Effect Of Motivational Incentives On Business Educators’ Performance In Teaching Business Studies In Patigi Local Government Area, Kwara State
This study used a survey design to examine the effect of motivational incentives on business educators’ performance in teaching business studies in Patigi Local Government Area, Kwara State. The study was guided by four (4) research questions. The population included all the business studies teachers in Patigi Local Government Area, Kwara State. While the sample used for the study included 50 business studies teachers. The data gathered and collated was analyzed using frequency tables and percentages. And the hypotheses were tested using Pearson Correlation, Statistical Tool v23. The findings of the study indicated that adequate remuneration have a positive effect on business educators performance. The findings also indicated that career development have a positive effect business educators performance. The findings of the study indicated that working conditions have an effect on business educators performance. With respect to the findings of the study, the researcher recommended that government should ensure that teacher’s salaries are regularly paid which will motivate the ability of the teacher and school. Authorities should motivate business studies teachers with fringe benefit and incentives in other to make them increase their teaching performance, Regional Administration Local Government, Education Standards Agency should be strengthened to make sure that teachers receive salary on time. The district inspectorate should also be strengthened and adequately funded to carry out routine inspections in both public and private secondary schools, and regular visits to the schools would motivate the teachers to be more regular and early in school and avoid divided attention of searching for secondary employment as part time teachers. To mention only but few.
Table of Content
- 1.1 Background of the Study
- 1.2 Statement of the Problem
- 1.3 Objective of the Study
- 1.4 Research Questions
- 1.5 Research Hypothesis
- 1.6 Significance of the Study
- 1.7 Scope of the Study
- 1.8 Limitation of the Study
- 1.9 Definition of Terms
- 1.10 Organization of the Study
Review of Literature
- 2.1 Conceptual Framework
- 2.2 Theoretical Framework
- 2.3 Empirical Review
- 3.1 Research Design
- 3.2 Population of the Study
- 3.3 Sample Size Determination
- 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
- 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
- 3.6 Method of Data Collection
- 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
- 3.8 Validity of the Study
- 3.9 Reliability of the Study
- 3.10 Ethical Consideration
Data Presentation and Analysis
- 4.1 Data Presentation
- 4.2 Analysis of Data
- 4.3 Answering Research Questions
- 4.4 Test of Hypotheses
Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation
- 5.1 Summary
- 5.2 Conclusion
- 5.3 Recommendation
1.1 Background of the Study
The success or failure of any educational system whether in developed or developing nations of the world depends to a large extent on the teachers. Teachers are the hub of the educational system and it has been generally agreed that no education system can rise above the level of its teachers. There is no doubt that the services of the teachers are indispensable and critical to the nation’s future and the quality of individuals the society wants. But the ability and effectiveness of teachers in discharging their professional duties could be influenced by a lot of factors among which is motivation which is one of the most important factors in human resource management today. Teachers need proper motivation to enhance their effectiveness not only by extrinsic rewards but also by intrinsic reward, Akpan (2013).
Motivation appears to be the urge, impetus inspiration, incentive and ego booster that energize a teacher (in this case) towards performing certain duties as required by him in order to meet the stated aims and objectivities of the firm (Robbins, 2000). Patrick (2013) refers to motivation as an act that causes a person to act or to do something. Olabaji (2007) views motivation as an incentive which incites, inspires and promotes the desire for the individual in learning. It is an inner drive which makes a person to work hard, encourage him to feel that he is part of an organization to which he belong and that his efforts are appreciated. Motivation is a factor required in the realization of the objectives of Education in Nigerian schools. Inadequate use of motivation therefore may go a long way in negatively affecting the performance of business education teachers.
