# Effect Of Mastery Learning Strategy On Senior Secondary Two Students Achievement In Mathematics

## Abstract

This study focused on the effect of mastery learning strategy on senior secondary two students achievement in mathematics in Jos south LGA, plateau state. The study is was specifically focused on determining the differences in the mean achievement scores of students taught mathematics using mastery learning strategy and those students taught using conventional teaching method in Jos south LGA, plateau state and determining the differences between the mean interest scores of students taught mathematics using mastery learning strategy and those taught using conventional teaching method. The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 72 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondent are students in secondary 2 in selected secondary schools in Jos south LGA, Plateau state. The experimental group was taught metalwork technology using mastery learning strategy while the control group was taught using conventional teaching method for the period of four weeks before exposing them to post-test treatment. Two research questions and one null hypothesis were formulated for the study. The mathematics Achievement Test (MAT) was employed for the study as the instrument for data collection. The test items were validated by three experts. The reliability coefficient of the study was determined using Cronbach Alpha and the Reliability coefficient was 0.81. The data collected were analyzed with frequency count and percentages for research questions and t-test statistics was used in testing the hypothesis at 0.05 level of significance. The findings of the study revealed that there was a significant difference in the academic performance of students taught mathematics using mastery learning strategy and students mathematics using cremation teaching method (CTM) in secondary schools in Jos south LGA, Plateau state. Based on the findings the researcher recommends that lecturers should adopt mastery learning strategy in the teaching of mathematics for skill acquisition by students to achieve better. The researcher also recommend that seminar, workshop and conferences should be organized to update lecturers on how mastery learning strategy should be used.

## Table of Content

- Title Page
- Certification
- Dedication
- Acknowledgement
- Table of Content
- List of Tables
- Abstract

### Chapter One:

#### Introduction

- 1.1 Background of the Study
- 1.2 Statement of the Problem
- 1.3 Objective of the Study
- 1.4 Research Questions
- 1.5 Research Hypothesis
- 1.6 Significance of the Study
- 1.7 Scope of the Study
- 1.8 Limitation of the Study
- 1.9 Definition of Terms
- 1.10 Organisations of the Study

### Chapter Two:

#### Review of Literature

- 2.1 Conceptual Framework
- 2.2 Theoretical Framework
- 2.3 Empirical Review

### Chapter Three:

#### Research Methodology

- 3.1 Research Design
- 3.2 Population of the Study
- 3.3 Sample Size Determination
- 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
- 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
- 3.6 Method of Data Collection
- 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
- 3.8 Validity of the Study
- 3.9 Reliability of the Study
- 3.10 Ethical Consideration

### Chapter Four:

#### Data Presentation and Analysis

- 4.1 Data Presentation
- 4.2 Analysis of Data
- 4.3 Answering Research Questions
- 4.4 Test of Hypotheses
- 4.5 Discussion of Findings

### Chapter Five:

#### Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

- 5.1 Summary
- 5.2 Conclusion
- 5.3 Recommendation
- References
- APPENDIX
- QUESTIONNAIRE

## Chapter One

### Introduction

#### 1.1 Background to the Study

Mastery learning is a concept in educational system that cannot be overlooked or skipped whenever there is need to discuss about skill acquisition among students. Mastery learning approach according to Agboho (2014) is the instructional method where students are allowed unlimited opportunities to demonstrate mastery of the content taught. Hence mastery learning is described as the ability of the students to demonstrate effectively the content of the course of study taught. Similarly, Adeyemi (2007) asserted that mastery learning strategy involves a pre-specified criterion level of performance which students must master in order to complete instructional and proceed. Also, according to Wambugo (2008) mastering learning strategy permits students to repeat study materials until they master them. Mastering of a content is said to be achieved only when students are allowed to practice such content repeatedly without failure. In mathematics students are expected to exercise the required competencies and skill needed in the contents before mastery is attained and student are expected to proceed. Also, according to Wambugo [2008] mastery learning strategy permits students to repeat study materials until they master them. Mastering of content is said to be achieved only when students’ academic performances is above average as a result of repeated practice. In mathematics students are required to demonstrate the competences and skills needed in the content before mastery is attained and student are permitted to proceed to next level. In the same vein, Wachanga and Mwanga (2004) noted that for mastering to be achieved emphasis is placed on developing learners’ capabilities for achieving instructional goals. The achievement of instructional goals according to Spencer (1996) is that the content should be planned and organized in such a way that every student can perform and learn to attain more academic achievement according to their capabilities. Stressing more on achievement, Maiyo (2009) posited that in Nigeria, examinations are measure of academic achievement. For instance, senior secondary school certificate and tertiary admission are critical examples of academic achievement.

