Effect Of Sprouting On The Proximate Composition And Thickening Properties Of The Two Varieties Of Cocoyam, “Ede Ocha” (Xanthosoma Sagittifolium) And “Ede Ofe” (Colocasia Esculenta)
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I wholeheartedly dedicate this work to God Almighty for life, His grace, protection and for giving me the aspiration and inspiration to accomplish this project work, and my parents, Mr and Mrs Donatus .O. Okafor, for this unconditional love and good counseling.
This research work has been made possible by the Grace of Almighty God my redeemer and inspirer I would like to sincerely thank my supervisor who is also my H.O.D, Dr Living Stone O. Eke- whose immerse and fatherly guidance was prominent throughout this work. He opened my eyes to the virtue in hardwork and without him this report would have been ordinary .
This work would not have been a success if not for the useful contributions made by lecturers, Rev Uneanya G. Chioma, Mrs Duru faustina , Mr Tega, Mr Promise, Engr Jerry, Engr. Arinze and others , whom I have passed through their studies and lectures.
My profound gratitude goes to my parents . Mr and Mrs Donatus O. Okafor, my siblings Ebuka, Chigozie, Chidera, and Kelechukwu for their love , support and encouragement . My sincere gratitude also goes to my very good friends Ebere, Emeka, Bethel , Amara and may others . I cannot forget to appreciate Mr Irokwe for his immense contributions .My collegues and neighbours, you all are wonderful.
The study was conducted to evaluate the effect of sprouting on the proximate composition and thickening (functional) properties of two varieties of cocoyam “ede ocha” (Xanthosoma sagittifolium) and “ede ofe” (Colocasia esculenta). The two varieties were processed using standard methods and the nutritional and thickening properties analyzed. The result obtained was further subjected to statistical analysis (standard deviation and ANOVA).
The result of the analysis revealed that in “ede ocha”, sprouting significantly (p<0.05) decreased moisture content (from 23.51- 11.77%), fibre (2.2- 1.85%), protein (12.01- 7.85) and bulk density (0.59 – 0.53 %) while it significantly (p<0.05) increased ash (1.78- 2.08%), fat (0.91- 0.98%), CHO (59.6-75%), WAC (1.96- 2.91%) and OAC (1.61- 1.86%).
Whereas, in “ede ofe”, sprouting significantly (p<0.05) decreased moisture content (from 13.64- 10.57%), fibre (2.55- 3.2%) and CHO (70.41- 68.48%), while it significantly (p<0.05) increased ash (3.38- 4.27%) and fat (3.39- 3.85%). It was further observed that sprouting did not cause any change in bulk density of “ede ofe”. There is increase (71– 780C and 16- 17secs) in “ede ocha” and decrease (69- 680C and 15- 14secs) in “ede ofe” in terms of gelatinization temperature and wettability respectively as a result of sprouting but not significantly.
Significant (p<0.05) increase (from 1.6- 1.87v/v) and (2.69- 2.78v/v) in swelling index was also recorded in “ede ocha” and “ede ofe”respectively as a result of sprouting. This result therefore, indicated that sprouting improved the proximate composition as well as the functional properties of two varieties of cocoyam flour.
Cocoyam (Xanthosoma sagittofolium and Colocasia esculenta) are tropical root and tuber crops largely produced for its underground corms which belongs the family Aracea family. It is grown and produced in Nigeria and in many other parts of the tropical and subtropical areas of the world.
(Aboubakar et al ., 2008).
The estimated world production of cocoyam is placed at 5.5 million tonnes annually with Ghana and Nigeria being considered as the world leading producers. (Sefa Dedeh and Ayir sackey, 2004).
Cocoyam corms and cormels are usually eaten boiled , roasted, pounded and sometimes mixed with other staples such as yam, cassava or plantain .
(Ihekoronye and Ngoddy, 1985).
