The Effect Of Parents Motivation On The Academic Performance Of Secondary School Students
Education is a key factor to the development of any nation in the world. It has been the intension of the government that all KCPE candidates join secondary schools. Since 2003, the government has been providing funds to all secondary schools to promote access and education standards in all parts of the country. However, quite a number of secondary schools have been performing poorly in KCPE. In Yaba, L.G.A, the average KCPE performance in 2011 was 222.5 marks. The problem is that parents seem to have a lot of influence in students’ academic performance in secondary schools. The study was guided by the general system theory which is based on the work of a biologist Ludwing van Bartalanify and social system theory. The purpose of the study was to investigate the parental motivation on academic performance in secondary schools in Yaba, L.G.A. The objectives of the study were therefore to establish parental roles, parental economic factors, cultural practices and parental background influencing academic performance in secondary schools in Yaba, L.G.A. A descriptive survey was used in the study. The target population was 40 secondary schools. There were 8 secondary schools headed by female teachers and 32 secondary schools headed by male teachers. The 25% used to select both female and male head teachers would match with that used to determine the sample size. The two secondary schools headed by female teachers and the eight secondary schools headed by male teachers were selected among 8 and 32 secondary schools respectively by systematic (or interval) sampling. The district had 800 teachers with an average of 20 teachers per school. There were 2960 standard 8 students with an average of 74 students per school. Purposive sampling was used to select the head teacher in each sampled secondary school. The researcher selected 20% of both teachers (4) and standard 8 students (14). Different questionnaires were administered to the head teachers, teachers and standard 8 students. The researcher administered the questionnaires personally after piloting. The instruments were piloted in two secondary schools to test degree of their reliability using test re-test method. The two secondary schools used in the piloting were not included in the actual study. After the quantitative data was collected, it was analyzed using descriptive statistics and presented in tables. The following were the findings of the study: There are parental roles which affect the academic performance of students. Also, economic factors and cultural practices among parents adversely affect academic performance. Parental back ground also affects students’ academic performance. In conclusion, parental roles like meeting attendance, disciplining students, control of absenteeism, cultivation of respect for teachers and parents being role models have not been played well by parents. These affect academic performance of students. Economic factors like ability to pay fees, ability to supplement reading materials by parents, presence of child labour at home and provision of basic needs to students affect academic performance. Cultural practices like FGM, early marriages and attitude towards education also affect academic performance. The back ground of parents also affects the academic performance. The following recommendations were made: Parents should always discourage absenteeism of students from school, respect for teachers should be cultivated by parents to enhance learning, parents should be educated on the need to create a conducive home environment for their children and students should not be abused at home to promote learning.
1.1 Background of the Study
Education is the best legacy parents can give to their children. The development of the nation starts from the family. When the family succeeds in teaching and impacting good values in their children, the country becomes a better place to live. It is generally believed that the basis for any true development must commence with the development of human resource. Formal education is the demonstration of such desires to effectively and efficiently build a sound and strong economy. Numerous factors have been identified in various research studies to be responsible for the continuous declining of our educational system. Various factors such as classroom size, poor teacher-student ratio, in-adequate instructional materials, attitude of teachers towards work and lack of seriousness in part of students.
With the availability of more qualified teachers, improved technology and facilities for teaching and learning, educational system in Nigeria is still losing it values.Motivation for this study is based on the fact that some students are exceptionally good in their work, while some extremely bad. When such variations in scores are traced it is more often discovered that family background is a major contributory factor. It is therefore important that the levels of such contributions and the influence they have on children be examined so that useful suggestions to parents, teachers, educational planners and government could be made.