Academic achievement can be described as the participant examination grade that can be ascertained through scores at the end of the programme. Academic achievement can also be described as the out coming teaching and learning process. In a similar way Imeofor (2019) described academic achievement as a fundamental aspect of everyday life, affecting peoples work, interpersonal relationship, sense of being and leisure. The academic achievement is further defined as the student’s grade obtained at the end of a programme. This grade according to Egbule (2004) is seen as the level of performance of an individual in a particular field of study. But achievement of instructional goal in mathematics is summarized as the testing of skills and competences achieved.

In mathematics, skills are acquired only when the content of metalwork is mastered. According to Odu (2010) the acquisition of the required skills is a means of increasing the productivity power of the nation. However, every citizen should be equipped with practical skills to contribute to the economic growth of the nation. In as much as Nigeria embraces technological growth our youth requires skill acquisition through mastery learning strategy especially in metalwork areas. In view of this skill acquisition according to Ayominke (2010) opinion is that youths should be empowered to acquire appropriate practical skills for the development and employment purposes. This is because graduates of technical and engineering studies are unskillful. And that is why Okoro (2008) opined that product of technical colleges do not have requisite knowledge and skills that can enable them to take up the available jobs or be self-employed. In respect to this happening, the FGN (2013) opined that the intentions of establishing technical and vocational education is to provide technical manpower in applied sciences, technology and business particularly at craft, advance craft and technical levels as well as given training and imparting the necessary skills to individuals for economic self-reliance. These proposals by the FGN can be achieved by adopting mastery learning strategy in the teaching and learning of mathematics for skill acquisition.

Learning can take place in an environment where interest and attention are sustained. The sustenance of interest and attention in learning is only when new instructional methods are injected into the teaching and learning. In as much as new instructional methods are introduced student will be interested to learn the content and achieve better.

Highlighting on this Hazikiel (2012) asserted that interest and achievement which students show in learning the content and the mastery they demonstrate on completion of the course of study is depends to a large extent on the teacher and instructional model used. Instructional model like mastery, learning strategy as introduced may help to arouse interest create attention and induce motivation in learning the contents of mathematics.

Studies reviewed in different study areas identified the effectiveness of mastery learning strategy. Mastery learning strategy requires appropriate teaching methods whereby students are given contents to learn and perfect in them. The students are assessed through performance test whereby successful students proceed to the next level. According to Spencer (1997) mastery learning is the type of learning strategy that requires individual learning strategy and method. It can also be described by Davis and Sorrel (1995) as a strategy that involves the discussion of subject matter content into units that have predetermined objectives whereby students are grouped into units and are expected to demonstrate masteries on units. Students that score up to 70% is allowed to move to the next unit. But students who score below 70% in the performance assessment test have not obtained mastery and are allowed to receive remediation though small group discussions, peer mentoring tutorials.

The students that failed, continues the cycle of studying and testing until mastery is achieved through the process of corrective techniques. But in conventional teaching method, allotment of more time and opportunities were not given to student to improve in their course work (Mevanchde, 2001). But if mastery learning/ is adopted studying and testing the students on the content till high academic performance is achieved is guaranteed. Also, students reviewed on other science and related arts subjects indicated that mastery learning approach has been proven to be an effective teaching technique and positive in assessing achievement, attitude and retention of the concepts (Davis and Sorel, 1995). The use of mastery learning strategy should be adopted to identify its effects on the academic performance of students of mathematics in South East. Other related studies include Udo and Udofia (2014) who conducted an experimental study to investigate the effect of mastery learning strategy on student achievement in symbols, formulae and equations in chemistry. It was found out that students taught using mastery learning strategy performed better than student taught with conventional teaching method. Similarly, Sarita and Jyoti (2014) investigated the effectiveness of mastery learning model on achievement of students of chemistry and found out that students of mastery learning class performed significantly better than those taught with conventional techniques.

