Effect Of Pause On Instructional Strategy On The Learning Outcomes Of S.S.2 Students On Grammar Lesson

Project and Seminar Material for English Education

Effect Of Pause On Instructional Strategy On The Learning Outcomes Of S.S.2 Students On Grammar Lesson


Abstract


The study investigated the effect of pause on instructional strategy on the learning outcomes OF S.S.2 students on grammar lesson. This study became necessary because of the unavailability of instructional materials for teaching grammar lesson in the secondary schools. The study employed a quasi experimental design, specifically the pretest-posttest non equivalent group design. One hundred students from comprised of male and female randomly selected from the senior secondary one students. The one hundred students shall be up of (50) fifty male and female students for sample of the study. The experts validated the instrument grammar lesson Achievement Test (BAT). Three research questions were answered and two hypotheses were tested. The data were analyzed using mean, standard deviation. The results revealed that students taught using instructional strategy materials performed better than students taught using conventional material; male students did not perform better than their female counterparts in grammar lesson; rural students performed better than urban students in grammar lesson; The results do not suggest ordinal interaction effects between mode of method and gender on students’ achievement in grammar lesson. This was because at all the levels of gender, the mean scores were higher for student’s improvised demonstration instructional material strategy; the result suggests ordinal interaction effects between modes of method and location on students’ achievement in grammar lesson; this was because at all the levels of location, the mean scores were higher for student’s improvised instructional material compared to conventional materials with lower mean scores; there was significant difference in the mean score of students taught using students improvised instructional material and those taught using conventional instructional materials; there was no significant difference in the mean achievement scores of male and female students in grammar lesson; there was significant difference in the mean achievement scores of urban and rural students in grammar lesson; The interaction effect of method and gender on students mean achievement scores in grammar lesson was, not statistically significant. The interaction effect of method and location on students’ mean achievement scores in grammar lesson was, not statistically significant. Based on the findings and implications, it was recommended that teaching of grammar lesson in secondary school should be conducted in a manner that students will effectively understand and learn the concept taught. It was suggested that further research could be carried out on this topic using true experimental research design.


Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background to the Problem

Education is the process of facilitating learning, or the acquisition of knowledge, skills, values, beliefs and habits. (Wikipedia May 6, 2017).

To know the definition and understanding of scientific education, it is useful to listen to some experts’ opinion as stated below; According to John (2017)Education is a process of renewal of the meaning of experience; it will occur in the ordinary intercourse or association with young adults, may also occur accidentally and instituted for to produce social sustainability, This process involves the supervision and development of the immature and the group in which he lives.

According to Home (2010), education is a continuous process of a higher adjustment for human beings who have evolved physically and mentally, which is free and conscious of God, as manifested in nature around the intellectual, emotional and humanity of man.

According to Donald (2016) education is a process or activity aimed at changing habits. The meaning of any responses is one’s deeds, something done by someone.

According to Langeveld (2017): education is every interaction that occurs in any association; that occurs between adults and children, (what- education.blogspot.com, May 6, 2017).

Western or formal education started in Nigeria in 1842 only at the primary level by the Christian missionaries who managed the educational system according to their respective philosophies. The missionary organizations available then were the Chord missionary society, the Wesleyan Methodist, and the Catholic.

Secondary education was established in 1859 and the first secondary school was CMS Grammar school, Lagos. The reason behind the delay of secondary schools was not well known. Though, there are insinuations that it was because the missionaries thought that secondary education can induce some critical thinking in people, which may not be helpful for their policies. During this period, the British colonial government could not interfere in the education system due to some political and financial factors. But in 1872, they started to intervene in the education system by giving donations to the missionary societies to support education. In 1882, the colonial government brought a document- Education ordinance, with the aim of having total control on education. This was their first formal pronouncement in education in Nigeria. Schools were classified then into Government and private school.

The government schools were financed entirely through public funds but the private only receive little aid from public fund. The 1882 education ordinance was cumbersome to implement in Nigeria because the curriculum, the method, and the medium of communication was too foreign for a Nigerian child. All these led to the failure of the ordinance and another ordinance was provided in 1887. The new ordinance was seen as the first effective effort made by the colonial government to aid education. Though, only some metropolises in Lagos were covered then. More foreign teachers were employed, more schools were established and financial encouragements were given to the missions, voluntary agencies a private individuals to establish more schools.

