The Effect Of Different Organic Manure On Cucumber Plant

Project and Seminar Material for Agricultural Engineering AE

The Effect Of Different Organic Manure On Cucumber Plant


Abstract


The main objective of this study is to determine the effects of the organic manure on the growth and yield of varieties of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.). The specific objectives were to: determine the physical and chemical properties of pelleted and unpelleted composted organic materials, determine the effects of pelleted and unpelleted composted organic materials on the growth and yield of three varieties of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) and evaluate the effects of unpelleted composted rice husks + poultry manure (75%:25%, v/v) rates on the growth and yield of three varieties of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.). Three experiments were undertaken at the Teaching and Research Farm of the Department of Crop Science, University of Nigeria, Nsukka. Experiment one was a laboratory analysis to determine the physical and chemical properties of pelleted and unpelleted composted organic materials. Experiment two was done in the greenhouse as a 3 × 13 factorial trial in a completely randomized design (CRD) with three replications. The treatments were three varieties of cucumber (Poinsett, Marketer and Supermarketer) and unpelleted composted rice husks (100%), unpelleted composted moringa pod husks (100%), unpelleted composted maize cobs (100%), unpelleted composted rice husks + poultry manure (75%:25%, volume to volume; v/v), unpelleted composted moringa pod husks + poultry manure (75%:25%, v/v), unpelleted composted maize cobs + poultry manure (75%:25%, v/v), pelleted composted rice husks (100%), pelleted composted moringa pod husks (100%), pelleted composted maize cobs (100%), pelleted composted rice husks + poultry manure (75%:25%, v/v), pelleted composted moringa pod husks + poultry manure (75%:25%, v/v), pelleted composted maize cobs + poultry manure (75%:25%, v/v), top soil (control). Experiment three was done in the field as a 3 × 4 factorial laid out in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replications. Twelve treatment combinations consisting of three cucumber varieties (Poinsett, Marketer and Supermarketer) and four rates (0 t ha -1, 5 t ha -1, 10 t ha -1 and 15 t ha-1) of unpelleted composted rice husks + poultry manure (75%:25%, volume to volume; v/v) were used. The physical properties of pelleted and unpelleted composted organic materials revealed that the top soil significantly (p < 0.05) gave a higher bulk density value of 1.21 g cm-3 compared with pelleted and unpelleted composted organic materials. Total porosity and available water holding capacity were significantly (p < 0.05) higher in the unpelleted composted rice husks (100%). The chemical properties showed that the organic matter content of unpelleted composted maize cobs (100%) was significantly (p < 0.05) higher with a value of 26.48% compared with pelleted composted maize cobs (100%). Total nitrogen and carbon nitrogen ratio were significantly (p < 0.05) higher in unpelleted composted rice husks + poultry manure (75%:25%, v/v). The morphological growth traits (plant height, leaf area per plant, number of internodes per plant, number of leaves per plant, internode length per plant and stem girth per plant) and yield performances (root, stem, leaf dry weight, fruit length, fruit width, fruit girth, number of fruits per plant and total fresh fruit weight) of the three varieties of cucumber grown in soil amended with unpelleted composted rice husks + poultry (75%:25%, v/v) had significantly (p < 0.05) the highest values compared with the other treatments. The highest application rate of 15 t ha-1 gave significantly (p < 0.05) the highest values of total nitrogen (1.36%), available phosphorus (80.36 ppm), organic carbon (4.10%), organic matter content (7.07%), exchangeable potassium (0.38 meq/100 g), exchangeable calcium (5.80 meq/100 g) and exchangeable magnesium (4.30 meq/100 g) compared with the other rates. The correlation coefficient (r = 0.995**) between soil organic carbon and exchangeable calcium was the highest and the least was the association (r = 0.473) between exchangeable potassium and exchangeable magnesium.


Chapter One


Introduction

Background to the study

One of the aboitic challenges facing crop production in the Tropics is the inherent low concentration of essential nutrients in the soil for crop growth and development (Schlecht et al., 2007). Essential nutrients are those nutrients which are required by plants to complete their life cycle such as Nitrogen (N), phosphorous (P), potassium (K) often referred to as primary nutrients, calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg) and sulphur (S) called secondary nutrients and Boron (B), Chlorine (Cl), copper(Cu), manganese (Mn), Iron (Fe), molybdenum (Mb) and Zinc (Zn) called micronutrients (Barker and Pilbeam, 2007). These nutrients can be provided to the soil through the use of fertilizers. Fertilizer can be in organic or inorganic form. The use of inorganic fertilizers has not been helpful as it is associated with increased soil acidity, leaching and nutrient imbalance (Schlecht et al., 2007). According to Ayoola and Makinde (2006) inorganic fertilizers are usually not available and are always rather expensive for the low-income, small scale farmers. Organic manure such as cow-dung, poultry manure, swine waste, sewage sludge, crop residue can be used as an alternative for inorganic fertilizer. The nutrient contained in organic manure is released more slowly and are stored for a long time. Manure application also increase soil porosity and aggregate stability, promotes soil water infiltration and holding capacity, elevates soil organic matter content, soil pH, cation exchange capacity and nutrient availability (Powell et al., 1996; 1999;Powell and Unger, 1998).

However, the main defect in the use of organic nutrient source in crop production is the limited supply (amount) and bulkiness of organic materials. Composting is a management practice to improve manure efficiency or quality. Well managed compost has good agronomic properties such as good water holding capacity, light weight, small particle size. It is cheap and can easily supply nutrients to the crop (Miller and Norman, 1992).

Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) is a vegetable crop eaten by most families in the Tropics. It is one of the most popular members of the Cucurbitaceae (vine crop) family. It is cultivated for fresh fruit which is locally consumed or exported to increase national income. The crop is cultivated in most parts of Northern Nigeria and some parts of Eastern Nigeria by peaseant farmers who lack information on some important cultural practices (Ekwu et al., 2007). Cucumber is a vital ingredient in vegetable salad in human nutrition. The fruit varies in shape, size and color. On analysis, mature fruit nutrient composition is 3.8 g dry matter, 0.6 g protein, 2.0 mg calcium, 0.4 mg riboflavin, 0.2 mg niacin and 11 mg vitamin. The fruit also serves as remedy in the treatment of constipation, jaundice and indigestion (Chadha, 2006).


Statement of Problem

The production of this crop(cucumber) requires soil with high levels of organic matter content that can provide the essential nutrients and conditions needed for crop growth and development. There is paucity of information on the use of pelleted and unpelleted composted organic materials for the production of cucumber crop


Objective of the Study

The main objective of this study is to determine the effects of organic manure on the growth and yield of varieties of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.

The specific objectives of this work is to:

  1. Determine the physical and chemical properties ofpelleted and unpelleted composted organic materials
  2. Determine the effects of pelleted and unpelleted composted organic materials on the growth and yield of three varieties of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.)
  3. Evaluate the effects of unpelleted composted rice husks + poultry manure (75%:25%,v/v) rates on the growth and yield of three varieties of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.)

Research Questions

  1. What are physical and chemical properties of pelleted and unpelleted composted organic materials?
  2. What are the effects of pelleted and unpelleted composted organic materials on the growth and yield of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.)?

Research Hypotheses

  1. Ho: physical and chemical properties of pelleted and unpelleted composted organic materials affects the growth of cucumber
  2. H1: physical and chemical properties of pelleted and unpelleted composted organic materials does not affect the growth of cucumber

Significance of the Study

This study will aid the study and understanding of the subject matter as it will improve the effect of organic manure on the growth of cucumber


Scope / Limitation of the Study

The study will cover the nssuka area of enugu state Nigeria. Just like every other research finance and time was a limiting factor.

Also acquiring of material/tools for the research was also another challenge encountered by the research


Definition of Terms

Manure is organic matter, mostly derived from animal feces except in the case of green manure, which can be used as organic fertilizer in agriculture. Manures contribute to the fertility of the soil by adding organic matter and nutrients, such as nitrogen, that are utilised by bacteria, fungi and other organisms in the soil. Higher organisms then feed on the fungi and bacteria in a chain of life that comprises the soil food web

Organic manure are fertilizers derived from animal matter, animal excreta (manure), human excreta, and vegetable matter (e.g. compost and crop residues).[1] Naturally occurring organic fertilizers include animal wastes from meat processing, peat, manure, slurry, and guano

Pellet:

A small, rounded, compressed mass of a substance

Cucumber:

A Long, thin, pale green vegetable with dark green skin, usually eaten uncooked in salads


Chapter Five


Conclusion

The physical and chemical properties of the pelleted and unpelleted composted organic materials revealed significant (p < 0.05) variations. The pelleted composted organic materials were significantly (p < 0.05) higher in bulk density and lower in total porosity and available water holding capacity. The highest bulk density value was observed in the topsoil treatment followed by pelleted composted maize cobs + poultry manure (75%:25%, v/v). Unpelleted composted organic materials were significantly (p < 0.05) higher in total porosity and available water capacity and lower in bulk density. The highest total porosity and available water holding capacity was observed in unpelleted composted rice husks (100%, v/v).The growth traits (plant height, leaf area per plant, number of internodes per plant, number of leaves per plant, internode length per plant and stem girth per plant) and yield performances (root, stem, leaf dry weight, fruit length, fruit width, fruit girth, number of fruits per plant and total fresh fruit weight) of the three varieties of cucumber grown in soil amended with unpelleted composted rice husks + poultry (75%:25%, v/v) had significantly (p < 0.05) the highest values compared with the other treatments. This placed unpelleted composted rice husks + poultry (75%:25%, v/v) as the best amendment for the cultivation of cucumber in the greenhouse.

The responses of the three varieties of cucumber (Poinsett, Marketer and Supermarketer) to different rates of unpelleted composted rice husks + poultry manure (75%:25%, v/v) in the field showed that the growth traits(plant height, leaf area per plant, number of internodes per plant, number of leaves per plant, internode length per plant and stem girth per plant) and yield performances (root, stem, leaf dry weight, fruit length, fruit width, fruit girth, number of fruits per plant and total fresh fruit weight) were significantly (p < 0.05) increased with the application of the different rates of unpelleted composted rice husks + poultry manure. Thus the highest rate(15 t ha-1)gave the highest values of the growth traits and yield parameters in the three varieties of cucumber.This place 15 t ha-1 of unpelleted composted rice husks + poultry manure (75%:25%, v/v) as the most satisfactory rate of application for cucumber production in the field.Although little above this rate could be recommended in the field to help combat losses of nutrients by volatilization into the atmosphere and leaching into rivers and streams.

The correlative responses of the yield components of cucumber in the field gave a strong positive significant (p < 0.01) association. Fruit length could determine total fresh fruit weight. Leaf dry weight could determine root dry weight. Supermarketer vegetative growth trait and yield parameter was found to be the best, followed by Marketer and then Poinsettboth at the greenhouse and at the field experiment respectively.


The Effect Of Different Organic Manure On Cucumber Plant


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