In the same vein, Hutescheston (2015) carried out an experimental study to find out the effect of mastery learning approach on students’ motivation in middle level science and found out that students showed an increase in motivation and academic achievement than those taught with conventions teaching method. However, inference drawn from these investigations indicated that student taught with mastery learning in both practical and non-practical courses or subjects performed significantly better than those taught with conventional teaching method. In view of these, there is need to investigate the effect of mastery learning strategy on senior secondary two students achievement in mathematics in Jos south LGA, Plateau state.

#### 1.2 Statement of the Problem

There has been low achievement of students in mathematics learning and assessment in secondary schools in Jos south LGA, Plateau state. The low achievement or performance can be attributed to students in ability to understand and master the topics and continents before proceeding to the next level. Thus, this paper the effect of mastery learning strategy on the academic achievement of mathematics students in secondary schools in Jos south LGA, Plateau state is being or investigated. For sometimes mathematics has been very difficult course for students as it involves practical. Based on this reasons majority of the technicians perform negatively. For this reason, the nation cannot achieve favourable mathematical breakthrough in science as graduates are deficient in skills and competence. Against this backdrop, this study aims to assess the effect of mastery learning strategy on senior secondary two students achievement in mathematics in Jos south LGA, plateau state.

#### 1.3 Objective of the Study

The main objective of the study was to examine the effect of mastery learning strategy on senior secondary two students achievement in mathematics in Jos south LGA, plateau state. specifically, the study aims to;

- Determine the differences in the mean achievement scores of students taught mathematics using mastery learning strategy and those students taught using conventional teaching method in Jos south LGA, plateau state.
- Determine the differences between the mean interest scores of students taught mathematics using mastery learning strategy and those taught using conventional teaching method.

#### 1.5 Research Question

The following research question guided the study:

- What is the difference in the mean performance or achievement scores of students taught mathematics using mastery learning strategy and students taught using conventional teaching method in Jos south LGA, plateau state?
- What is the difference in the mean interest scores of students taught mathematics using mastery learning strategy and those students taught using conventional teaching methods?

#### 1.5 Hypothesis of the study

- H01: There is no significant difference i in the mean achievement scores of students taught mathematics using mastery learning strategy and those taught using conventional teaching method in secondary schools in Jos south LGA, Plateau state.

#### 1.6 Significance of the Study

Mathematics is a subject that causes many negative emotions. One of the main challenges to Mathematics teacher is to make a positive attitude in students toward learning Mathematics, have them enjoy the subject and believe in their ability in as far as learning Mathematics is concerned. Therefore, teachers should be aware of students’ affective beliefs and inter relations of those in learning Mathematics so as to employ more effective strategies in teaching and to improve students’ Mathematics learning by reducing their negative beliefs. The study, therefore, aimed at identifying the difficulties experienced by students in learning Mathematics by comparing the achievement of students’ taught Mathematics through MLS with that of students taught through conventional group learning. The findings of the study may assist the teachers with information that will help them incorporate and adopt the approach in teaching various topics in Mathematics. The Nigeria Institute of curriculum development may use the information to design appropriate interventions that will help improve the students’ performance in mathematics. The study of MLS is therefore a crucial prerequisite for any further attempt to improve the quality of Mathematics education and the levels of student achievement.

#### 1.7 Scope of the Study

The study will analyze the effect of mastery learning strategy on senior secondary two students achievement in mathematics in Jos south LGA, plateau state. The study is limited to some selected Secondary Schools in the area. Hence, the respondents for this study will be obtained from and among secondary school students in the study area.