Many contributions and studies have been carried on organizational efficiency and seem to posit that motivation seems to promote workers’ performance. Whether in the form of wages, piecework (getting paid for units produced at a certain quality level) or any other incentive pay, bonuses, stock options, company-paid insurance, or any of the other things that may be given to people for performance, money is important; it could also mean status or power. For some people money will always be of the utmost importance, while for others it may never be. It is probably quite true that in most kinds of businesses and in enterprises money is used as a means of keeping an organization adequately staffed and not primarily as a motivator. People in various positions, even though at a similar level, must be given salaries and bonuses that reflect their individual performances. The way to ensure that money has meaning, as a reward for accomplishment and as a way of giving people pleasure from accomplishment, is to base compensation as much as possible on performance (koontz and Weihrich,1990; Edwin, 1993).
Mefun (2012) viewed factors responsible for poor performances of teachers in business education as non-payment of salaries, delay in promotions, inadequate funds for seminars and workshops. Different people are motivated by different things so it is important to make sure that you offer the right incentives to the right member of the team. According to Fayana (2002) the relationship between motivation and performance seems to be powerful that some people equate the cause of performance or lack of it in organizations to the level of motivation. A high level of performance seems to be attributed to a high level of motivation, and if performance is low, it is assumed that motivation is low as well. It is generally accepted that having targets to work towards, as long as they are realistic, is one of the most effective ways of improving performance. Hitting targets improves morale and self-confidence but remember that those who consistently underachieve will end up feeling demotivated. Target achievement can be rewarded not only with financial incentives but perhaps with the offer of increased responsibility or even promotion.
Yusufu(2004) said that lateness to school, teacher absenteeism, poor environmental sanitation and dirty classrooms, shabbily dressed teachers, strained teacher-principal relationship, disrespect for school heads, poor student-teacher relationship, Lack of personal professional commitment to duty and unreadiness for service and sacrifice in general are due to lack of motivation for teachers and students. Ajeji (2010) said that poor performance of students arising from improper assignment of duties to teachers. poor personnel policy resulting in undefined promotional policy and confusion in the chain of command, Human elements such as various feelings, desires, perceptions, motives, values which an individual brings to the school, Family factors caused by poor parental upbringing of the students.
All these issues call for research efforts, so as to bring to focus how an appropriate reward package can jeer up or influence workers to develop positive attitude towards their job and thereby increase their attitude to work and performance.
In the words of Leon (2013), many organizations are getting keener on spending the right way, recognizing the right employees in the right position for the right performance. Successful employee’s motivation programmers do not need to be elaborate. It can be as simple as a personalized thank you letter for a job well done give to the employee for going above and beyond expectations. Employees like to be acknowledged and nothing beats this saying “thank you for a job well done’’ in writing which comes better when accompanied by the company’s token of appreciation.
This little appreciation goes a long way in inducing employees to put more effort towards achieving enhanced performance through employee loyalty. It is on this background that this study is aimed at evaluating the effect of motivational incentives on business educators’ performance in teaching business studies.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
The performance of organization and employee motivation has been the focus of intensive research effort in recent times. It is very common in our education system to find candidates with relatively superior qualifications and adequate professional degrees getting employed into the teaching profession, yet the problem of deteriorating standards both qualitatively and quantitatively appears to be on the increase in our schools. It becomes imperative to find out what may have been responsible for the continued decline in standards. Could it be that teachers, in spite of their superior professional qualifications, may not have been satisfied with their job, or not being well motivated?
It has been observed that poor remuneration is related to profits made by organizations. Other factors responsible for poor performances of teachers includes non-payment of salaries, delay in promotions, inadequate funds for seminars and workshops breeds lack of commitment and low productivity. In addition, demoralizing to teachers and consequently reduced their performance.
Although Job enrichment deals with creating a work that includes a greater variety of content, necessitating a higher level of knowledge and skill and providing the employee with more autonomy and responsibility for planning, directing and controlling his job. The Nigerian educational system hardly enjoy the feeling of personal responsibility for their outputs and an opportunity for teachers to help plan their work objectives, make decisions on how to do the work, and experience personal growth due to targets set.
