Effect Of Parental Socioeconomic Factors On Children’s Access To Secondary Education

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Effect Of Parental Socioeconomic Factors On Children’s Access To Secondary Education

Chapter One


1.1 Background to the Study

Education instills ideals, trains instincts, and fosters the correct attitude and habits in addition to providing information and abilities. They believe that cultural legacy and values are passed down from generation to generation through education, according to Muhammed (2010). It is always the parents’ obligation to educate their children. This is in line with sociologist’s frequent argument that education may be a tool for cultural change when it is taught at home, which is pertinent in this discussion. It’s not unreasonable to believe that a parent’s socioeconomic status has an impact on their children’s academic performance in school. Whatever influences a child’s developmental stage may have an impact on their schooling or attitude toward it (Meli, 2005). One of these criteria is parental status. When a woman’s nutritional health improves, her young children’s nutrition improves as well. “Parents from various occupational classes frequently have distinct child-rearing approaches, different ways of disciplining their children, and different reactions to their children. These distinctions do not manifest themselves in every family in the same way, but they do impact the average inclinations of families in various occupational classes.” 2004 (Rothestein). According to Hill (2004), a parent’s socioeconomic status affects not only their children’s academic performance, but also their access to good and secondary education, allowing children from low socioeconomic backgrounds to compete with their counterparts from high socioeconomic backgrounds in the same academic environment. Furthermore, Ulvund (2002) claimed that parental socioeconomic position was a strong predictor of intellectual performance at the age of eight years (SES). In a similar line, some studies hypothesized that parental SES may affect school children’s flexibility in adapting to various school schedules (Guerin, 2001). Machebe (2012), in her research, came to the similar conclusion that parents socioeconomic position might impact their children’s academic achievement at school. Oni (2007) said in a prior local study in Nigeria that there is a considerable variation in rates of deviant conduct between pupils from high and poor socioeconomic backgrounds. Another factor that can affect students’ academic performance is their health status, which can be traced back to their parents’ socioeconomic status. Adewale (2002) reported that in a rural community where nutritional status is low and health problems are common, children’s academic performance is severely hampered. This assumption is also dependent on the socioeconomic status of the parents. Furthermore, according to Eze (1996), a child’s capacity to engage with and take full use of the entire complement of resources supplied by a formal learning environment is boosted when they receive sufficient nourishment, health care, and stimulation throughout their pre-school years. Non-school factors such as parental education, child rearing practices, nutrition, health care, and pre-school education, according to the World Bank (2007), have a greater impact on children’s access to education. It also states that positive school factors such as teachers and books have a greater impact in developed countries than in developing countries. As a result, the positive effects of school inputs are often stronger in children from poorer socioeconomic backgrounds than in children from better socioeconomic backgrounds. Poverty is one of the most important factors that might affect the demand for education based on the socioeconomic level of the education system’s clients. Poor households, according to UNICEF (2004), are trapped in a poverty cycle and lack the capability and resources to buy proper and balanced meals, resulting in their inability to pay for their children’s education. As poverty levels grow, children’s labor becomes increasingly important for family survival (Abagi, 1997). In both rural and urban areas, child labor is increasingly used in household services, agriculture, and petty trade, and children themselves must consider the opportunity cost of schooling in some circumstances. As a result, parents have continued to send their children to work, primarily as domestic workers in metropolitan areas.

1.2 Statement of the Problem

It is impossible to overstate the importance of parental engagement in their children’s education. Parents have an important role in modeling their children’s behavior, enabling good communication between them and secondary school, and recognizing crucial needs in terms of their children’s academic demands (Smith, 2001). Student learning and behavior, like that of adults, is influenced by a variety of interrelated factors, some of which are internal to the learner and others which may be attributed to the environment and government laws. The purpose of schooling is to give fair access to children of school age, ensuring that all students get an education (Moest, 2003). In many underdeveloped nations, such as Nigeria, school attendance is low, and education has been considered as a precious resource (Murungi, 2006). This is primarily due to the socioeconomic status of the parents; however, the problem of low secondary education access is worth investigating because the lives of many students are at risk of being wasted; thus, the purpose of this study is to determine the impact of parents’ socioeconomic factors on their children’s secondary education access.

1.3 Objectives of the Study

The study’s primary goal is to determine the impact of parents’ socioeconomic position on their children’s access to secondary school. More specifically, the study aims to:

  1. Determine the impact of parents’ socioeconomic status on their children’s educational factors.
  2. Examine the obstacles that students in secondary schools face in their secondary education.
  3. Examine the effect of parents’ socioeconomic factors on their children’s access to secondary school.

1.4 Research Questions

  1. What are the impacts of parents’ socioeconomic status on their children’s educational factors?
  2. What are the obstacles that students in secondary schools face in their secondary education?
  3. What are the effects of parents’ socioeconomic factors on their children’s access to secondary school?

1.5 Significance of the Study

The study’s findings may be valuable to a variety of organizations, including educational authorities, parents, politicians, and policymakers, as well as the community and country as a whole. Quality assurance and standards officers will benefit from the research in order to increase student access and general education standards. The findings may be used by policymakers to develop policies that improve access rates, such as policies governing promotion from one grade to another. The data might be used by education planners to advise the government on budget allocation and essential actions to improve access in public secondary schools. The study’s conclusions may be used by all stakeholders to reduce or eliminate limited access caused by any source.

1.6 Scope of the Study

This research will be conducted in Oyo State, with the Ido LGA as the location.

1.7 Delimitation of the Study

Obtaining funding for general research activity will be difficult over the course of studies. Correspondents may also be unable or unwilling to complete or submit the questionnaires that have been sent to them. However, it is expected that these limits will be overcome by making the greatest use of existing resources and devoting more time to research than is required. As a result, it is firmly considered that, despite these constraints, their effect on this research report will be minor, allowing the study’s purpose and importance to be met.

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Frequently Asked Questions

How does socio-economic status of Parents affect child education?

Children with families where parents have less education and low socio-economic status tend to systematically perform worse than children with families where parents have more education and high socio-economic status. Income shocks do not only affect investment in children‟s education but also children‟s performance.

How does parental level of education affect students academic achievement?

Parental level of education is one of the most important variables that are directly or indirectly alter students’ academic achievement. Social and economic policies should be put in place to enable children from parents of low economic status to have equal opportunity of advancing the cause of education of their children.

How does the socio-economic status of a student affect academic achievement?

It was identified that families’ socio-economic status in one way or another affects students’ academic achievement at any level of education. Moreover, Williamson (1994) found that par- ent’s educational levels are strongly related to family income levels.

How does family education and encouragement affect student achievement?

Thus, family education and encouragement are strongly related to improve student Achievement in both sexes. Family education and socio- economic status have an impact on students’ academic Achievements at any level of education. Students with families who were both college-educated tended to achieve at the highest levels. 


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