# Effect Of Mathematics Laboratory On Students Academic Achievement In Mathematics In Secondary Schools In Adamawa State

## Abstract

This study was carried out on the effect of mathematics laboratory on students academic achievement in mathematics using some selected public secondary schools in Yola, Adamawa state as a case study. The study is was specifically set to find out if mathematics laboratory facilities is available in secondary schools in Adamawa state, investigate the extent to which the use of mathematics laboratory will enhance the student’s performance in mathematics in Adamawa state, find out if there are necessary equipment that will aid the teaching and learning of mathematics in the laboratory and investigate if mathematics laboratory will improve the academic achievement of secondary school students. The survey design was adopted and the simple random sampling techniques were employed in this study. The population size comprise of mathematics teachers and students in some selected public secondary schools in Yola, Adamawa state. In determining the sample size, the researcher conveniently selected 229 respondents and 210 were validated. Self-constructed and validated questionnaire was used for data collection. The collected and validated questionnaires were analyzed using frequency tables. While the hypotheses were tested using Chi-square statistical tool. The result of the findings reveals that the extent to which the use of mathematics laboratory enhances the student’s performance in mathematics in Adamawa state is high. The result of the findings reveals that mathematics laboratory will improve the academic achievement of secondary school students. Therefore, it is recommended that seminars/worships should be organized for mathematics teachers in secondary school on the use of mathematics laboratory. To mention but a few.

## Table of Content

### Chapter One:

#### Introduction

- 1.1 Background of the Study
- 1.2 Statement of the Problem
- 1.3 Objective of the Study
- 1.4 Research Questions
- 1.5 Research Hypothesis
- 1.6 Significance of the Study
- 1.7 Scope of the Study
- 1.8 Limitation of the Study
- 1.9 Definition of Terms
- 1.10 Organizations of the Study

### Chapter Two:

#### Review of Literature

- 2.1 Conceptual Framework
- 2.2 Theoretical Framework
- 2.3 Empirical Review
- 2.4 Chapter Summary

### Chapter Three:

#### Research Methodology

- 3.1 Research Design
- 3.2 Population of the Study
- 3.3 Sample Size Determination
- 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
- 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
- 3.6 Method of Data Collection
- 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
- 3.8 Validity of the Study
- 3.9 Reliability of the Study
- 3.10 Ethical Consideration

### Chapter Four:

#### Data Presentation and Analysis

- 4.1 Data Presentation
- 4.2 Analysis of Data
- 4.3 Answering Research Questions
- 4.4 Test of Hypotheses

### Chapter Five:

#### Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

- 5.1 Summary
- 5.2 Conclusion
- 5.3 Recommendation
- References
**APPENDIX****QUESTIONNAIRE**

## Chapter One

### Introduction

#### 1.1 Background to the Study

The importance of mathematics in man’s evolution and way of life cannot be overstated. In practically every element of human endeavor, including science, engineering, industry, technology, and even the arts, math is a vital tool. No country can advance scientifically or technologically if mathematics is ignored (Azuka, 2003).

Mathematics is the cornerstone of science and technology, according to Okereke (2006), and its functional role in science and technology is so complicated and diverse that it may be applied to any area of science, technology, or business. According to Umoinyam (1997), mathematics is the foundation of science and technology, without which a nation will never be prosperous or economically self-sufficient.

According to Oyedeji (2000), one of the key goals of many curricula is to ensure that students have at least the core mathematical skills required to think mathematically and adapt that thinking to the rapidly changing demands of the modern world. As a result, math skills are essential for everyone to cope with life’s tasks.

Mathematics is an important subject in school and is seen as a talent that every educated person should have. All major jobs in today’s society, according to Azuka (2003), need a solid knowledge of mathematics. Engineering, accountancy, medicine, economics, finance, and technology are just a few of the professions available. In offices, factories, and other human operations, mathematics is used to analyze, organize, and evaluate data in order to make new decisions.

“It is the topic’s traits and characteristics that make everything about it a subject of interest to every nation on the planet,” Ukwu writes (1995). Mathematics is necessary in both elementary and secondary schools. In today’s Nigerian institutions, nearly no program may be pursued without proving a basic comprehension of mathematical ideas by passing an average level exam in the topic with at least a credit. In actuality, almost every institution of higher learning provides one or two mathematics courses as general studies to help students prepare for their chosen fields.

Despite the subject’s importance, it has been seen all over the world that it has particular qualities, nature, and structure that make many people fear it and lose interest in it. According to Ukwu (1995), Nigeria is one of the countries most afflicted by poor mathematical performance and underachievement (Azuka 2003).

Galadima (2002) discovered that students do badly in both internal and external mathematics assessments almost every year. This claim is backed up by research by Odili (1986), Salau (1995), Amazigo (2006), Agwagah (2001), and Okereke (2001). (2006).