Given the intense competition in the business environment, there seem to be an increasing problem on what to do to spurn employees towards and designing attractive rewards and incentive that can motivate employees for better performance. This has become challenging given the low morale of staff, poor quality of work, absenteeism, problem of general poor attitude to work and reduced productivity.
Different people hold different needs and respond accordingly. Motivating people to work could be one of the basic problems in our society and it has been the concern of many managers in modern organizations. The concept of motivation is primarily concerned with inducing and encouraging the willingness of employees to put in their best efforts for an increased productivity through incentives. However, most employers seek little or no employee input thus leading to lack of management and employee cohesion.
1.3 Objective of the Study
The major objective of this study is to assess the effect of motivational incentives on business educators’ performance in teaching business studies in Patigi Local Government Area, Kwara State.
Other specific objectives include;
- Ascertain the effect adequate remuneration on business educators performance.
- Ascertain the effect career development on business educators performance.
- Ascertain the effect working conditions on business educators performance.
- Find out whether rewards, and fringe incentives influences business educators performance.
1.4 Research Questions.
The following research questions were formulated for the purpose of this study:
- Does adequate remuneration have a positive effect on business educators performance?
- Does career development have a positive effect business educators performance?
- Does working conditions have a effect on business educators performance?
- Does rewards, and fringe incentives influence business educators performance?
1.5 Research Hypotheses
For the purpose of this research, the following hypotheses were formulated:
- H0: There is no significant relationship between motivational incentives on the performance of business educators.
- H1: There is a significant relationship between motivational incentives on the performance of business educators.
1.6 Significance of the Study
People are motivated by unmet needs and these varies from person to person according to their particular circumstances, values and beliefs, family, education, personality, and work experience etc. Management aims are at maximizing profit and minimizing cost. For this to be achieved, this study provides information on how to motivate teachers towards increase productivity.
This study will help many organizations especially the management to improve their understanding about motivation and its effect on teachers performance. It is expected that when employees (teachers) are given some incentives, they are likely to put more effort in discharging their duties.
Therefore, this study will be of significance to researchers, the public, the employers of labour/management of organizations and the employees as it delves into the link between teachers performance in relation to employee motivation.
Management of any establishment has to put policies in place to enable the employees put in their best efforts towards the higher performance and efficiency.
1.7 Scope of the Study
This study is structured to generally examine the effect of motivational incentives on business educators’ performance in teaching business studies. However, the study borders on remuneration, career development, working conditions, and rewards, and fringe incentives and how their effect on business educators performance. The study will be delimited to business studies teachers in Patigi Local Government Area, Kwara State.
1.8 Limitation of the Study
Like in every human endeavour, the researcher encountered slight constraints while carrying out the study. Insufficient funds tend to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature, or information and in the process of data collection, which is why the researcher resorted to a limited choice of sample size. More so, the researcher simultaneously engaged in this study with other academic work. As a result, the amount of time spent on research will be reduced.
Moreover, the case study method utilized in the study posed some challenges to the investigator including the possibility of biases and poor judgment of issues. However, the investigator relied on respect for the general principles of procedures, justice, fairness, objectivity in observation and recording, and weighing of evidence to overcome the challenges.
1.9 Definition of Terms
This is the means of activity the behavior of an individual towards the achievement of certain goals
Standard of Educator: This can e defined as the bench mark drawn by the government in terms of skills, knowledge and technical know how of her citizens for the brining of a better tomorrow and forward the growth of the economy
This can be defined as benefit provided by the employer to an employee, example can be; tax exemption bonus, promotion incentives.
Can be defined as a person which is acquainted with pedagogical skills of impacting knowledge and skills leadership and leadership style. Leadership can be defined as the action of guidance, control, management of individuals to the attainment of set goals and self actualization.
The key aspects of teaching involve the use of instructional materials, teaching methods, regular assessment of students, making lesson plans, assessment of pupils, conduct of fieldwork, teachers, participation in sports, attending school assembly and guidance and counseling. Therefore, teacher job performance is the teacher’s ability to integrate the experience, teaching methods, instructional materials, knowledge and skills in delivering subject matter to students in and outside the classroom (Bennell, 2004).