Cocoyam is nutritionally superior to other roots and tubers in terms of digestibility crude protein and minerals such as Ca, Mg and P (Chukwu et al., 2008). Protein and fat content of cocoyam are low but it is high in carbohydrates, fibre and minerals (Del Rosario and Lorenz, 1999).
Even though cocoyam is not an industrial crop , its starch has numerous applications for use in several food products due to its small particle size which offers improved binding and may offer additional health promoting benefit . It is widely used as soup thickener and usually pounded to a soft dough known as utara ede in south eastern Nigeria, (Ihekoronye and Ngoddy, 1985).
One of the problem facing cocoyam is post harvest storage. Cocoyams can be best stored in cool dry ventilated surrounding and the best temperature for prolong storage is about 70C storage at lower temperature leads to death of buds and decay of the corns within two months while storage at higher temperature such as 15-230C is not satisfactory for long periods . In some communities in south east Nigeria, cocoyams are stored by being buried under the earth in a cool environment or swamp and this storage of cocoyams under earth in a cool dry ventilated surrounding or swamp result in the sprouting of the corms at the availability of some level of moisture(Onwueme and Charles,1994).
Sprouting is characterized by increase in enzymatic activities which results to breakdown of macromolecules and mobilization of reserves from the corm to the growing shoot. The desirable nutritional change that occur during sprouting are mainly due to the breakdown of complex compounds into a more simple form, transformation into essential constituents and breakdown of nutritionally undesirable constituents. ( Chavan and Kadam, 1 989).
The thickening property of cocoyam is affected by varieties of different factors like sprouting, however, the level of its efficacy maybe influenced by some factors such as; the soil type, special type, process conditions, innate properties of the food in which it is used as an additive, in all the different ways that cocoyams are being consumed traditionally whether by boiling, pounding as a soup thickener etc. softening of the cocoyam tuber when cooked is a critical factor which is used to determine its degree of doneness. (Onwueme and Charles, 1994).
Successful performance of flours as food ingredients depend the functional characteristics and sensory qualities they impart to the end product. (Kaur and Singh,2007). The functional properties of flour are provided not only by proteins, but also by the complex carbohydrates and other components such as pectins and mucilages (Kaur and Singh,2005).
Millions of people consume cocoyam yearly but do not sprout it, few people that does, do not know the effect ,thus, this research work tend will serve to educate people more on the reason why they should sprout their cocoyam before consumption and its economic value so that the society at large will not only focus on its thickening property but also on its good materials and health benefits.
Cocoyams have a short-shelf life because of their high moisture content and start rotting as early as 2 weeks post-harvesting, thus, this research work tend to minimize tuber losses by converting them from perishable to non perishable through food processing operations and one of the best ways to preserve them is by processing them into flour and starch. Thickening power is desired as well as the small particle size in being useful for bread or noodle production.
Sprouting has been observed to improve the thickening properties of cocoyam and its utilization, sprouting equally reduces the anti-nutritional factor present in cocoyam. It also reduces the carbohydrate the carbohydrate content of cocoyam which when too much can increase the blood sugar level and finally sprouting increases fibre content of cocoyam.
The high viscosity of cocoyam starches makes them very useful in food applications where high thickening power is desired as well as the small particle size being useful for bread or noodle production (Aprianita et al., 2009).
Aim And Objectives
This research work is aimed at studying the effect of sprouting on the proximate composition thickening properties of two varieties of cocoyam.
The objectives of this work is:
- To determine the proximate composition of two varieties of sprout and unsprouted cocoyam.
- To determine the thickening properties of two varieties of cocoyam.
- To know the effect of sprouting on the two varieties of cocoyam.
- To produce cocoyam flour.
- To help in promoting the utilization of sprout cocoyam and its flours.
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How to nail it on the head during your project defence
You are through with writing that project. Now what?