After the amalgamation, Lord Fredrick Lugard, the then Governor General of Nigeria, set up some new ideas. These ideas from major part of 1916 ordinance. The ordinance came into existence exactly on 21st of December, 1916. Since the ordinance took place after amalgamation, it was able to take care of the country as a whole. The northerners had for long been resisting the intrusion of western education either from the colonial government or the missionaries. Lugard met with leaders from the north to convince them that the education will not affect the Islamic tradition which is more paramount to the northerners.

After 73 years from the date of establishment of the first secondary school, the first higher education institution was established in 1932. The first institution was the Yaba Higher College. The college was established in 1932, but commenced studies inl934. In 1948, The University College Ibadan was created, starting with just 104 students. The number of universities rose from one to five in 1962. And in the 1970s and 1980s, an appreciable number of higher institutions were established. Statistics show that, in 1980, the number of students that gained admission into primary school was about 12 million, 1.2 million for secondary school, and 240,000 at the university level.

Today, western education has suffered many damages. The standard of education that the schools were known for is no more. Nigerian university graduates lack the proper knowledge and skills to acquire employment. Measures must be put in place for Nigerian education to attain its past glory. (www.nigerianfinder.com, May 10, 2017).

The importance of education are so numerous, just to mention a few;

  1. Education is used to mitigate most of the challenges that is faced in life
  2. The knowledge that is attained through education helps open doors to a lot of opportunities for better prospects in career growth.
  3. Education produces citizens who are men of intellectual and moral integrity, who mare neither fanatical nor cynical, but are public spirited, tolerant and wise.
  4. Education promotes national interest.
  5. Education is the backbone of developing countries.
  6. Educated people promote equality of opportunity in moral, spiritual and ethical values.
  7. Education helps to keep up with evolutions
  8. Education exposes individual to the world and its constituents.
  9. Education promotes healthy living
  10. Education leads to economic growth, (listsurge.com, September 1, 2015).

Science is the concerted human effort to understand, or to understand better, the history of the natural world and how the natural world works, with observable physical evidence as the basis of that understanding, (www.gly.uga.edu, May 10, 2017).

  1. Science made it possible for horrible diseases to be cured or prevented entirely and it can still provide hope for those with as yet incurable diseases.
  2. Science made it possible that People who love each other can talk to each other whenever they want no matter how far apart they are in the world.
  3. Because of science we don’t have to take someone’s word for something, we can test for claims.
  4. Science is the only reliable way to figure things out in a world that is so seldom fair and impartial
  5. Science makes us feel big and special for understanding the age of the earth, the nature of stars and the size of the universe, even if those things dwarf us. (www.mikebrotherton.com April 30, 2016).

Grammar lesson is the study of life and living things through rigorously-tested and peer- reviewed scientific research methods.

Grammar lesson has evolved as a field of science since it was first studied in ancient civilizations, although modern grammar lesson is a relatively recent field.

Science is a process that requires the testing of ideas using evidence gathered from the natural world. Science is iterative in nature and involves critical thinking, careful data collection, rigorous peer review, and the communication of results. Science also refers to the body of knowledge produced by scientific investigation.
grammar lesson is a natural science concerned with the study of life and living organisms. Modern grammar lesson is a vast and eclectic field composed of many specialized disciplines that study the structure, function, growth, distribution, evolution, or other features of living organisms. However, despite the broad scope of grammar lesson, there are certain general and unifying concepts that govern all study and research:

Biological research indicates the first forms of life on Earth were microorganisms that existed for billions of years before the evolution of larger organisms. The mammals, birds, and flowers so familiar to us are all relatively recent, originating within the last 200 million years. Modern-appearing humans, Homo sapiens, are a relatively new species, having inhabited this planet for only the last 200,000 years (approximately). Stromatolites, sedimentary accretions formed by the actions of cyanobacteria, provide fossil evidence of life on Earth about 3.5 billion years ago.

