Effect Of NPK Application On Different Varieties Of Rice
This study was conducted to investigate the effect of NPK application on different varieties of rice. Four varieties of rice were used: NERICA3, NERICA7 (upland rice), NERICA36 and NERICA42 (lowland rice). Two types of fertilizers N-P-K (23-10-05 and N-P-K (20-10-10) were tested at different doses (0 kgcontol; 180 kg, 200 kg, 220 kg-treatments). The trial was set up in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) in a manner following conventional methods. Application of fertilizers was done at 21 and 51 days after planting (DAP). The growth parameters were evaluated weekly while yield parameters were collected at maturity. The fertilizer N-P-K (23 10 05) gave a better growth with appropriate doses compared to N-P-K (20 10 10) in all the varieties used in this study while fertilizer N-P-K (20 10 10) gave a better yield than N-P-K (23 10 05) in the same varieties. In terms of output of rice, fertilizer N-P-K (20 10 10) proves better at dose 200 kg than fertilizer N-P-K (23 10 05) at the same dose. For good growth and yield the use of appropriate doses of fertilizers will significantly improve the yield of rice.
Table of Content
- 1.1 Background of the Study
- 1.2 Statement of Problem
- 1.3 Aim and Objectives
- 1.4 Research Questions
- 1.5 Significance of the Study
- 1.6 Organization of the Study
2.0 Literature Review
- 2.1 Overview of Rice
- 2.1.1 Characteristics
- 2.1.2 Nutrition
- 2.1.3 Processing
- 2.1.4 Yield Records
- 2.1.5 Integrated Pest Management
- 2.2 Fertilizer Amendment on Rice Plant Growth
- 2.2.1 Composition of Poultry Manure
- 2.2.2 Qualitative Influence of Poultry Manure on Nutrients and Plants
- 2.2.3 Quail Manure in Relation to Other Poultry Manure
- 2.3 Effect of NPK Application on Yield And Quality
3.0 Materials and Methods
- 3.1 Study Site
- 3.2 Setting Up of Trial
- 3.3 Determination of Growth and Yield Parameters
- 3.3.1 Growth Parameter
- 3.3.2 Yield Parameter
- 3.4 Data Analysis
4.0 Results and Discussion
- 4.1 Results
- 4.2 Discussion
5.0 Conclusion and Recommendations
- 5.1 Conclusion
- 5.2 Recommendations
1.1 Background of the Study
Rice (Oryza sativa L.) constitutes a staple food for the Cameroon population, and it is the most consumed cereal ; indeed 75 % of basic food come from cereal (IRAD, 2013). Between 1961 and 2007, the importation of rice in central Africa region was multiplied by 14; passing from 32 100 to 470 974 tons, whereas the cereal production per habitant regressed from 157 to 84.9 kg. Therefore, the national strategy for the development of rice cultivation (SNDR) was elaborated in response to this problem in Cameroon (Folefack, 2014). Factors such as the insufficient cultivated methods; the poor access to fields ; insufficiently trained farmers ; the pressure of parasites such as bacteria, fungi, viruses and pest damages (by insects and birds) are responsible for poor yield of rice.
Moreover, the bad cultivation methods increase the susceptibility of the plants to the fungi, viral and bacterial diseases (Imrani et al., 2014). These diseases can reduce the output by 10 to 100 % ( Ou, 1985). However, the studies carried out by Ben Mohamed et al. (2000) show that correct use of fertilizers increases the resistance of the plants to the diseases. According to Anderson (2002), there would be a close connection between the nutrients status and diseases of plants. The nutrition would play a significant role in the mechanism of defense of the plants (Huber and Jeff, 2012) the mineral nutrition is used as prevention methods against many diseases (Ahangar, 2013). In some cases, it considerably decreases the use of fungicide (Hervieux et al., 2002). In Ndop plain (North-west Cameroon), rice cultivation is the main activity of the population.
Former studies on rice in Ndop were focused on : the adequate management of water in lowland rice (Fonteh et al. 2013 ; Djomo et al., 2017) ; on the impact of rice cultivation in the economy of the population (Zephania and Nghengwa, 2014) and the effect of plants extracts on rice seed fungi (Nguefack et al., 2013). Several authors work on rice and its diseases. However, little information is available about the influence of the different doses of fertilizers on the diseases and the yield of rice. Therefore, this study was conducted with the objective of evaluating the effect of the different doses of fertilizers N-P-K ((23-10-05) and (20-10-10)) on the infection coefficient of Pyriculariagrisea causal agent of rice blast.
1.2 Statement of Problem
Although crop production requires fertilizers, the overly large doses and use of fertilizers with chemically unbalanced NPK ratios and in intensive rice production has resulted in soil-related problems, such as acidification , loss of organic matter, deterioration of the structure, and reductions in biological activities and fertility . Consequently, crop yields in several regions are stagnating or declining . Modern, high-yield rice varieties have a high nutrient demand and are very responsive to fertilizer inputs. However, these varieties also mine the soil of nutrients at higher rates than traditional varieties . It is difficult to maximize the yields of crops grown in degraded soil, and the effort required to mitigate degraded soil is unsustainable on the global scale.