You have found yourself at that point where you have to defend what you have written. Of course you have to stand in front of your supervisor and other literary personalities to prove that you know what you wrote in your project paper. Unfortunately, the more you think about it, the more it looks like you are about to face a legion. It is not a war. But the emotion of dread welling up inside of you makes it look like one. So now you are asking yourself questions.
- How am I going to start?
- I hope I will do well enough to get an A.
You really want to nail it, but you need to come to terms with exactly how to get everything in perfect control. Especially your emotions of fear that seem to make a wreck of you every time you think about public speaking.
So here is the deal. I want to help you avoid that feeling that would ruin your precious moment if you dare to let it. And we are going to do it together.
I am going to highlight some very important tips to help you get in control for you to be comfortable enough to move from that feeling of DREAD to CONFIDENT; and making an awesome Impression for that great rating your supervisors should be giving to you so freely.
Consider these tips as you prepare for your defence. We will be taking them one after the other so here we go.
Watch Your Body Language And Keep It Confident:
Can you tell that a person is falling apart if they look confident? … If I can second guess you rightly, am sure you answered no to that question. Remind yourself that you need to come out that way. Now this might seem like a huge big deal when you are dealing with the foreboding. Maintaining a poise of confidence is very important. So find your most comfortable position, sitting or standing and draw up your body. You must exude confidence. It is something you need to do for yourself. People can only see what you allow your body language to show. So you must endeavour to put that out. Remember the story of David and Goliath? … At the end of your defence day, you want to be David.
Dress In Your Most Comfortable And Impressive:
Am sure this one is a no brainer. However I must highlight that you choose comfortable pieces. You don’t want to look so good and yet look like you were forced to wear something that does not belong to you. It’s great to ensure that as impressive as your clothes are on you, that they are also very comfortable.
Speak With Authority:
Going hand to hand with that aura of confidence is your most powerful asset:your words. If you look that confident, your words must not come out like whimpers. To be able to pull this off, you definitely need to speak as deliberately as possible in expressing yourself. Let them also hear what they see.
Use, Your Gestures:
I have often found this to come to my rescue in dealing with shyness and conveying my confidence. Usually it gives you an edge to also drive home your point. You must, however, ensure that you do not over use it. It doesn’t mean that your hands should be flying all over the place. That would be absolutely unnecessary. If you do this well, after a while you will realize that you are not as self-conscious as you used to be at the very start. For most situations, it would have completely disappeared altogether; leaving a really confident you talking.
Have A Good Opening And Closing Line:
Make sure you have perfected a good opening line. You should also be armed with a good closing line too. Try and rehearse it to a friend. If for the first time you presented it, your friend does not say “wow, that’s beautiful” or something like that; just know you need to keep refining it until you get the perfect line. Both opening and closing lines will go a long way in how impressed your panel gets to rate you high.
Make Sure You Know Your Work:
Certainly you should understand how important it is to know your own work from start to finish. Not having in-depth knowledge of your own work is tantamount to a suicide mission. Why should you kill yourself?
When all is said and done, this is what you came to defend in the first place. You should know your work from A to Z.
Prepare For The Questions:
Now this part is truly essential. You must be sure you do not floor all the good work you did on your presentation by not answering correctly. You must pay attention to the questions you are asked to be sure you will give the right answer. Many people get it wrong at this stage and spoil their good presentation. When you do not understand any question do endeavour to ask the person to expatiate what they mean before you answer.
These tips are by no means exhaustive, but applying these tips will give you some necessary advantage you need for a great outcome. Of course that outcome would mean that you eventually earn all your points on this project.
The structure of a good project work
Undergraduate projects in Nigeria is a prerequisite for graduation amongst Nigerian tertiary students who will which to obtain bachelors degree in their respective courses of study such as accounting, banking and finance, business administration and a host of others. Writing an undergraduate project in Nigeria for final year students entails a lot both financially and otherwise. Being able to develop any final year project depends on getting a researchable topic whether it is Accounting Undergraduate project topics, Banking and Finance research topics or banking and finance project topics and materials and it all requires diligent hard work of students who are willing to develop best undergraduate projects in Nigeria and graduate in flying colors.