Although modern grammar lesson is a relatively recent development, sciences related to and included within it have been studied since ancient times. Natural philosophy was studied as early as the ancient civilizations of Mesopotamia, Egypt, the Indian subcontinent, and China. However, the origins of modern grammar lesson and its approach to the study of nature are most often traced back to ancient Greece. (grammar lesson is derived from the Greek word “bio” meaning “life” and the suffix “ology” meaning “study of.”).

Advances in microscopy also had a profound impact on biological thinking. In the early 19th century, a number of biologists pointed to the central importance of the cell and in 1838, Schleiden and Schwann began promoting the now universal ideas of the cell theory. Jean-Baptiste Lamarck was the first to present a coherent theory of evolution, although it was the British naturalist Charles Darwin who spread the theory of natural selection throughout the scientific community. In 1953, the discovery of the double helical structure of DNA marked the transition to the era of molecular genetics, (www.boundless.com, April 14, 2018).

The basis of our very origin and existence on earth lies within the depths of the biological sciences, (www.anor a.com, May 11, 2018).

  1. Grammar lesson provides an in-depth, scientific understanding of how all living and non living organisms interact with each other.
  2. It explains the changes of human bodies.
  3. It shapes different careers.
  4. It provides answers to large scale problems.
  5. It helps in giving answers to the fundamental questions about life

Instruction is vital for education, as it is the transfer of learning from one person to another. Any time you are given directions or told how to do something you are receiving instruction. The noun instruction is related to the word structure; both share the latin root structus, ‘built.’ (http://www.vocabulary.com. May 11, 2018).

Instructional strategies are techniques teachers use to help students become independent, strategic learners. These strategies become learning strategies when students independently select the appropriate ones and use them effectively to accomplish tasks or meet goals, (http://education.alberta.ca, June 7, 2016).

There are several instructional strategies but this research is primarily on demonstration strategy.

Demonstration involves showing by reason or proof, explaining or making clear by use of examples or experiments. Demonstration simply means “to clearly show”. (Wikipedia April 30, 2018).

It is a teaching method that allows students to see the teacher actively engaged as a learner and a model rather than merely telling them what they need to know. The teacher performs the experiment before the class and simultaneously explains what he/she is doing. She/he also asks relevant questions to maintain the interest and attention of students. The students are compelled to observe carefully because they have to describe each and every step of the experiment accurately and draw conclusion. (sonamedn205.blogspGt.com.ng, May 7, 2018).

Some of the importance of demonstration instructional strategy are;

  1. To stimulate interest in a particular topic.
  2. To illustrate points efficiently.
  3. To provide a change of pace.
  4. Lack of equipment by the school for individual students.
  5. Saves time as compared to individual experiments.

1.2 Statement of the Problem

The poor achievement of students in grammar lesson has been associated with the use of poor methods of teaching, lack of interest and sometimes influence of gender. In view of these, researchers in science education have continually sought for better teaching methods that will enhance students’ achievement, promote their interest and bridge the gender gap in male and female students, achievement and interest in grammar lesson. Opara (2011) noted that demonstrational teaching when fostered in different ways (demonstrated or undemonstrated) can ultimately and positively affects students understanding, achievement and interest in grammar lesson. Some other researchers have also suggested using different forms of inquiry in teaching. The problem of this study the effect of demonstrational instructional strategy is which method of inquiry (demonstrated or undemonstrated) when fostered by teachers would enhance students, academic achievement and promote interest in senior secondary school grammar lesson. These as follows:

  1. Not a direct hands on experience for student unless being led step by step.
  2. Students may not have an equal view of demonstration, so many may miss an aspect of demonstration.
  3. Not all students will be able to follow single paced demonstration.
  4. Poor performance public examination
  5. Lack of self reliant
  6. Inability to apply concept/skills
  7. Learnt in class to real life situation lack of interest/communication/concentration on their studies especially in grammar lesson.

