The Effect Of Mass Media Campaign On Family Planning (A Case Study Of Residents Of Enugu)

Project and Seminar Material for Mass Communication

The Effect Of Mass Media Campaign On Family Planning (A Case Study Of Residents Of Enugu)


Abstract


This study was carried out to examine the effect of mass media campaign on family planning using residents of Enugu East LGA, Enugu State as a case study. The study was carried out to determine the extent family planning campaign is aired on mass media accessible to residents in Enugu East LGA, Enugu State, determine whether mass media campaign enhances the knowledge of family planning among residents in Enugu East LGA, Enugu State, determine whether mass media campaign enhances the attitude of residents towards family planning in Enugu East LGA, Enugu State, and determine the extent mass media campaign influence the use of family planning services among residents in Enugu East LGA, Enugu State. The survey design was adopted and the simple random sampling techniques were employed in this study. The population size comprised of residents of Enugu East LGA, Enugu State. In determining the sample size, the researcher conveniently selected 147 respondents and 141 were validated. Self-constructed and validated questionnaire was used for data collection. The collected and validated questionnaires were analyzed using frequency tables. While the hypotheses was tested Chi-square statistical tool. The result of the findings reveals that mass media campaign enhances the knowledge of family planning among residents in Enugu East LGA, Enugu State. Furthermore, the study revealed that the extent mass media campaign influence the use of family planning services among residents in Enugu East LGA, Enugu State is high. Therefore, it is recommended that the government of Nigeria should take advantage of the media in reaching out to her large population with messages that will bring about behavioural change towards family planning utilisation. To mention but a few.


Table of Content


  • Title Page
  • Certification
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Table of Content
  • List of Tables
  • Abstract

Chapter One:

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3 Objective of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Research Hypothesis
  • 1.6 Significance of the Study
  • 1.7 Scope of the Study
  • 1.8 Limitation of the Study
  • 1.9 Definition of Terms
  • 1.10 Organisations of the Study

Chapter Two:

Review of Literature

  • 2.1 Conceptual Framework
  • 2.2 Theoretical Framework
  • 2.3 Empirical Review

Chapter Three:

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Population of the Study
  • 3.3 Sample Size Determination
  • 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
  • 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
  • 3.6 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
  • 3.8 Validity of the Study
  • 3.9 Reliability of the Study
  • 3.10 Ethical Consideration

Chapter Four:

Data Presentation and Analysis

  • 4.1 Data Presentation
  • 4.2 Analysis of Data
  • 4.3 Answering Research Questions
  • 4.4 Test of Hypotheses

Chapter Five:

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • References
  • APPENDIX
  • QUESTIONNAIRE

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

The media as has been established, can provide for audience members a definition of the situation on a variety of issues, by emphasizing certain topics, stressing particular interpretations, and project specific themes.

Simply by their presence, the media have altered the nature of societal communication norms. Large audience have been created that exjpect the media to provide continues flow of news, entertainment, political commentary, and other types of message. People depend on the media for various forms of gratification based on content. If denied such communication, they feel deprived (Bratlie et al..,2018) even in relatively under developed societies, population quickly develop media related habits, once mass communication become available to them in a form they understand.

The potential effect of media in shaping attitudes and behaviour has been the subject of consideration debate. This is so because media influence is modified by many factors or intervention variables. Research also showed us that the images and words these media carry, determine within limitations posed by intervening factors, opinions of peoples and thus their action Warenius et al..,(2016) saw this too. He said “unless you get the right impression, things go wrong”.

It is believed that in the imperfect world, thee is no signal antidote to social malaise but publicity is often a vital step to finding the cure of such anomaly. In this line therefore, it is believed that extensive coverage and true information on the gains of family planning will reach and perhaps affect people’s attitude and belief about family planning.

Family planning as a concept of world social order is as old as man itself. It has been practiced in several reasons. It could be said to be a means of population control other than by disease, war or other natural and man made disasters.

The term “family planning” was only applied to this ageless phenonmenon when the social effects abaqndoned babies, material mortality due especially to illegal abortion and problems of over sized poor families began to seriously bother the minds of sociologist and health workers.

Family planning has received media coverage around the world since inceptions in 1916. Initially, the reaction of people was nothing but antagonistic.

This was perhaps due to misconception and ignorance of the aims and values of family, but as the issues develop it clears the people’s eyes and their perception more enlightened.

Internationally, the world body, the United Nations (UN) through its agency, the world health organization (WHO) has championed the p0ublicity and propaganda campaign for the introduction and acceptance of the modern agitations and clamoring against it. Among which are the social health, religious and education factors influencing the development, modification and some times out right discontinuation of some aspect to the family planning amplified the media coverage of family, and manifested the importance of population in planning for world demographic economic distribution.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

Although it is a truism that the term “family planning is not unknown to most Nigerians, there is still need to clearly define the concept.

  1. Family planning is not just for stopping child bearing.
  2. Evidence shows that family planning is understood as limiting child.
  3. They believe that it is sinful to interfere with injunction to go ahead and procreate.
  4. To determine the effects of exposure to family planning campaign on parents.
  5. Proper identification on a problem determines the direction of the study.
  6. Knowing that Nigerian’s population growth rate is at the alarming rate of 3.4 percent per annum.
  7. The government evidently considers family planning indispensable factors.