Orhungur (2010) asserts that the cultural background of the family is determined to a large extent by its socio-economic background. As the child grows up moves out to the interest wider society his/her interaction with it and perception of it are largely determined from her earlier, experiences at home. The family setting and its socializing influence mould the personality of the child. Nigeria, for instance is a society with diverse ethnic groups with various cultural background in areas like family size, occupation and in extreme cases, religion. These factors pose their own restrictions on educational upbringing of children. The social sitting or mode of settlement of the family and extended family system may equally influence the academic performance of a child and by extension, their educational upbringing. Motivation is most need in order to perform more efficiently in their area of endeavor. When certain factors are eminent in a child’s family background, it is clear that the child will be motivated and driven towards high academic goal.
Denga (2006) in Eyake (2007) advised that praises, incentives, recommendations and other forms of reward system should be employed as motivational factors to stimulate students to higher achievements. It is likely that the much a child achieves during his school days is largely dependent on the kind of family to which he/ she belongs. For instance, a child whose parents take a great deal of interest in what he/ she does at school and give him / her necessary support by providing all the required books and finances needed has a great advantage over a child whose parents do not give him this kind of incentives and encouragements. More so, students’ attitudes to learning and educational performances are shaped by the kind of stimuli offered to them by their various environments.
This can be considered in terms of the type of family, the home, parental social orientation, educational level, occupation to mention but a few. It is therefore, evident that students’ performance is contingent on the stimulus the home offers.Educational upbringing is not unconnected with the family influence of a child. Individual members of the family serve as a model to the child as he/ she copies from each of them. Eyake (2007) quoted. Adeyemo (2007) if the house fails to provide the child with the necessary equipments to fit him/ her into his proper place in the society and guided properly for his/ her future career, then the child is damaged. An analysis of the percentage of secondary school dropout today entails that such students are usually from broken homes, wiring polygamous family or with other socially related problems.
The agrarian and large families have accounted for the polygamous life of people. The large the size of the family, the more economic and other social responsibilities the parents bring upon themselves. And more often than not, the educational performance of students from such family suffer serious setback. This is because such parents might not be able to afford the cost funding education for the children.Other factors may affect the education performance of students like separation on grounds of different working station, divorce or even natural death can bring adverse effect on the growth and development of a child.
Furthermore, economic position of parents is one of major factors that can influence greatly the educational upbringing of a child. In most families, either or none of parents may be earning income sufficient enough to sustain the family, faced with malnutrition and other emotional and psychological effects, the mental development of the child would be greatly retarded. Orhunger (2005) adds that a low income family with plenty of feeding problems may produce children who physical and mental development poses real challenges to the schools effort at optimum development of the child.
In the contemporary world, improvement in pupil’s/students’ academic performance is recognized as the foremost objectives of education. Educational activities are regarded towards ensuring that student achieve mastery of educational goals. In ensuring that every child partake in schooling,, the National Policy on education enacted a law that primary educations should be tuition free, universal and compulsory (be that as it was, when a child leaves school intermittently, it could be that the parent motivation on the academic performance of the child is lag and lacking (Ugochi, 2014), and as such the parent must endeavor to motivate the child so as to enhance and boost his/her academic weakness.
According to Muola (2010), student who are motivated are likely to perform well in their examination. Salvin (2006) cited in Ugochi (2014) posited that motivation is what get one going, and determine where one is to go. It is something which prompt, compel, and energizes an individual to act or behave in a particular manner at a particular time attaining some specific goal or purpose.Based on this, motivation could be seen as the force that initiate guide and maintains goal-oriented behavior such as learning, in order to achieve academically. Motivation is crucial to students’ academic success at any age because children form self-concept, values and belief about their abilities at a young age and the development of early academic motivation has significant implication for later academic performance and career (Slavin, 2006).
In school both intrinsic and extrinsic motivation has been found to be indispensible in children’s’ academic performance (Mangal, 2008). Students’ academic motivation is manifested in different motivational level which could be high, moderate or low. A high motivated student tend to be more hyper-active in learning and over anxious in the learning environment; low motivated students could be disruptive, and as a result is more likely to perform poorly which may lead to truancy and school dropout. Moderate increase in motivation gives moderate increase in performance, keep the students preserving on a task until some result is achieved (Ngwoke, 2004).