1.10 Organization of the Study
This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows.
- Chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the (overview, of the study), historical background, statement of problem, objectives of the study, research hypotheses, significance of the study, scope and limitation of the study, definition of terms and historical background of the study.
- Chapter two highlights the theoretical framework on which the study is based, thus the review of related literature.
- Chapter three deals on the research design and methodology adopted in the study.
- Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding.
- Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study.
Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations:
This chapter summarizes the findings on the effect of motivational incentives on business educators’ performance in teaching business studies in Patigi Local Government Area, Kwara State. The chapter consists of summary of the study, conclusions, and recommendations.
5.2 Summary of the Study
In this study, our focus was on the effect of motivational incentives on business educators’ performance in teaching business studies in Patigi Local Government Area, Kwara State. The study was specifically carried out to ascertain the effect adequate remuneration on business educators performance, ascertain the effect career development on business educators performance, ascertain the effect working conditions on business educators performance, and find out whether rewards, and fringe incentives influences business educators performance.
The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 50 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondent were business studies teachers in Patigi Local Government Area, Kwara State.
Based on the findings of this study, the researcher concluded that;
- Adequate remuneration have a positive effect on business educators performance.
- Career development have a positive effect business educators performance.
- Working conditions have an effect on business educators performance.
- Rewards, and fringe incentives influence business educators performance.
Based on the findings of the study, the following recommendations are proffered.
- Government should ensure that teacher’s salaries are regularly paid which will motivate the ability of the teacher and school. Authorities should motivate business studies teachers with fringe benefit and incentives in other to make them increase their teaching performance.
- Private secondary schools should provide incentive packages to increase teachers’ motivation. Special attention should be put at increasing teacher‘s salaries because the majority of them (teachers) complained about the inadequacy of their salaries to meet their needs. Increasing teacher‘s salaries will increase their morale to teach. This is because the teachers must be interested in what they teach and in the children when they are teaching. If they are not interested in the work themselves, they can never motivate the class to Learn.
- Regional Administration Local Government, Education Standards Agency should be strengthened to make sure that teachers receive salary on time. The District Inspectorate should also be strengthened and adequately funded to carry out routine inspections in both public and private secondary schools. Regular visits to the schools would motivate the teachers to be more regular and early in school and avoid divided attention of searching for secondary employment as part time teachers.
- The teachers who perform well in teaching and learning process should receive extra payment that can help them to increase effort in teaching.
- The Ministry of Education and Vocational Training (MOVET) and the owner of private secondary schools should provide incentive packages to increase teachers’ motivation. Special attention should be put at increasing teacher‘s salaries because the majority of them (teachers) complained about the inadequacy of their salaries to meet their needs. Increasing teacher‘s salaries will increase their morale to teach. This is because the teachers must be interested in what they teach and in the children when they are teaching. If they are not interested in the work themselves, they can never motivate the class to learn.
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Frequently Asked Questions
What is the impact of teacher motivation on academic performance?
When teachers are enabled to do their job effectively, their students are enabled to learn effectively. The trust of this paper is on ‘the impact of teacher motivation on academic performance of students’. Concept of Teacher Motivation Teacher motivation refers to those variables, factors that influence teachers to do things.
Do incentives make a difference in teachers‟ motivational strategy?
Significant difference was found among government, aided and unaided schools higher secondary students in their teachers‟ motivational strategy except the dimension incentive.
What is teacher motivation?
It proceeded by defining teacher motivation as a general term applying to the entire class of drives, desires, needs, wishes and similar forces initiated for teachers, in order to induce them to act in desireable academically productive manner.
What is intrinsic motivation in education?
Intrinsic motivation has been studied by social and educational psychologists since the early 1970s. Research has found that it is usually associated with high educational achievement and enjoyment by student‟s evaluation theory. Students are likely to be intrinsically