1.3 Objectives of the Study

The overall aim of this study is to examine the effect of mass media campaign on family planning using residents of Enugu East LGA, Enugu State as a case study. Hence, the study will be channeled to the following specific objectives;

  1. Determine the extent family planning campaign is aired on mass media accessible to residents in Enugu East LGA, Enugu State.
  2. Determine whether mass media campaign enhances the knowledge of family planning among residents in Enugu East LGA, Enugu State.
  3. Determine whether mass media campaign enhances the attitude of residents towards family planning in Enugu East LGA, Enugu State.
  4. Determine the extent mass media campaign influence the use of family planning services among residents in Enugu East LGA, Enugu State.

1.4 Research Question

The study will be guided by the following questions

  1. What is the extent family planning campaign is aired on mass media accessible to residents in Enugu East LGA, Enugu State?
  2. Does mass media campaign enhances the knowledge of family planning among residents in Enugu East LGA, Enugu State?
  3. Does mass media campaign enhances the attitude of residents towards family planning in Enugu East LGA, Enugu State?
  4. What is the extent mass media campaign influence the use of family planning services among residents in Enugu East LGA, Enugu State?

1.5 Research Hypothesis

  • Ho: Mass media campaign has a positive influence on family planning among residents of Enugu East LGA, Enugu State.
  • Ha: Mass media campaign has a positive influence on family planning among residents of Enugu East LGA, Enugu State.

1.6 Significance of Study

It is envisaged that the outcome of the study will alert the parents population on dangers inherent in large. Family sizes and equally contribute to existing literature in the area of media effects.

Also the study will help the health ministry to determine which media to employ in dissemination family planning information. Above all, it is hoped that the study will further equip media practitioners, communication experts and researchers to come up with a more concrete and more futuristic approach to covering all manners of campaigns without much ado in Nigeria.


1.7 Scope of the Study

The broad objective of this study is to examine the effect of mass media campaign on family planning using residents of Enugu East LGA, Enugu State as a case study. Hence, the respondents of this study will be obtained by residents of Enugu state.


1.8 Limitation of the Study

In the course of carrying out this study, the researcher experienced some constraints, which included time constraints, financial constraints, language barriers, and the attitude of the respondents. In addition, there was the element of researcher bias. Here, the researcher possessed some biases that may have been reflected in the way the data was collected, the type of people interviewed or sampled, and how the data gathered was interpreted thereafter. The potential for all this to influence the findings and conclusions could not be downplayed.

More so, the findings of this study are limited to the sample population in the study area, hence they may not be suitable for use in comparison to other local governments, states, and other countries in the world.


1.9 Definition of Term

Family Planning:

The ability of individuals and couples to attain their desired number of children and plan the spacing and timing of their births through use of contraceptive methods.


1.10 Organization of the Study

The study is categorized into five chapters. The first chapter presents the background of the study, statement of the problem, objective of the study, research questions and hypothesis, the significance of the study, scope/limitations of the study, and definition of terms. The chapter two covers the review of literature with emphasis on conceptual framework, theoretical framework, and empirical review. Likewise, the chapter three which is the research methodology, specifically covers the research design, population of the study, sample size determination, sample size, abnd selection technique and procedure, research instrument and administration, method of data collection, method of data analysis, validity and reliability of the study, and ethical consideration. The second to last chapter being the chapter four presents the data presentation and analysis, while the last chapter(chapter five) contains the summary, conclusion and recommendation.


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations:

5.1 Introduction

This chapter summarizes the findings on the effect of mass media campaign on family planning using residents of Enugu East LGA, Enugu State as a case study. The chapter consists of summary of the study, conclusions, and recommendations.


5.2 Summary of the Study

In this study, our focus was to examine the effect of mass media campaign on family planning using residents of Enugu East LGA, Enugu State as a case study. The study specifically was aimed to determine the extent family planning campaign is aired on mass media accessible to residents in Enugu East LGA, Enugu State, determine whether mass media campaign enhances the knowledge of family planning among residents in Enugu East LGA, Enugu State, determine whether mass media campaign enhances the attitude of residents towards family planning in Enugu East LGA, Enugu State, and determine the extent mass media campaign influence the use of family planning services among residents in Enugu East LGA, Enugu State.

The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 141 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondents are residents of Enugu East LGA, Enugu State.


5.3 Conclusions

Based on the findings of this study, the researcher made the following conclusion.

  1. The extent family planning campaign is aired on mass media accessible to residents in Enugu East LGA, Enugu State is low.
  2. Mass media campaign enhances the knowledge of family planning among residents in Enugu East LGA, Enugu State.
  3. Mass media campaign enhances the attitude of residents towards family planning in Enugu East LGA, Enugu State.
  4. The extent mass media campaign influence the use of family planning services among residents in Enugu East LGA, Enugu State is high.

5.4 Recommendations

Based on the findings of the study, the following recommendations are proffered.

  1. The government of Nigeria should take advantage of the media in reaching out to her large population with messages that will bring about behavioural change towards family planning utilisation.
  2. Advocacy and jingles on media, regular family life education should be employed to orientate the people.
  3. Health facilities and workers should be trained and engaged in community visitation, education and reorientation of the people about the use and importance of family planning.
  4. The implication of large family size should be stressed especially that of poverty and economic hardship.

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