Academic performance of students is of utmost importance to parents, educators, concerned Nigerians and government. Academic performance simple refers to as accomplishing what ever academic goals one set for him/herself. Thus, Davidson institute (2004) sees academic achievement which refers to as a measure of quality of success one has in the mastery of knowledge, skills & understanding. It is also the attainment of a standard excellence (Umeano 2010). Academic performance is the extent to which students make success in academic work. Answer Corporation (2010) defined academic performance as the degree or extent of acquiring excellence in the academic towards achieving academic achievement. Academic performance cannot be divorced from academic achievement as they are both entwined and intertwined which can hardly be separated from each other.
From all said, it has been shown by various studies that most of the students who are successful, great achievers, and well adjust came from the families where sustaining, wholesome relationship and parental care and motivation towards the child’s academic performance exist. This study is tend to show the implication of parents motivation and how it has a derivative effect on the academic excellence, performance and achievement of the student.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
The academic performance of secondary school students in recent time has been a source of concern to all. Parents, teachers, counsellors etc. have expressed considerable concern about the deteriorating student’s performance. This poor academic performance of pupils has continue to raise its ugly head despite the measure put in place by the Federal Government in ensuring effective teaching and learning. Common concern and complain of Secondary School teachers have been on poor academic performance and low attention span arising from a steady decline on students motivation and interactive learning. As a result, Secondary School students get involved in problem behavior such as dropping out of school, truancy, bully and social receptiveness.
These disruptive behavior are traceable to what transpires between the parents and their children at home. Thus, It seems that parent-child relation are faulty and that the parent give no damn on the academic status and performance of the students which has extensively cripple the students’ academic performance and even lead to loss of self-concept. The parents motivation both intrinsic and extrinsic on the student academic were lost and lust.
The gap in performance between students and academic excellence constitute a great source of worry and serious concern as well as discomfiture to both parents, schools mangers, policy makers and various governments responsible for the education of students’ in secondary school schools. Experience has shown that among the secondary school students’ there exist some differences which influence students’ academic performance, such as some students’ being able to pay their school fees promptly, while others were often sent away for nonpayment of school fees, some students have problem with the provision of school uniform but others do not. Likewise, some students were motivated by their parents through the provision of educational materials like text books and exercise books, others were not, where as some students’ come to school properly feed, others not. One then wonders whether influence of family background had played a in these issues.
In the light of this, the main problem of this search is to find out if there exist in Lagos metropolis a relationship between socio-economic status of parents and students’ academic performance. This research work tends to proffer solution on how parents should motivate their children towards academic excellence.
1.3 Objectives of the Study
This study sought to achieve the following objectives:
- To establish the parental roles that influence academic performance in secondary school in Yaba, L.G.A.
- To establish the parental economic factors that determines the academic performance in secondary schools in Yaba, L.G.A.
- To find out the cultural practices among parents that affect academic performance in secondary schools in Yaba, L.G.A.
- To find out the influence of parental background on academic performance in secondary schools in Yaba, L.G.A.
1.4 Research Questions
The study sought to answer the following questions:
- Are there parental roles in Yaba, L.G.A that influence the academic performance in secondary schools?
- Do the parental economic factors among Yaba, L.G.A parents determine the academic performance in secondary schools?
- Do the cultural practices among Yaba, L.G.A parents affect academic performance in secondary schools?
- Does the background of the parents in Yaba, L.G.A affect academic performance in secondary schools?
1.5 Significance of the Study
The findings of the study would be useful to the stakeholders as it could help the Ministry Of Education to come up with seminars to educate the parents on their roles in promoting academic performance in secondary schools. The findings could enable the school administration to identify the cultural practices among the parents that hinder the academic success among students. As a result, students would be advised accordingly. In addition, the findings could enable the parents to see the need of meeting the basic needs of their children and develop positive attitude towards education.