1.3 Purpose of the Study

The general purpose of the study is to investigate the effect of pause on instructional strategy on the learning outcomes of s.s.2 students on grammar lesson. While the specific objectives are as follows:

  1. To investigate the effect of instructional strategy on students academic achievement in senior secondary school grammar lesson in Gwagwalada Area Council.
  2. To investigate the effect of instructional strategy on students’ academic achievement due to gender.

1.4 Research Questions

This research is guided by the following questions for which answers shall be provided in the research as follows:

  1. What is the impact of instructional strategy on students academic achievement?
  2. Is instructional strategy gender bias?

1.5 Research Hypothesis

  1. There is no significant difference between the academic achievement of students who are taught grammar lesson using instructional strategy and those taught with conventional method.
  2. There is no significant difference between the academic achievement of male and female students who are taught grammar lesson with instructional strategy.

1.6 Significance of Study

There are different methods of teaching or instructing, some have better improvements on the performance of students just as students of different locality comprehend differently. In an environment where the wrong strategy of teaching is used, the students’ performance will be low.

This study will really be of help to the educational system as it will reveal the effects of strategy on student’s performance.


1.7 Scope of Study

This study covers the secondary school students who offer grammar lesson as a subject in Gwagwalada Area Council.


1.8 Limitation of the Study

The researcher encountered problems during the course of carrying out this research; such problems were as a result of selected respondents who refused to accept and participate and also encountered difficulty in acquiring relevant materials and items. The attitude of selected subjects to fill the questionnaire to time so as not to delay the result of the research also posed a problem. However, the researcher appealed to the participants through persuasive means.


1.9 Conceptual Definition of Terms

According to oxford advanced learner’s dictionary;

Amalgamation:

Means “to put two or more things together so that they form one”

Curriculum:

Means “the subjects that are included in a course of study or taught in a school”

Paramount:

Means “more important than anything else”

Cumbersome:

Means “large and heavy; difficult to carry”

Civilization:

Means “state of human society that is very developed and organized”

Rigorously-Tested:

Means “tested carefully and with a lot of attention”

Seldom:

Means “not often”.

DNA:

Means “the chemicals in the cells of animals and plants that carry genetic information”

Bias:

Means “a strong feeling in favor of or against one group of people, often not based on fair judgment”.

Peer-review:

Is “the evaluation of work by one or more people of similar competence to the producers of the work.” (Wikipedia.org, May 14, 2017).

Iterative:

Is “the act of repeating a process, either to generate an unbounded sequence of outcomes, or with the aim of approaching a desired goal, target or result”.


Chapter Five


5.0 Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations

5.1 Introduction

This research has investigated into the effect of pause on instructional strategy on the learning outcomes of s.s.2 students on grammar lesson. Analyzed the hypotheses will be analyzed using t-test were used as instrument for data collection, while analyzed count was used for presentation result. Based on this, summary, recommendations, suggestion for further study and conclusion, limitations of the study and suggestions are presented in this chapter.


5.2 Summary

The study investigated the effect of pause on instructional strategy on the learning outcomes of s.s.2 students on grammar lesson. The research questions and null hypotheses guided the study. The study employed a non-equivalent quasi-experimental research design. The sample for the study comprised 50 male and 50 female students in Senior Secondary school in Gwagwalada Area Council FCT Abuja The instrument for procedure for data collection in this study is grammar lesson Achievement Test (BAT). Two intact classes were assigned to treatment and control group. Data were analyzed using mean, standard deviation and the Analyzed of Covariance.

The results revealed that students taught using demonstration instructional strategy performed better than students taught using conventional material; male students did not perform better than their female counterparts in grammar lesson; rural students performed better than urban students in grammar lesson; The results do not suggest ordinal the impact between mode of method and gender on students’ achievement in grammar lesson. This was because at all the levels of gender, the mean scores were higher for student’s demonstration instructional strategy material; the result suggests ordinal the impact between modes of method and location on students’ achievement in grammar lesson; this was because at all the levels of location, the mean scores were higher for student’s improvised instructional material compared to conventional materials with lower mean scores; there was significant difference in the mean score of students taught using students demonstration instructional material and those taught using conventional instructional materials; there was no significant difference in the mean achievement scores of male and female students in grammar lesson; there was significant difference in the mean achievement scores of urban and rural students in grammar lesson; To demonstration the impact of method and gender on students mean achievement scores in grammar lesson was, therefore, not statistically significant. They demonstration and the impact of method and location on students’ mean achievement scores in grammar lesson was, therefore, not statistically significant.

