Lagos state. Therefore, parents should cautiously avoid the tendency of pushing their children into pursuing those ‘wishful heights’ in their careers that they were unable to attain in a bid to accomplish their ‘own failings’. And school heads should collaborate with counselling unit in schools to organise career workshops for students about how to deal with the negative influence of peers on their career aspirations. To mention but a few.


Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

In our society today, students face a complex and rapidly changing society. It has been reported that regardless of great effort put forth by families, government agencies and non-government agencies, many young people encounter difficulties in the transition from the world of school to that of work (Atchoarena cited in Pilot & Regis, 2012). Investigating and better understanding the myriad factors that contribute to career choice is a topic of recurring interest in our schools today. To guide students in their career decision making, diverse factors play a central role in this lifelong process (Pilot & Regis, 2012). These factors include family background, school, career guidance program, media, peers etc.

According to Zunker,(2006) career is the totality of work one experiences in a lifetime. It is a chosen pursuit, life work, success in one’s profession (Oladele, 2000). Career has also been seen by Okobiah and Okorodudu (2004) as a variety of work and non-work situations which usually span through the entire life of an individual. Thus, career is generally related to a pattern of decisions, transactions and adjustments which affects one’s role of work, education, family, community development and leisure. However, The choice of career is a delicate issue that requires caution and serious considerations (Salami & Salami, 2013). This is because the kind of career that young people pursue can affect their lives in many ways. Career choice can influence how much education the individual will have and also determine the amount of income the individual will earn. Students have to make due career planning and also do exhaustive career research before making a career choice so as to adjust with the evolving socio-economic conditions in society (Wattles, 2009). This implies that information is highly important in career choice. According to Salami and Salami (2013), students should be thinking about career choices in senior high school. It is therefore at this level that students develop aspirations for specific careers. However, just as noted earlier, pear influence was among the many factors which affects the career choice of young people. According to Salvy, Haye, Bowker, and Hermans (2012), peers are great sources of motivation for one another. Lifelong friendships are formed at school and peers have been known to stand up for one another sometimes even more than siblings. They assist one another with school work and also become mentors to one another in their personal lives (Salvy et al., 2012). Very often, one finds that some students pursue some courses just because their friends are doing same. Such students sometimes find it difficult to perform well because they do not have an interest in the course. Adolescents choose friends who have characteristics or talents that they admire, which motivates them to achieve and act as their friends do. Friends encourage adolescents to study hard at school and can also help them think more creatively (Brown & Barbosa, 2009). This is true but it becomes a problem when the talent or interest of the student does not lie entirely in that of his friend.

On the other hand, parental socioeconomic condition has also been found as a strong determinant of young peoples’ career choice. According to K.A. Mezieobi & T.M. Opara (2017), and other scholars, socio-economic status is the economic and sociological aspect of men, combined total measure of a person work experience, the individual’s or family’s economy, and social position relative to others. It is based on income, education, and occupation of the household (Benson & Borman,2010; Durmaz & Taşdemir, 2014; and Mezieobi & Opara, 2017).Socio-economic status entails the economic standing of the parents in the society. There are three levels of socioeconomic status, which are high socioeconomic status; these are the one who are in the upper echelon of the society, middle socio-economic status are those in the middle rank of the society, while the lower socio-economic status are those in the lower echelon of the society (Musterd et al., 2015; Salami, 2016; and Chen et al., 2018). In the light of these, Kazi & A. Akhlaq (2017), identified educational level of parents, their profession, and income as factors affecting the career choice of students. According to L.O. Adegboyega (2017), factors influencing career choice can either be intrinsic or extrinsic or both. Hewitt (2010), further stated that most young adults are influenced by careers that their parental background favour; others follow the careers that their educational opportunities have opened for them. Some individuals’ career choices are also influenced by the significant others through social support from peers. Thus, from the above, this study seeks to determine the effect of peer group and parental socio-economic background on career choice of business education undergraduate in college of education in Lagos state.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

Career decisions tend to pose problem for students in the contemporary society, since it determines the kind of profession that they intend to pursue in life. That is why it is not uncommon for students to get into careers that are not quite suitable to their abilities. Parental socioeconomic status on the other hand, tends to be one of the most influential factor in students career choice. More often than not, parents owing to socioeconomic level or personal idea tend to put pressure on their wards into taking up family occupations and other careers such as prestigious jobs e.g. Medicine, Engineering, Law and so on, even when they do not possess requisite abilities. As a result of these pressure from parents, the students may end up being dissatisfied, frustrated and unable to be effective on the said job that parents had chosen for them. But, an individual who has chosen career that he/she prefers may derive satisfaction and fulfillment in life and therefore contribute meaningfully towards national development.

In addition to these, Peer influence cannot be underestimated as it was found to be influential in career choices. Faiter and Faiter (2013) and Alika (2010) in America; Abbasi and Sarwat (2014) and Edwards and Quinter (2011) in Nigeria; Shumba and Naong (2012) in South Africa; and Kimiti and Mwova (2012) in Kenya found that students were influenced by their peers in a variety of ways, such as peer counselling, peer interaction, peer advice and peer relationships. Peer counselling is a way of relating, responding and helping, which is aimed at exploring feelings, thoughts and concerns with the hope of reaching a clear understanding (Odirile, 2012). In schools, peer counselling is a phenomenon that was established to help students in schools solve problems (Bett, 2013). Salvy, Haye, Bowker, and Hermans (2012), claimed that peers are great sources of influence to career choice among young adults. Lifelong friendships are formed at school and peers have been known to stand up for one another sometimes even more thansiblings. Hence peer group and parental influence are sources of pressures which induce the young adults into pre-determined career, sometimes with little or no considerations on the potentials, actual needs and ego of the child.Career choices are decisions that should be carefully made because it affects the entire life of the individual; hence it is necessary that a study such as this should be carried out in order to study the relationship between peer group, parent socioeconomic background and career choice among business education undergraduate in college of education in Lagos state.