1.6 Scope of the Study
The study will analyze the effect of parent’s motivation on the academic performance of Secondary School students in Yaba, LGA, Lagos State. The study is limited to some selected Secondary Schools in the area but being mindful that the selected schools cut across all categories of schools-private and public.
1.7 Limitations of the Study
The respondents in the study sample constituted the head teachers, teachers and standard eight students only leaving out other stake holders like the SMC, P.T.A, community leaders and DEO office. The study also limited itself to one district due to time. In addition, the study limited itself to a few secondary schools in the district.
1.8 Operational Definition of Key Terms
Issues related to the customs and beliefs of a community
Issues related to situation which leads to ability or inability to acquire basic needs due to lack of funds
To have an effect on performance such as examinations
The duty of a parent
Ability of a student to get marks in an examination that will enable him join secondary school
The level of education attained by parents and other experiences that can affect child’s learning at home
1.9 Organization of Study
The study is divided into five chapters. Chapter one deals with the study’s introduction and gives a background to the study. Chapter two reviews related and relevant literature. The chapter three gives the research methodology while the chapter four gives the study’s analysis and interpretation of data. The study concludes with chapter five which deals on the summary, conclusion and recommendation.
Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations
This chapter gives a summary of findings, conclusion and recommendations drawn from the findings in connection with parental motivation on academic performance in secondary schools in Yaba, L.G.A, Lagos state.
The study findings from the analyzed data were presented under themes derived from the research questions of the study.
The following were the research questions of the study:
- What are the parental roles that influence the academic performance in secondary schools in Yaba, L.G.A?
- What are the parental economic factors that determine the academic performance in secondary schools in Yaba, L.G.A?
- Are there some cultural practices among parents that affect academic performance in secondary schools in Yaba, L.G.A?
- Does the parental background affect academic performance in secondary schools in Yaba, L.G.A?
The collected data was analyzed and then results interpreted as well as discussed. The study revealed that there are parental roles that influence academic performance in secondary schools. It was the view of most head teachers that parents attend school meetings but they only play a little role in the discipline of their children. In addition, head teachers were of the opinion that parents play a little role in discouraging absenteeism. Only a few head teacher confirmed that parents do well in discouraging absenteeism. A good number of the head teachers felt that parents cultivated a little respect for teachers while other parents do nothing. Majority of the head teachers were of the view that parents played a little role as role models while some could not be role models among their children. Only a few parents could be role models to their children. Most teachers felt that parents did not cultivate respect for teachers at all but a few were putting a little effort. Very few parents cultivate respect for teachers. Most standard 8 students acknowledged that their parents were not good role models.
It was evident from the study findings that most head teachers confirmed that parents paid examination fees well. They felt that parents rarely supplemented reading materials to their children at home except a few who put a little effort. A few of the parents were however doing well in supplementing reading materials to their children. Majority of the teachers felt that students were abused at home through child labour except a few who had a contrary opinion. According to the students, most parents did not provide enough basic needs.
The findings also confirmed that cultural practices affect academic performance in secondary schools. Most head teachers felt that parents put a little effort to discourage FGM while a few were discouraging it. Most head teachers also felt that parents were not doing anything to discourage early marriages. Also most head teachers felt that parents put a little effort in enforcing a positive attitude towards education but a few do nothing. Majority of the teachers felt that parents were putting a little effort to discourage early marriages while a few were of the view that parents did nothing. In their response, most standard 8 students confirmed that cultural practices hindered their academic performance.
