The Effect Of Mother Tongue Interference In The Study Of Integrated Science In Junior Secondary Schools

Science Education Project and Seminar Material

The Effect Of Mother Tongue Interference In The Study Of Integrated Science In Junior Secondary Schools


Abstract


This study was carried out to examine the effects of mother tongue interference in the secondary study of Integrated Science in junior secondary schools in Enugu North Local Government Area of Enugu State. The targeted population for the study was 250 but collection was questionnaires. The questionnaires were distributed to the four schools selected in Enugu North Local Government Area of Enugu State. The data were analyzed using percentage. The following were the researcher findings. That teachers of English language in Enugu North do not have teaching aids in their various school visited. That students are hardly fluent in English language. That most of the Integrated Science teachers are not qualified that students are hardly buy books in Integrated Science. That most student are very poor in understanding some of the language vocabularies. In view of the above, the researcher recommends that teachers should be made to make use of correct teaching method in teaching of Integrated Science that mother tongue should be restricted as stipulated by the national policy on education 4th edition. That student should be taught and made to speak Integrated Science always. That teacher of the Integrated Science should be made to ensure that at least every student is carried along in the classroom lesson. That qualified teachers should be employed.


Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

This research focuses on unveiling the effect of mother tongue interference in integrated science. This implies finding out how far the mother tongue has interfered with the use of integrated science, which could be very negative or positive. Historically, the advert of the British colonist in Nigeria brought about the introduction of integrated science in the country. Also, the introduction of the western education in the country facilitated and aided the general acceptance of integrated science in Nigeria and today in Nigeria, integrated science has not only gained prominence but it is dominating other languages in the country. In fact, it has become the lingua franca of the country. Meanwhile, integrated science has several stipulated functions and purposes which it serves. This function includes Verbal communication which encompasses intra-personal communication, inter-personal communication and mass communication. Another function is written communication and personal interaction with other people. It becomes obvious that the mother that the mother tongue interferes tremendously in the use of the language. Mother tongue means the language that you first learn to speak when you are still a child.

According to Ugwu (2003), “the mother tongue interferes in integrated science in two areas that is in sound and intonation respectively, He stressed that when one is spoken through the medium of a particular language or read what has been printed on a paper on a particular language, he or she only makes meaning out of what he or she has heard or read if the hearer or reader shares knowledge of the same language with the speaker or the writer.” On the other hand, it is observed that in our everyday discussion, the voice of the people speaking to us and every of our responses usually go up and down as we combine the vowels and consonants in our communication. These voices patterns help us to appreciate or disapprove of what we have heard or spoken. Therefore, these two factors which make the voice pattern, reveal the meaning of the spoken word to the hearer is the area where the mother tongue interferes with integrated science. Hence, the voice pattern which is intonation of both the integrated science and mother tongue vary and there is interference. it is understood that the major obstacle in the learning of integrated science by our student is the interference of the mother tongue which student of area of study are not exempted. The interference of the mother tongue on integrated science could be phonological, lexical and syntactic.

According to Eka, D. (2002) “he states that in terms of structural influence, every individual mother tongue produces a unique effect.” Adekunle (2004) states that interference implies; the arrangement of patterns that results from the introduction of foreign element into the more highly structured domains of languages, such as the back of the phonemic system, a large part of the morphology and syntax, and some area of the vocabulary. It is therefore believed that interference phenomenon affects learner’s performance in the target language which is integrated science. The problem of the students can be categorized into the following interference of mother tongue into the integrated science, translation wholesomely from mother tongue to integrated science.

Mother tongue is one’s native language. A language besides being the major distinguishing phenomenon between man and other creatures is evidently the most enduring of every people’s cultural heritage. It reflects the culture of a people and it is in extricable bound up with it.

Language is an important tool that enhances human communication and interaction. It is a vital instrument in cultural transmission and preservation of a social group. It is in a fundamental sense, a crucial tool in the preservation and propagation of the human species. An examination of the linguistic content of a particular speech community can provide information about the life style, occupation etc. of a given people.

Language being the principal method of human communication, consisting of words used in a structured and conventional way and conveyed by speech, writing, or gesture. Hence, our respective mother tongue exists before colonization. This has necessitated the teaching and learning of the English language and its consequent interference in our mother tongue in various study points nationwide. It is therefore, glaring to state that, Nigeria is a linguistically complex society by the mere fact of the history of its creation. It is estimated that there are between 250 and 400 language spoken in Nigeria (INTER NET).

This linguistic heterogeneity promotes the continued use of English in Nigeria. Ethnologic include English amongst its list of Nigeria language this hardly supervising since the role of English language in Nigeria diverse and ubiquitous, especially as a means of intra and international communication. It is as a result of the negative effects which the mother tongue had caused the study of integrated science on the educational structures of the attempt to determine the effect of the use of mother tongue on the teaching and learning process in secondary schools.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

Before the advent of British traders, missionaries and colonialists, indigenous Nigerian language defined every aspect of the speech community from its religious, cultural, political, economic, social to whatever else that can be through of the language functioned effectively to deal with everything relating to the day existence of the people. The arrival of the British, concomitant with the English language provided a language contact situation with an attempt to a language shift in the population.

New sets of ideas, concepts and values were introduced to the system where indigenous local language had previously been self-sufficient, rendering them inadequate to deal with the new concepts introduced by the British, particularly in the areas of formal education, Western law etc. the result was the initial subtle and later blatant intrusion & influence of integrated science on domains that were the exclusive preserve of indigenous language.
Now, since integrated science accepted the English language is generally an accepted language which was introduced into Nigeria through colonialism and missionary activities are now spoken, thought and learned in Nigeria.