1.3 Objectives of the Study

The overall aim of this study is to critically examine the effect of peer group and parental socio-economic background on career choice of business education undergraduate in college of education in Lagos state. Hence, the study will be channeled to the following specific objectives;

  1. Determine whether peer group has a significant effect on career choice of business education undergraduate in college of education in Lagos state.
  2. Determine whether parental socio-economic background has a significant effect on career choice of business education undergraduate in college of education in Lagos state.
  3. Determine whether there is a positive relationship between peer group and career choice of business education undergraduate in college of education in Lagos state.
  4. Determine whether there is a positive relationship between parental socio-economic background and career choice of business education undergraduate in college of education in Lagos state.

1.3 Research Question

The study will be guided by the following questions;

  1. Does peer group have a significant effect on career choice of business education undergraduate in college of education in Lagos state?
  2. Does parental socio-economic background has a significant effect on career choice of business education undergraduate in college of education in Lagos state?
  3. Is there any positive relationship between peer group and career choice of business education undergraduate in college of education in Lagos state?
  4. Is there any positive relationship between parental socio-economic background and career choice of business education undergraduate in college of education in Lagos state?

1.4 Research Hypothesis

The study will validate the following statements;

  • H01: There is no positive relationship between peer group and career choice of business education undergraduate in college of education in Lagos state.
  • H02: There is no positive relationship between parental socio-economic background and career choice of business education undergraduate in college of education in Lagos state.

1.6 Significance of the Study

The study seeks to assist the educators and educational institutions to have a better understanding of their students on the impact of influences from parents and peers in making career choice. It is also hoped that findings from the study will help the institutions and related bodies to develop a better plan that can guide and expose undergraduates to understand their profession clearly. The study will also educate parents on their role in guiding their children and wards in choosing a career for themselves. The study will also serve as a theoretical basis for future researcher that will be carrying out research around the research domain. Lastly, the study is a requirement for the award of degree in this great institution of higher learning (University of Lagos).


1.7 Scope of the Study

This study is structured to cover the effect of peer group and parental socio-economic background on career choice of business education undergraduate in college of education in Lagos state. The respondents will therefore be obtained from the business education students of the selected college.


1.8 Limitation of the Study

Like in every human endeavour, the researcher encountered slight constraints while carrying out the study. Insufficient funds tend to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature, or information and in the process of data collection, which is why the researcher resorted to a limited choice of sample size. More so, the researcher simultaneously engaged in this study with other academic work. As a result, the amount of time spent on research will be reduced.

Moreover, the case study method utilized in the study posed some challenges to the investigator including the possibility of biases and poor judgment of issues. However, the investigator relied on respect for the general principles of procedures, justice, fairness, objectivity in observation and recording, and weighing of evidence to overcome the challenges.


1.9 Definition of Terms

It is pragmatically essential to exegesis on the various operational definitions of major

Career:

This refers to what one does for a living, that is source of livelihood, occupation or profession.

Career Choice:

Career choice is the occupation or professional path that an individual chooses.

Peers:

Peers are one’s age mates, class mates or friends.

Peer Group:

This refers to the age group to which a student or an individual belong

Parent:

Father and mother of the individual student.

Socio-Economic Background:

This refers to the social and economic class or level to which a family belongs in the society. In any society, this could be high, middle class or lower class.


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations:

5.1 Introduction

This chapter summarizes the findings into the effect of peer group and parental socio-economic background on career choice of business education undergraduate in college of education in Lagos state. The chapter consists of summary of the study, conclusions, and recommendations.


5.2 Summary of the Study

In this study, our focus was to examine the effect of peer group and parental socio-economic background on career choice of business education undergraduate in college of education in Lagos state. The study specifically was aimed at determining whether peer group has a significant effect on career choice of business education undergraduate in college of education in Lagos state; whether parental socio-economic background has a significant effect on career choice of business education undergraduate in college of education in Lagos state; whether there is a positive relationship between peer group and career choice of business education undergraduate in college of education in Lagos state; and whether there is a positive relationship between parental socio-economic background and career choice of business education undergraduate in college of education in Lagos state

The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 141 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondents are business education undergraduate in college of education in Lagos state.


5.3 Conclusions

Based on the findings of this study, the researcher made the following conclusion.

  1. Peer group has a significant effect on career choice of business education undergraduate in college of education in Lagos state.
  2. Parental socio-economic background has a significant effect on career choice of business education undergraduate in college of education in Lagos state.
  3. There is a positive relationship between peer group and career choice of business education undergraduate in college of education in Lagos state.
  4. There is a positive relationship between parental socio-economic background and career choice of business education undergraduate in college of education in Lagos state.

5.4 Recommendations

Based on the findings of the study, the following recommendations are proffered.

  1. School heads should collaborate with counselling unit in schools to organise career workshops for students about how to deal with the negative influence of peers on their career aspirations. This is important because peers were found to be a major factor influencing the career aspirations of students. Thus, empowering students to be able to take their own career decisions and not following their peers out of naivety.
  2. Parents should cautiously avoid the tendency of pushing their children into pursuing those ‘wishful heights’ in their careers that they were unable to attain in a bid to accomplish their ‘own failings’.
  3. School counsellors together with teachers should show interest in the career aspirations of students. They ought to continually assist students who may have career decision issues.
  4. Parents should employ the assistance of professional career counsellors in helping their children to make intelligent career decisions in line with their aptitude and abilities.
  5. School counsellors should interact with parents so as to avoid forcing careers on their children but encourage their children to pursue careers that align with their wards interests. This can help students to be more productive in their academic work hence their total development.

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