Based on the findings and implications, it was recommended that teaching of grammar lesson in secondary school should be conducted in a manner that students will effectively understand and learn the concept taught. It should be practical as the use of demonstration instructional strategy has play greater role in students’ achievement; Teacher should try to demonstration instructional strategy in materials and encourage students to do the same. This will gives students enough understanding of grammar lesson concepts as the child’s local environment will be use to source for the materials; There should be cordial relationship between policy makers and schools for the provision of the essential materials as resource materials, like laboratory, glass wares, reagents, microscope, burner, etc; and at the local education authority level, effort should be made from time to time to organize workshops for grammar lesson teachers on improvisation and needs for the use of instructional materials in teaching and learning. This is to compliment the efforts of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) for re-training of Science teachers. It was suggested that further research can be carried out on this topic using true experimental researchdesign.


5.3 Conclusion

From the results obtained in the study on the impact of demonstration instructional strategy on student’s academic achievement grammar lesson in, it was found that students taught grammar lesson using improvised instructional materials performed better than students taught using conventional material; male students did not perform better than their female counterparts in grammar lesson; rural students performed better than urban students in grammar lesson; The results do not suggest ordinal interaction impact between mode of method and gender on students’ achievement in grammar lesson. This was because at all the levels of gender, the mean scores were higher for student’s improvised demonstration instructional material; the result suggests ordinal interaction effects between modes of method and location on students’ achievement in grammar lesson; this was because at all the levels of location, the mean scores were higher for student’s improvised demonstration instructional strategy material compared to conventional materials with lower mean scores; there was significant difference in the mean score of students taught using students improvised demonstration instructional strategy material and those taught using conventional instructional materials; there was no significant difference in the mean achievement scores of male and female students in grammar lesson; there was significant difference in the mean achievement scores of urban and rural students in grammar lesson; The interaction the impact of method and gender on students mean achievement scores in grammar lesson was, therefore, not statistically significant. The interaction the impact of method and location on students’ mean achievement scores in grammar lesson was, therefore, not statistically significant.


5.4 Recommendations

Based on the findings of this study, and their demonstrations, the following recommendations are made.

  1. The teaching of grammar lesson in secondary school should be conducted in a manner that students will effectively understand and learn the concept taught. It should be practical as the use of demonstration instructional strategy has play greater role in students’ achievement in grammar lesson.
  2. Teacher should try to demonstration instructional strategy and encourage students to do the same. This will gives students enough understanding of grammar lesson concepts as the child’s local environment will be use to source for the materials.
  3. There should be cordial relationship between policy makers and schools for the provision of essential resource materials, like laboratory, glass wares, reagents, microscope, burner, etc.
  4. It is suggested that regular meaningful workshop on improvisation technique for Science teachers should be conducted to improve and update their competence in teaching.
  5. At the local education authority level, effort should be made from time to time to organize workshops for grammar lesson teachers on improvisation and needs for the use of instructional materials. This is to compliment the efforts of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) for re-training of Science teacher.

5.5 Limitations of the Study

The generalizations made with respect to this study are however subject to the following limitations:

  1. Since different teachers were used for different groups, it could be assumed that they might not have been of equal attributes in terms of cognitive, personality and affective functioning. This might have introduced error in the study.
  2. There was also the problem of absenteeism among the students. The fact that some students skipped classes may have influenced their performance.
  3. The study is only restricted to only SSI students in secondary schools in Gwagwalada Area Council. This will make the scope of generalizations fairly narrow.

5.6 Suggestions for Further Study

Based on the findings and limitations of this research, the following topics are suggested for further research.

  1. Similar studies should be conducted in grammar lesson to find out the impact of demonstration instructional strategy on student’s academic achievement in grammar lesson among varied ability levels and the irretention.
  2. Similar study should be carried out using other science subjects.

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