A typical Undergraduate project in Nigerian tertiary institutions can be said to be divided into five or six chapters depending on the format of the school and course of study which are
The introduction of an undergraduate project states the main research problem and research argument. What precisely the study is all about and why it is important. It looks at the originality of the research work and how it will fill the gap in other studies. Justification for a research undergraduate topic should not be lengthy before it has been explicitly stated.
Below are the contents in chapter one of an undergraduate research project which includes;
- Background of the study,
- Statement of the problem,
- Objectives or aims of the study,
- The research questions,
- Research hypothesis,
- Significance of the study,
- Scope of the study,
- Limitations of the study and
- Operational definition of terms.
2. Literature review
Literature review of any undergraduate research work, be it business administration project topics or Economics project topics just to mention a few is very critical to securing a high grade in one’s project work. The literature review of a research process uncovers what other writers have written about the student’s topic. A student’s undergraduate research work should include a discussion or review of what is known about the subject and how that knowledge was acquired. The review could conclude with a brief summary of the literature and its implications. The contents of the literature review are the theoretical review, conceptual framework, empirical review and summary of literature review.
3. Research Methodology
This section includes a description of the research methods used in the undergraduate research work such as the sample size, data collection methods, measurement instruments, research data analysis procedures and the population from which the sample was selected. This section also describes the method used in selecting the sample or samples, validation and reliability of the instruments used in the research work. There are different research statistical techniques used in undergraduate research work such as SPSS, e-views etc.
4. Results & Discussion
This section presents and discusses the data analysis results used in an undergraduate research work, the results of each analysis is being summarized, tabulated, and then discussed for each research question. Then for each research hypothesis, the statistical test of significance selected and applied to the data is briefly described, followed by a statement indicating whether the hypothesis was supported or not supported. In presenting the result analyses/summary in an undergraduate project tables and figures and or graph are used to add clarity to the presentation.
5. Summary, Conclusions And Recommendations
This section summarizes the findings of the study in an easy to understand manner. It also explains the practical implications of those findings, and points to recommended directions for future research in that area.
This is where every source cited in the undergraduate research work is being included. Every undergraduate research work must be properly referenced for its authenticity.
Choosing A Good Project / Research Topic
Students in Nigerian universities these days wish to choose a very simple project topic/material. There is no issue choosing a simple project topic; the only problem is your ability to choose a good project or research topic that your supervisor will easily approve for you.
Most project supervisors really want to see how good his or her project student understands his or her surrounding through the kind of topic he or she chooses for their project work.
There are some project topic that are not reject-able; for instance in Nigeria of today; what do you think is the major issue on ground now?
If a project student can choose or craft a topic on the effect of dollar increment on the economy of Nigeria. Such project topic will be very interesting to write on.
Now what are the qualities of a good project topic?
- The materials for the project topic must be easily assessable.
- The project topic itself must be meaningful.
- The variables must be able to give a clear aim of the project topic.
What do I mean by variable?
Well I am deriving my point from the area of ; the variables here are those main words in the project topic.
Like the above project topic; the effect of dollar increment on the economy of Nigeria. You can see the main variables that really define this project topic are:dollar, increment and economy.
Before you present your topic to your project supervisor, first of all understand your project topic, and then secondly try to do some research for your topic to see if at least you can get up to 60% of what you need to write the complete project.
I said that above because you might have a very nice topic that the materials are not available online and there are no books as regard the topic; in this case the project topic becomes difficult for you even though the topic is catchy.
What do I mean by your topic being assessable?
Well what I mean is very simple and easy to understand. Simply pick your project topic, type it on google and see if you will have at least a good background for the topic you are writing on.
If you can have a good background for your project topic and you can understand the problem associated with the project topic, then I believe the aim of the project is not far-fetched.