The Effect Of Maritime Insecurity On Port Competitiveness (A Cases Study Of Apapa Port)
This study was carried out on the effect of maritime insecurity on port competitiveness using Apapa Port, Lagos State as a cases study. The study was carried out to determine the extent of maritime insecurity in Nigeria, assess the forms of maritime insecurity prevalent in Nigeria, determine whether maritime insecurity has a negative effect on ports in Nigeria and examine the effects maritime insecurity on ports in Nigeria. The survey design was adopted and the simple random sampling techniques were employed in this study. The population size comprised of staff of Apapa Port, Lagos State. In determining the sample size, the researcher conveniently selected 147 respondents and 141 were validated. Self-constructed and validated questionnaire was used for data collection. The collected and validated questionnaires were analyzed using frequency tables, and mean scores. While the hypotheses was tested chi-square statistical tool. The result of the findings reveals that the forms of maritime insecurity prevalent in Nigeria includes: Maritime Terrorism, Piracy at Sea, Illegal Oil Bunkering at Sea, Drug Trafficking by Sea, Kidnapping or Hostage Taking and Migrant and Weapons Smuggling. Furthermore, the study revealed that maritime insecurity has a negative effect on ports in Nigeria.Therefore,it is recommended that managers of security agencies: the Navy, Police, INTERPOL and other security agencies in the Gulf of Guinea should make efforts to ensure that the efficacy of intelligence gathered or collected is meaningfully usually advanced and dynamic in compliance with global standards. These feats could only be realized when the intelligence officers that are highly educated, innovative, skillful and dedicated persons are recruited into their respective agencies. To mention but a few.
Table of Content
- 1.1 Background of the Study
- 1.2 Statement of the Problem
- 1.3 Objective of the Study
- 1.4 Research Questions
- 1.5 Research Hypothesis
- 1.6 Significance of the Study
- 1.7 Scope of the Study
- 1.8 Limitation of the Study
- 1.9 Definition of Terms
- 1.10 Organization of the Study
Review of Literature
- 2.1 Conceptual Framework
- 2.2 Theoretical Framework
- 2.3 Empirical Review
- 3.1 Research Design
- 3.2 Population of the Study
- 3.3 Sample Size Determination
- 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
- 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
- 3.6 Method of Data Collection
- 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
- 3.8 Validity of the Study
- 3.9 Reliability of the Study
- 3.10 Ethical Consideration
Data Presentation and Analysis
- 4.1 Data Presentation
- 4.2 Analysis of Data
- 4.3 Answering Research Questions
- 4.4 Test of Hypotheses
- 4.5 Discussion of Findings
Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation
- 5.1 Summary
- 5.2 Conclusion
- 5.3 Recommendation
- 5.4 Suggestion for Further Studies
1.1 Background of the Study
The problems of insecurity in the African continent are older than its constitution as a “Political Unity”, formed by sovereign states. Since an early age, it was faced by several obstacles to its territorial integrity, due to a set of factors, many times, external to African interests, such as other peoples and great nations conquers and occupations in the 19th century and, in recent decades, the greed of various actors of International Politics for African spaces (Ginga 2014).
Thus, the increase in the geopolitical importance of African regions, namely the Western and Eastern regions, had been gaining greater political and economic interest from the main world powers, mainly because of their position on the axis of the main routes of world trade and their potential in natural resources, which reinforces the continent’s geostrategic value (Beny 2007). In fact, although the relevance of the oceans in the context of international dynamics is unquestionable, the threats that arise there often seem to be less precise, so for several decades, the continental security approach had a predominantly territorial focus, since the main objective of African States was the assurance of issues considered “priority” (land borders), to the detriment of other issues considered “auxiliaries”, such as maritime security2. As a result, insecurity in these spaces continues to weaken local Damião Fernandes Capitão Ginga 197sovereignty and stability, preventing the harmonious and continuous development of nations, in a scenario marked by continuous changes that generate uncertainty, which sometimes evolve into multiple crises, associated with problems of various kinds3 (Keohane 2002). This context, with positive and negative quadrants, has weighed on the political evolution and development of African States, in a scenario in which the most frequent and main threats to maritime security on the continent, have materialized through actions of maritime terrorism; piracy; illegal unreported and unregulated (IUU) fishing; the smuggling of arms, people and goods; illegal immigration; spills of dangerous substances; the depredation of marine resources; among other manifestations of organized crime.
In March 2019 the UN Security Council held its first open debate on transnational organized crime at sea. It was the first official general debate the Security Council held on maritime insecurity, yet, it was a reflection of the degree to which questions of maritime insecurity in different parts of the world had increasingly occupied the Council’s agenda since the late 2000s. According to Wilson (2018), who has conducted a systematic analysis of all UN Security Council resolutions, in the past decade the Council has issued an unprecedent number of resolutions, amounting to no less than one published every two and a half months. The issues discussed in the Council include piracy in the Gulf of Aden and the Gulf of Guinea, the smuggling of narcotics and weapons and the violation of sanctions, illegal fishing and other maritime crimes, as well as inter-state disputes at sea. Such maritime insecurities are now widely seen as a threat to peace and security, and as a challenge to reach the UN Sustainable Development Goals, in particular goal fourteen addressing life below water.