The study findings also confirmed that parental back ground affects academic performance of students. Most head teachers felt that due to their back ground, parents offer a little motivation to their children. Only a few parents do well in motivating their children. Other parents still do nothing to motivate their children. The head teachers also confirmed that parents only do a little to provide lighting/space for their children at home. Quite a good number of the head teachers still felt that parents did not bother. Very few headteachers felt that parents were doing well in provision of lighting and space to their children. Most teachers felt that parents put a little effort in provision of conducive home environment for their children but a few felt that parents do nothing. Teachers also felt that parents did not provide school support as expected except very few who paid fee in good time. According to the standard 8 students ,parents sometimes provided reading materials. Some parents still did not provide reading materials at home while a few parents normally provided reading materials to their children at home. Majority of the standard 8 students confirmed that parents did not encourage them to learn.
From the study findings, it was confirmed that there are some parental roles that affect academic performance among the students. The attendance of school meetings by the parents, disciplining and discouraging absenteeism among students by the parents are some of the roles. Parents also need to cultivate respect for teachers by being good role models to students. All the headteachers confirmed that parental roles affect the academic performance of students. Also, all teachers acknowledged that there are parental factors which influence academic performance. It was also apparent from the study that there are some parental economic factors that determine academic performance among students. The ability of the parents to pay examination fees and supplement reading materials are some of these factors. Also, child labour and provision of basic needs by the parents are other parental economic factors. Headteachers felt the parents were not able to supplement reading materials. Teachers acknowledged that child labour practiced at home determine academic performance. Students acknowledged that parents did not provide basic needs to support their education.
Some cultural practices affect academic performance among the students. The FGM, early marriages and attitude towards education are some of these cultural practices. Both head teachers and teachers confirmed that FGM affects academic performance while students confirmed the existence of the practice in the community. Also, both head teachers and teachers acknowledged that early marriages affect academic performance. According to the head teachers, parents did not do enough to enforce a positive attitude towards education. Most head teachers (60%) felt that parents did a little to motivate their children. Only a few of the head teachers felt that parents did well to motivate students. They also felt that students were not provided with lighting or space at home. Teachers (80%) also felt that parents did a little to provide a conducive environment at home. They also felt that parents did not provide school support as expected. Most standard 8 students felt that they did not get encouragement from their parents to learn. However, most students felt that parents sometimes provided reading materials while other students felt they were not provided.
Based on the research findings the following recommendations were made.
- Parents should always discourage absenteeism of their children from school. They should work with class teachers to curb the situation.
- Respect for teachers should be cultivated by the parents to enhance learning in school among students. During parents meeting parents should be educated on the need for students to respect their teachers.
- Parents should be educated on the need to create a conducive home environment for their children. Any academic performance is related to the Childs home environment in addition to that of the school.
- Students should not be overworked at home in order to promote learning. This will enable them to complete the assignment in good time.
5.5 Suggestions for Further Study
Based on the findings, the researcher suggested the following studies:
- A similar study be carried out in the whole of Lagos state in order to get more reliable information on parental motivation on academic performance.
- A study on effects of staffing in secondary school on academic performance can be done.
- A study on effects of socio- economic status of parents on students’ academic
performance can be carried out.
- A study on effects of availability of local brew on academic performance in secondary schools can be carried out.
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Frequently Asked Questions
Does Teacher’s motivation affect performance of secondary school students?
This research was carried at in three schools under Agbado, Ifo District of Ogun State to actually known the extent in which teacher’s motivation goes in affecting the performance of secondary school students.
What is the relationship between motivation and academic performance?
Moderate increase in motivation gives moderate increase in performance, keep the students preserving on a task until some result is achieved (Ngwoke, 2004). Academic performance of students is of utmost importance to parents, educators, concerned Nigerians and government.
Does the parent-child relationship affect the academic performance of the students?
It seems that parent-child relation are faulty and that the parent give no damn on the academic status and performance of the students which has extensively cripple the students’ academic performance and even lead to loss of self-concept. The parents motivation both intrinsic and extrinsic on the student academic were lost and lust.
Does motivation matter for student achievement?
The results of the random effect model showed that motivation has a low-level positive effect on student achievement. The moderators identified for the study were the publication type , publication year , school subject , country (culture) and sample group were found to be moderator variables.