Where English language sentence are made, they are characteristically uttered with variation in pitch often referred to as intonation. This is often an area of difficulty for second language, users of English language who have tonal? Language as their first language. This is one of the major problems encountered by learners of English language. Other areas of problem encountered are; sentence and word stresses, vowel sounds and English suprasegmental of pitch. The study intended to identify the effect of mother tongue in the study of integrated science in senior secondary schools in Enugu North Local Government Area of Enugu State.


1.3 Significance of the Study

This study will help to expose the numerous factors that influence the interference of the study of integrated science by the mother tongue or native languages. It will also identify the effects of this interference on other study area that are based on the use of the English language as the basic communication.

This study will enable teachers to identify their problems in integrated science. This study will also enable student to understand how to make use of English words especially in pronunciation, intonation and phonetics. It will also enable the teachers to make more research on the use of integrated science.

Since English language has been used as a second official and sometimes even as a foreign language in Nigeria for along time and give the inescapable behaviour of language in contact, it is normal to expect it to have factors which can identify it as bonafide subject, dialect, variely or idiom of world English. These may be seen as research findings relating to interference, derintation and creativity as are seen to obtain among speakers. In Nigeria, English is now the term Nigerian English is used to refer to the subject of English spoken or written by Nigerians, it is commonly known that the features of Nigerians English language, like those of other new English, are essentially inherent particularly at the early stages of learning by the mother tongue features.


1.4 Purpose of the Study

  1. To find out the level at which mother tongue can interfere in the learning of integrated science in secondary school.
  2. To investigate the qualifications of integrated science teachers in secondary school in Enugu North.
  3. To know how teachers makes use of correct methods in teaching of integrated science in secondary school in Enugu North.

1.5 Research Questions

  1. Does mother tongue actually interferes in the learning of integrated science in secondary school?
  2. Are the integrated science teacher in schools qualified?
  3. Does integrated science teachers adopt correct teaching methods in teaching?

1.6 Hypothesis

  1. H0: Mother tongue interferes in the learning of integrated science.
    H1: Mother tongue dose not interferes in the learning of integrated science.
  2. H02: Integrated science teachers makes use of correct method of teaching in teaching and learning of English language.
    H12: Integrated science teacher do not make use of correct teaching method.

1.7 Scope of the Study

This research is the effect of mother tongue interference in study of integrated science among secondary school students in Enugu North Local Government Area.

It is based on the available result gotten from continuous assessment and summative examinations of schools such as West Africa Examination Council, the national examination council and examination development centre for senior school certificate examination all in Integrated science.


1.8 Definition of Terms

It is imperative to properly define the terms that make the heading of the research topic under study. This will go along way at giving direction to the research work. These include:

Mother Tongue:

The native language one first learns to speak before other language.

Interference:

In this context, interruption of a language by another especially in pronunciation and intonations.

Anglo-Xason:

A person whose an cestors were English. (2) An English person of the period before the norman conquest.

Fundamental:

Serious and very important affecting the most central and important parts of something. (2) Foundation of reality.

Heterogeneity:

Consisting of many different kinds of people or things (2) Uniformity/Alike.

Ethnological:

The moral ideas and attitudes that belong to a particular group or society (2) peculiar to a race or nation.

Science:

Knowledge about the structure and behaviour of the natural and physical world.

Integrated:

An electronic or machine that can store, organized and find information do calculate and control other machines.


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations

5.1 Introduction

This chapter presents the summary, conclusion and recommendations for further studies.


5.2 Summary

This study was carried out to examine the effects of mother tongue interference in the secondary study of Integrated Science in junior secondary schools in Enugu North Local Government Area of Enugu State. To achieve this objective, the study revealed that:

In table 2, it was shown that 90 respondents representing 75% indicated yes that mother tongue actually interferes in the learning of Integrated Science in secondary schools and 12 (10%) of the respondents indicated no while 18 respondents (15%) asserted no idea on the question. Therefore, it was deduced that mother tongue actually interferes in the learning of Integrated Science in secondary schools.

In table 3, it was discovered that 85 (70.8%) of the respondents indicated yes that the Integrated Science teachers in schools are qualified while 19 respondents representing 15.8% asserted no and another 16 (13.3%) of the respondents opted no idea on the question. From this analysis, it was deduced that the Integrated Science teachers in schools are qualified.

In table 4, it was revealed that 94 (78.3%) of the respondents pointed yes that Integrated Science teachers adopt correct teaching methods in teaching while 6 respondents representing 5% said no and another 20 (16.7%) respondents pointed no idea on the question. From the analysis, it was induced that Integrated Science teachers adopted correct teaching methods in teaching.


5.3 Conclusion

Based on the findings of this study and subsequent recommendations, it is concluded that several factors related to the learning of Integrated Science as a mother tongue by students at the secondary level. In addition, the researcher tried to learn about teaching methods, teaching/learning materials, classroom situations, learners’ expectations and guardians’ expectations and a few other things related to them. Furthermore, students fail in learning English not because of their fear but they fail due to their lack of motivation, the teaching method, teacher’s inefficiency to teach, the syllabus and the textbook, the learning situation, guardians’ lack of awareness, use of guidebooks and finally high competitiveness and commercialization of education.


5.4 Recommendations

Based on the findings of this study, the researcher made the following recommendations;

  1. Teachers should be made to make use of correct teaching method in teaching of English that mother tongue should be restricted as stipulated by the national policy on education 4th edition.
  2. That student should be taught and made to speak English language always.
  3. That teacher of the Integrated Science should be made to ensure that at least every student is carried along in the classroom lesson.
  4. That qualified teachers should be employed.

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