The UN Security Council agenda is a good representation of the general trajectory that maritime security has taken. Until the 2000s, maritime security was primarily seen as a minor issue on the international agenda of ocean governance and as a problem which could be dealt with by the specialized UN agencies, such as the International Maritime Organization in charge of the regulation of shipping or the Food and Agricultural Organisation and its work on fishery. This has substantially changed. Many states and major international security organizations have started to address questions of maritime security. An initial trigger was concerns over terrorism at sea following the terrorist attacks of 2001 in the US, but it was severe difficulties in containing piracy off the coast of Somalia from 2008 which raised the profile of maritime insecurities as an issue of policy and strategy as well as an academic field of study.
The Gulf of Guinea (GoG) which remains a resource provider and primary conduit for international trade, lying between West and Central Africa; has overtime become a hotbed for multinational syndicates involved in sharp practices including illegal bunkering, piracy, Illegal Unreported and Unregulated (IUU) fishing, human trafficking, narcotics and firearms smuggling and all sorts of insecurity all aimed at destabilizing the region in recent times. Insecurity is a product of failed or poor leadership and governance in Africa, corruption, deficiency in social and economic developments, unhealthy strive and competition for the control of the marine resources by the states in the Gulf region and super foreign powers, giving room for arms and weapons among other factors (African Union, 2010). This situation is in addition to large scale terrorism, resource theft, economic sabotage, piracy and sea robbery along the Gulf of Guinea (GoG) coastlines that affect shipping and lead to hike in maritime insurance which also negatively affects the economy. The Gulf of Guinea is endowed with abundant mineral and natural resources.
The region comprised of about 472 million people in 26 counties, has an estimated 24billion barrels crude oil reserves; contributes five million barrels daily to global crude chain, accounts for 40 percent and 29 percent of Europe‘s and America‘s petroleum products consumption. The region is described to have extended from Liberia to Gabon and includes the island territories of Equatorial Guinea and Sao Tome and Principe. Moreover, it is common to add Sierra Leone and the Guineas to the west and Congo Brazzaville to the east, while addressing policy matters (African Union, 2010).
1.2 Statement of the Problem
This study, therefore, focuses on the maritime industry in Nigeria for two basic reasons: they are connected to the rising insecurity in the Sahel region (a semi-arid geographic band below the Sahara desert and above the southern savannas), and get besieged as a result of the illicit activities in the region thus raising the level of insecurity. Maritime poaching with killings coexists with all sorts of criminal occurrences at sea, such as; illicit arms trafficking, illegal immigration, and, illicit drug trafficking from South America en route to Europe via Guinea-Bissau, Guinea, Ghana, and Nigeria and the situation which has become so disheartening and worrisome (De Souza, 1999).
As it was in the past and going through the year 2013 alone, about forty-six (46) maritime attacks were recorded against ships in the region, while thirty-four (34) attacks were successful (International Maritime Bureau, 2018). This compares with sixty-four (64) attacks in 2012 and 61 in 2011. In almost half of the attacks in 2014 cases, the ship was alongside or at anchor. No crew members were killed nor wounded in this period, but 93 were taken hostage, and 9 ships were hijacked. Ships and crews were subsequently released. This portrays that eighteen (18) percent of the 298 of the global attacks at sea, a decrease of 12.6 percent over the figures of 2012 (African Union, 2010). In the same vein, numerous incidents took place in the past in Niger Delta region of Nigeria, where kidnapping or hostage-taking of expatriates was taking place in the past with demands for ransom. The expatriates are usually kidnapped from offshore oil installation, exploration vessels, tankers that are loading, and, in particular, service vessels shuttling to and from the land. Insecurity at sea that remained order of the day in the past usually emanates from poor leadership and governance in the country with other criminal activities, such as drug trafficking, and oil bunkering (Forest and Souza, 2007). In the Niger Delta, these crimes often have a political origin: the revolt of local people against the annihilation of their farm lands and waters; this is taken to mean an unjust distribution of oil profits. But the situation has taken a calm shape now pursuant to efforts of security agencies in the Gulf (Ibid).
1.3 Objectives of the Study
The main objective of this study is to examine the effect of maritime insecurity on port competitiveness using the apapa port as a case study.
Specific aims of the study are to:
- Determine the extent of maritime insecurity in Nigeria.
- Assess the forms of maritime insecurity prevalent in Nigeria.
- Determine whether maritime insecurity has a negative effect on ports in Nigeria.
- Examine the effects maritime insecurity on ports in Nigeria.