#### 1.8 Limitation of the Study

In the course of carrying out this study, the researcher experienced some constraints, which included time constraints, financial constraints, language barriers, and the attitude of the respondents. However, the researcher were able to manage these just to ensure the success of this study.

#### 1.9 Definition of Terms

##### Aptitude:

Is the amount of time required by the learner to attain mastery of a learning task

##### Attitude:

Is emotional responses, beliefs, and behaviors towards mathematics.

##### Co-educational Schools:

Is a school where boys and girls are taught together.

##### Competencies:

This refers to both cognitive and affective domain, in this case it will be the achievement in mathematics, the attitude towards mathematics, misconceptions in algebra and self-efficacy.

##### Corrective Teaching:

Will be the activity which will follow formative testing when mastery of the skill had not been achieved.

##### Conventional Group Learning:

Will be the instructional activities that the teacher uses in their day to day teaching.

##### Criterion Referenced Test:

Will be the concluding activity in mathematics in which all the skills in that domain will be tested.

##### Formative Evaluation:

Is the diagnostic procedure used after initial instruction to determine if mastery of a particular skill had been achieved. It will form the basis for corrective teaching where necessary.

##### Level of Achievement:

Refers to the degree of proficiency attained in Mathematics.

##### Mastery Learning:

Refers to the group-based, teacher-paced model that is primarily associated with Bloom and his work.

##### Mastery Learning Strategy:

Is a model where students are expected to master a learning objective or goal, before they can move on to the next goal.

##### Mathematics Achievement:

Is when a student demonstrates mastery (or achievement) when they score over 80 percent accuracy on an assessment..

##### Academic Performance:

This is used in the study to refers to students’ attitude to competition for excellent in their attitude toward participating in classroom activities and home work. It also used to students’ interest in learning.

#### 1.10 Organization of the Study

This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows.

- Chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the (overview, of the study), historical background, statement of problem, objectives of the study, research hypotheses, significance of the study, scope and limitation of the study, definition of terms and historical background of the study.
- Chapter two highlights the theoretical framework on which the study is based, thus the review of related literature.
- Chapter three deals on the research design and methodology adopted in the study.
- Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding.
- Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study.

## Chapter Five

### Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations:

#### 5.1 Introduction

This chapter summarizes the findings on the effect of mastery learning strategy on senior secondary two students achievement in mathematics in Jos south LGA, plateau state. The chapter consists of summary of the study, conclusions, and recommendations.

#### 5.2 Summary of the Study

In this study, our focus was on the effect of mastery learning strategy on senior secondary two students achievement in mathematics in Jos south LGA, plateau state. The study is was specifically focused on determining the differences in the mean achievement scores of students taught mathematics using mastery learning strategy and those students taught using conventional teaching method in Jos south LGA, plateau state and determining the differences between the mean interest scores of students taught mathematics using mastery learning strategy and those taught using conventional teaching method.

The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 72 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondent are teachers and students in secondary 2 in selected secondary schools in Jos south LGA, Plateau state.

#### 5.3 Conclusion

The study investigated the effect of mastery learning strategy on senior secondary two students achievement in mathematics in jos south LGA, plateau state. The study found out that there is significant difference in the academic achievement of students taught using mastery learning strategy in skill acquisition than their counterpart. The study also revealed that interest is a significant factor in learning when adopting a teaching model. Therefore, skill acquisition is effectively achieved by student taught mathematics using mastery learning strategy in secondary schools in Jos south LGA, Plateau state.

#### 5.4 Recommendation

Based on the findings of the study, the following recommendations were made.

- Conferences, workshop and seminars should be organized for teachers to adopt necessary skill needed when using mastery learning strategy for skill acquisition
- Mastery learning strategy should be adopted by teachers of mathematics in teaching the course to achieve excellence in performance
- Mastery learning strategy should be incorporate into school curriculum for effective implementation.
- Mastering learning strategy should be adopted in school curriculum to induce interest in students in learning mathematics.

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