In recent times, farmers have mostly relied on chemical fertilizers (CFs), particularly N fertilizers, to boost rice yields. Farmers in Asia have also applied less amount of P and K fertilizers . Initially, rice yields were increased by applying large amounts of CFs. However, this has led to soil problems, declining crop yields, and global environmental issues. Thus, we need to develop and adopt environmentally friendly alternatives that can supplement or replace CFs. Organic fertilizers are environmentally sustainable and can maintain soil health when used in intensive rice agriculture. They help to conserve the amount and quality of organic matter in the soil, and supply N, P, K, and essential micronutrients [10,11]. For example, the use of organic manure can lead to significant increases in levels of organic matter, EDTA-extractable iron, zinc, copper, and plant-available N, P, and K in the soil .
Generally, farmers apply manure by weight without considering total N content or the percentage of mineralizable N in the manure. The N transformation is different between organic manure and inorganic fertilizer. When manure is applied to the soil, a portion of the organic N is converted into ammonium-N (NH4-N) by soil microbes and the NH4-N is then converted into nitrate by nitrifying soil microbes. Plants can only use mineralized nutrients. Therefore, organic fertilizer application should be based on mineralizable N content rather than total fertilizer weight to fulfill crop N demand. The percentage of mineralizable N in organic fertilizer depends on total N content; in Nishio  , manure with a total N content <2%, 2%–4%, and ≥4% released 20%, 30%, and 50% of the total N as mineralizable N, respectively, in the first year after application. In this study, we applied poultry manure (PM), cow manure (CM), and compost (CP), which was made from kitchen waste and bamboo powder, based on levels of estimated mineralizable N (EMN; Table 1). The EMN for each fertilizer type was calculated according to the relationship between the amount of mineralizable N and their total N in Nishio . We hypothesized that the application of organic fertilizers according to EMN content would be a promising technique to fulfill crop N needs.
Despite their advantages, using only organic fertilizers is not efficient as they have a low nutrient content compared to CFs. Plants grown with organic fertilizer alone may suffer from nutrient deficiencies and produce low yields. However, the application of organic manure together with CFs helps neutralize soil pH, and leads to higher levels of organic carbon and improved macro- and micronutrient availability, physical properties, and microbial activity , thereby increasing crop yields [15–17]. In lieu of this, the researcher investigated the effect of NPK application on different varieties of rice in the current study.
1.3 Aim and Objectives
The main aim of this research work is to investigate the effect of acute oral administration of sennaoccidentalis seed in rat on lipid profile and glucose.
The specific objectives are as follows;
- To determine the effect of the different amount of NPK fertilizers on the yield parameters of varieties of rice
- To determine the effect of the different rates of NPK fertilizers on the yield parameters of varieties of rice
- To determine the effect of the different amount of NPK fertilizers on the growth of varieties of rice
1.4 Research Questions
- What is the effect of the different amount of NPK fertilizers on the yield parameters of varieties of rice?
- What is the effect of the different rates of NPK fertilizers on the yield parameters of varieties of rice?
- What is the effect of the different amount of NPK fertilizers on the growth of varieties of rice?
1.5 Significance of the Study
Previous studies have mostly focused on the nutrient contents of rice grain and straw at harvest. Conversely, few studies on rice have reported on nutrient contents in specific plant parts at all critical growth stages, particularly while using experiments based on the EMN contents of organic fertilizers. This study will provide information on the effect of NPK application on different varieties of rice and how it affects the yield, quality and growth of the crop.
The application of organic fertilizers based on EMN contents together with CFs should synchronize N supply and crop demand. In addition, this delivery method should supply sufficient P and K to meet crop needs, which would facilitate better plant development at all growth stages and enhance crop yields. We also investigated whether the co-application of organic fertilizers and CFs would improve crop growth and yield compared to only using CFs. This would inform industrial applications and serve as basis for future studies.
1.6 Organization of the Study
This study is divided into five chapters. The first chapter is the introduction which contains the background, research problems and objectives. The second chapter is the literature review and the third chapter presents the materials and methods. In the fourth chapter, the researcher analyses the data and discusses the results. The fifth chapter is the last chapter which presents the conclusion and recommendations.
5.0 Conclusion and Recommendations
This study carried out on the effect of different rates of NPK fertilizer on the growth and yield of rice revealed that the different doses of NPK fertilizer significantly improved the output of rice compared to the control. Thus, with an adequate fertilization of NERICA, a better output will be achieved. Comparing varietal performance, the best yield was obtained with NERICA3 at a dosage of 200 kg of the fertilizer N-P-K (20-10-10) and N-P-K (23 10 05) while that of NERICA7 was obtained at a dosage of 220 kg of the two fertilizers. Yields of 6.08 t/ha with N-P-K (20-1010) and 5.95 t/ha with N-P-K (23-10-05) were obtained. However, at a dosage of 220 kg with N-P-K (20-10-10),
NERICA36 had an output of 4.47 and 3.90 t/ha with N-PK (23-10-05). NERICA 42 on the other hand had its best output of 6.36 t/ha with N-P-K (20 10 10) and 5.19 t/ha with N-P-K (23 10 05) at a dosage of 220 kg/ha. This study has given significant indications on the type and on the adequate dosage of fertilizer NPK for a better output per hectare in the upland and lowland rice grown in Nigeria.
Overall, we recommend the EMN method for the application of organic fertilizer in rice cultivation. This method not only effectively fertilizes the rice crop but is also a sustainable way of producing rice. Substituting CFs with organic alternatives would also help protect the environment.
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