In 2003, 2004, 2005, and 2006, the top examiners in mathematics for the West African Examinations Councils (WAEC) consistently recognized candidates’ inability to complete virtually all of the problems provided in general mathematics. The West Africa Examination Council (WAEC) had a credit pass of not more than 36.91 percent in mathematics for 11 years, according to Abakporo (2005). According to WAEC head examiners, candidates were also lacking in Geometry of Circles and three-dimensional issues (2003, 2005).

According to their findings, most applicants avoided three-dimensional problems, and just a few candidates displayed a complete understanding of the topic when given Geometry questions in their work.

Both Ojo (1990) and Adetula (1987) attempted to identify some of the reasons behind students’ poor arithmetic performance. One of the reasons for students’ poor performance and failure in mathematics in secondary schools was teachers’ inability to adopt the appropriate teaching method.

The teaching approaches and strategies used in the classroom by mathematics teachers have been highlighted as one of the key causes for students’ poor mathematical achievement, according to studies by Habor Peters (2002) and Iji (2005).

Okereke (2006) connected students’ poor performance to factors such as society’s image of mathematics as difficult, a scarcity of educated teachers, a lack of mathematics labs, and a lack of incentives.

The abstractness with which certain professors teach mathematics scares some students who are regarded the best in the discipline.

According to Ukwu (2008), using instructional materials or teaching aids, as well as enjoyable activities that learners like, is the only way to make mathematics teaching and learning effective, relevant, and engaging.

The present status of mathematics learning and education is woefully inadequate. Learning mathematics entails complete attention, it also requires active participation of the students in the class, and actively participating in mathematics is the most effective way to learn mathematics. Math lessons should not be run by teachers.

Teachers employ tried-and-true methods in the classroom, such as the lecture technique (talk and chalk). As a result, pupils’ capacity to absorb, acquire, and recall material is impaired, and children are less interested in studying mathematics. As a consequence, traditional teaching methods have failed to develop skills such as formulating, modeling, and problem-solving. It’s possible that students won’t always remember and retain what they’ve studied before. Simple geometrical shapes, such as cubes, cuboids, pyramids, cylinders, and cones, are covered in the classroom so that students do not see the real materials.

To get to the abstract core of mathematics, demonstrations and practical ways should be employed. To increase skills and provide practical experiences with mathematical concepts such as assumptions, assertions, and rules, a strategy is necessary.

The problem of ineffective instruction, according to Agwangah (1997), may be solved by employing the mathematics laboratory in a planned and logical way. As a consequence, in the quest for a teaching method that can address the cognitive, affective, and psychomotor aspects of learning, this researcher is interested in discovering whether the laboratory method of teaching may improve secondary school students’ mathematics performance. Because mathematics is a subject that must be studied via doing rather than reading, it needs the employment of a method and a location that are both appropriate. The correct solution is to employ a mathematical laboratory and a laboratory technique. This activity type helps students understand mathematical concepts. It is based on the concepts of observational learning and moving from the concrete to the abstract.

In the mathematics laboratory, students may study and explore a wide range of mathematical subjects, as well as verify a wide range of mathematical facts and ideas using a number of activities and tools (Igbokwe, 2000). The use of a mathematics laboratory in mathematics teaching and learning assists in the integration of theory and practice. According to Ogunkunle (2000), the advantages of having a mathematics laboratory include: displaying mathematical knowledge; providing an avenue for experimentation through practical work; providing a pool of mathematical resources for quick access; and removing abstractness and improving effective teaching/learning.

Based on the advantages of a mathematics laboratory, it is thought that using one to teach and study mathematics will assist to reduce the subject’s abstract nature and increase students’ interest in it.

#### 1.2 Statement of the Problem

Education facilitates learning, or the acquisition of knowledge, skills, values, morals, beliefs, and habits. Educational method includes teaching, training, storytelling, discourse, and attentiveness. Many secondary school courses cannot be taught effectively and efficiently without the use of a well-equipped laboratory to guarantee appropriate distribution of the topic among the students.

Students dislike and fear mathematics, although it is needed of every student in school, as well as many professions and employment. The poor arithmetic performance of secondary school students revealed that the most desired technological, scientific, and commercial uses of mathematics were not being promoted. This involves the creation of a teaching strategy focused at improving students’ mathematical understanding and performance. The lack of a mathematics laboratory and the non-use of laboratory techniques in teaching mathematics are two major factors leading to secondary school pupils’ poor mathematics performance (Ogunkunle, 2000). As a consequence, the goal of this study is to see how a mathematics laboratory affects secondary school students’ academic advancement in math in Adamawa state.

#### 1.3 Objectives of the Study

The study’s overall purpose is to investigate the effect of mathematics laboratory on students academic achievement in mathematics in secondary schools in Adamawa state. The study, on the other hand, was focused on achieving these precise goals.