1.4 Research Questions
The following research questions will be answered in this study:
- What is the extent of maritime insecurity in Nigeria?
- What are the forms of maritime insecurity prevalent in Nigeria?
- Does maritime insecurity have a negative effect on ports in Nigeria?
- What are the effects maritime insecurity on ports in Nigeria?
1.5 Research Hypotheses
- Ho: maritime insecurity does not have an effect on ports in Nigeria.
- Ha: maritime insecurity have an effect on ports in Nigeria.
1.6 Significance of the Study
The findings of this study will likely set in motion further research studies into the Nigerian maritime industry and the insecurity plaguing the sector.
This study will also be useful for further studies and future reference.
1.7 Scope of the Study
This study focuses on the effect of maritime insecurity on port competitiveness using the Apapa port as a case study. Specifically, this study focuses on determining the extent of maritime insecurity in Nigeria, determining whether maritime insecurity has an effect on ports in Nigeria, examining the effects maritime insecurity on ports in Nigeria and determining ways to handle maritime insecurity in Nigeria.
1.8 Limitations of the Study
In the course of carrying out this study, the researcher experienced some constraints, which included time constraints, financial constraints, language barriers, and the attitude of the respondents. However, the researcher were able to manage these just to ensure the success of this study.
Moreover, the case study method utilized in the study posed some challenges to the investigator including the possibility of biases and poor judgment of issues. However, the investigator relied on respect for the general principles of procedures, justice, fairness, objectivity in observation and recording, and weighing of evidence to overcome the challenges.
1.9 Definition of Terms
Connected with the sea, especially in relation to seaborne trade or naval matters.
1.10 Organization of the Studies
The study is categorized into five chapters. The first chapter presents the background of the study, statement of the problem, objective of the study, research questions and hypothesis, the significance of the study, scope/limitations of the study, and definition of terms. The chapter two covers the review of literature with emphasis on conceptual framework, theoretical framework, and empirical review. Likewise, the chapter three which is the research methodology, specifically covers the research design, population of the study, sample size determination, sample size, and selection technique and procedure, research instrument and administration, method of data collection, method of data analysis, validity and reliability of the study, and ethical consideration. The second to last chapter being the chapter four presents the data presentation and analysis, while the last chapter(chapter five) contains the summary, conclusion and recommendation.
Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations:
This chapter summarizes the findings on the effect of maritime insecurity on port competitiveness using Apapa Port, Lagos State as a cases study.The chapter consists of summary of the study, conclusions, and recommendations.
5.2 Summary of the Study
In this study, our focus was to examine the effect of maritime insecurity on port competitiveness using Apapa Port, Lagos State as a cases study. The study specifically was aimed at todetermine the extent of maritime insecurity in Nigeria, assess the forms of maritime insecurity prevalent in Nigeria, determine whether maritime insecurity has a negative effect on ports in Nigeria and examine the effects maritime insecurity on ports in Nigeria.
The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 141 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondents arestaff of Apapa Port, Lagos State.
Based on the findings of this study, the researcher made the following conclusion.
- The extent of maritime insecurity in Nigeria is high.
- The forms of maritime insecurity prevalent in Nigeria includes: Maritime Terrorism, Piracy at Sea, Illegal Oil Bunkering at Sea, Drug Trafficking by Sea, Kidnapping or Hostage Taking and Migrant and Weapons Smuggling.
- Maritime insecurity has a negative effect on ports in Nigeria.
- The effects maritime insecurity on ports in Nigeria includes: lack of governance, ineffective social security apparatus, poor revenue from ports and lack of investment.
Based on the findings of the study, the following recommendations are proffered.
- Managers of security agencies: the Navy, Police, INTERPOL and other security agencies in the Gulf of Guinea should make efforts to ensure that the efficacy of intelligence gathered or collected is meaningfully usually advanced and dynamic in compliance with global standards. These feats could only be realized when the intelligence officers that are highly educated, innovative, skillful and dedicated persons are recruited into their respective agencies.
- The officers saddled with security intelligence in the agencies should be regularly trained and re-trained most especially on intelligence analysis or strategic intelligence.
- There should be an existing database on migrant smuggling in order allow the policymakers to better understand the phenomena as well as to develop workable policies that would promote safe and orderly migration in the Gulf of Guinea region.
- The study recommends that there must be an armada of drones that should be launched and deployed so at to monitor the movement of oil vessels as this will be a game-changer, if effectively implemented.
- Countries in the region with the support of regional organizations like the ECOWAS, ECCAS, ICC and relevant international organisations should continue to ratify and fully domesticate the provisions of the relevant international conventions including UNCLOS 1982, SUA and Port States Measures Agreement.
- Efforts should be intensified towards locating and blocking all the sources of maritime terrorists‘ funding; this measure or action would definitely allow their (terrorists) activities to cease on the sea.
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