- To Find out if mathematics laboratory facilities is available in secondary schools in Adamawa state.
- To investigate the extent to which the use of mathematics laboratory will enhance the student’s performance in mathematics in Adamawa state.
- To find out if there are necessary equipment that will aid the teaching and learning of mathematics in the laboratory.
- To investigate if mathematics laboratory will improve the academic achievement of secondary school students.

#### 1.4 Research Questions

The study will be guided by the following questions;

- Is mathematics laboratory facilities available in secondary schools in Adamawa state?
- What is the extent to which the use of mathematics laboratory will enhance the student’s performance in mathematics in Adamawa state?
- Are there necessary equipment that will aid the teaching and learning of mathematics in the laboratory?
- Will mathematics laboratory improve the academic achievement of secondary school students?

#### 1.5 Research Hypothesis

The following are tested in this study:

**Ho: **The use of mathematics laboratory will not improve the academic achievement of secondary school students.

**Ha: **The use of mathematics laboratory will improve the academic achievement of secondary school students.

#### 1.6 Significance of the Study

This study will investigate the effect of mathematics laboratory on students academic achievement in mathematics in secondary schools in Adamawa state. Hence it will be significant to the following people:

##### Government:

This study will be significant to the government authority as it will expose them to the fact that most secondary especially the public one do not have a mathematics laboratory.

##### Stakeholders:

This study will be significant to the stakeholders in the educational line as it will encourage them to invest and donate laboratories for the study of mathematics.

##### Academia:

The study will be significant to the academic community as it will contribute to the existing literature on the topic of discussion.

#### 1.7 Scope of the Study

This study will find out if mathematics laboratory facilities is available in secondary schools in Adamawa state. The study will also investigate the extent to which the use of mathematics laboratory will enhance the student’s performance in mathematics in Adamawa state. The study will further find out if there are necessary equipment that will aid the teaching and learning of mathematics in the laboratory. Lastly, the study will investigate if mathematics laboratory will improve the academic achievement of secondary school students. Hence this study will be delimited to public secondary schools in Yola, Adamawa state.

#### 1.8 Limitation of the Study

##### Financial Constraint

Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).

##### Time Constraint

The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work.

#### 1.9 Definition of Terms

##### Laboratory:

A room or building equipped for scientific experiments, research, or teaching, or for the manufacture of drugs or chemicals.

##### Academic Achievement:

Performance outcomes that indicate the extent to which a person has accomplished specific goals that were the focus of activities in instructional environments, specifically in school, college, and university.

##### Mathematics:

The traditional type of mathematics course that you may remember from your own high school years.

#### 1.10 Organization of the Studies

The study is categorized into five chapters. The first chapter presents the background of the study, statement of the problem, objective of the study, research questions and hypothesis, the significance of the study, scope/limitations of the study, and definition of terms. The chapter two covers the review of literature with emphasis on conceptual framework, theoretical framework, and empirical review. Likewise, the chapter three which is the research methodology, specifically covers the research design, population of the study, sample size determination, sample size, and selection technique and procedure, research instrument and administration, method of data collection, method of data analysis, validity and reliability of the study, and ethical consideration. The second to last chapter being the chapter four presents the data presentation and analysis, while the last chapter(chapter five) contains the summary, conclusion and recommendation.

## Chapter Five

### Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations:

#### 5.1 Introduction

This chapter summarizes the findings on the effect of mathematics laboratory on students academic achievement in mathematics using some selected public secondary schools in Yola, Adamawa state as a case study.The chapter consists of summary of the study, conclusions, and recommendations.

#### 5.2 Summary of the Study

In this study, our focus was on the effect of mathematics laboratory on students academic achievement in mathematics using some selected public secondary schools in Yola, Adamawa state as a case study.The study is was specifically carried out to find out if mathematics laboratory facilities is available in secondary schools in Adamawa state, investigate the extent to which the use of mathematics laboratory will enhance the student’s performance in mathematics in Adamawa state, find out if there are necessary equipment that will aid the teaching and learning of mathematics in the laboratory and investigate if mathematics laboratory will improve the academic achievement of secondary school students.

The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 210 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondent were mathematics teachers and students in some selected public secondary schools in Yola, Adamawa state.

#### 5.3 Conclusion

Based on the findings of this study, the researcher concluded that;

- Mathematics laboratory facilities is available in secondary schools in Adamawa state.
- The extent to which the use of mathematics laboratory enhances the student’s performance in mathematics in Adamawa state is high.
- There are necessary equipment that will aid the teaching and learning of mathematics in the laboratory.
- Mathematics laboratory will improve the academic achievement of secondary school students.

#### 5.4 Recommendation

Based on the responses obtained, the researcher proffers the following recommendations:

- Mathematics teachers should use mathematics laboratory in teaching mathematics.
- Government should establish mathematics laboratory in all schools like other science subjects laboratories
- Seminars/worships should be organized for mathematics teachers in secondary school on the use of mathematics laboratory.
- Mathematics student teachers should be trained on the use of mathematics laboratory in the mathematics methodology class.

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