The Effect Of Manpower Planning And Development On Public Service Delivery In The Public Sector
The role of manpower planning and development in promoting sustainable development of any nation cannot be underestimated. The socio-economic and political development of Nigeria to a large extent depends on the quality and quantity of existing human resources. This led to the establishment of National Manpower Board (NMB) in 1962 and other subsequent agencies to undertake responsibilities of the Human resource development. Though ideals do not approximate reality, today manpower planning and staff development in Nigerian public sectors had become history. This is partly the nature of dynamics of our political and economic environment, and other internal variables. The implication of this development for Nigeria development in the next century is a mirage. This is because without effective manpower planning and systematic staff development strengthened by deliberate policy and utilization of what has been built; Nigerian development in next century is still a mirage. It is against the backdrop that makes this study imperative. The study is conducted into five chapters. Chapter one deals with the introduction, statement of problem, significance of study, scope and limitation of study, the existing literature on the topic was reviewed in second chapter, it also involve hypotheses and theoretical framework; in chapter three, research design, method of data collection, method of data presentation and analysis were discussed. In chapter four, data collected from the field work were presented and analyzed. The researcher generally summarized the issues on the topic and proffer solution on the identified problems.
1.1 Background of the Study
In recent times, world attention is being focused on the importance of manpower planning and development as panacea to problems associated with economic growth of nations. This is due to the fact that the growth of tangible capital stock of a nation depends to a considerable degree on human capital development. Without adequate investment in developing human capital which is the process of increasing knowledge, skills and the capacities of people in the country, the possibility of the growth of that nation might be minimal (Gyang cited in Eleyowo, Salako, and Oketokun, 2015).
The success of any organization whether drawn from the public sector or private sector in the contemporary business world depends on the quality of human resources available to it to initiate and implement its policies and programmes. According to Solkhe and Chaudhary (2011) human resource is the most vital factor of production and labour productivity. They also maintained that a positive future-oriented human resource development is essential for the efficient and effective service delivery in the public.
In line with this, Appah, Coleman and Busine (2011) pointed out that the public sector especially in the developed world often invest several millions of money on training and development of their human capital for effective service delivery. This demonstrates the importance government attach to its human resource in the achievement of their national goals. However, in the developing world like Nigeria little or nothing is being done to plan and develop employees in many public corporations, employees often become obsolete like machines thereby hindering their ability to effectively and efficiently deliver the needed services to the people (Odumeru and Ilesanmi, 2013).
The development of indigenous manpower to serve as the propelling force for public service delivery in the public sector is no doubt a key to Nigeria’s socio-economic and political development. This is quite indispensable considering the argument of the concept of transfer of technology as a catalyzing tool for the development of the developing countries of which Nigeria is one (Ake cited in Agunyai, 2015).
The history of planning is as old as man himself. Planning started from the ancient era during the primitive period when there were no industries or firms. Planning is the process of setting goals, developing strategies, and outlining tasks and schedules to accomplish the goals of an organization. It includes the selection of objectives, policies, procedures and programmes from among alternatives. According to Terry (2002), planning is a continuous process and there is no end to it. It involves continuous collection, evaluation and selection of data, and scientific investigation and analysis of the possible alternative courses of action and the selection of the best alternative.
Manpower planning is a systematic analysis of human resource needs in order to ensure that right number of employees with necessary skills are available when they are required (Igbinomwanhia, 2010). An organization’s human resource department complete several tasks relevant to its workers including collecting of information, creating objectives, goals and making conclusion in order for the organisation to achieve its goals. The reason for using manpower planning in the public sector is to find out how many employees do the organization have, what kind of workers do the organization have, how an organization should use their available resources and how can the company stay and maintain its workers.
However, it is important to state that the lack of adequate emphasis on manpower planning and development as a tool for development in Nigeria on the part of government as well as the organized private sector could not be far-fetched from the lack of understanding of both the concept and methods for manpower planning and development in the post-colonial Nigerian State in which the process of human resource planning and development for national growth was distorted by colonialism with the attendant negative orientation that was injected into the public sector (Ekpo in Agunyai, 2015). Thus, manpower development became an elitist design that was geared to favour capitalist mode of production in which labour was relegated to the background among the factors of production (Monday, 2009).
Manpower planning and development helps to ensure that organisational members possess the knowledge and skills they need to perform their jobs effectively, take on new responsibilities, and adapt to changing conditions (Jones, George & Hill, 2000). It is further argued that manpower planning and development “helps improve quality, customer satisfaction, productivity, morale, management succession, business development and profitability.” Hence, this study seeks to investigate the effect of manpower planning and development on public service delivery in the public sector with specific reference to Badagry Local Government Area (LGA) of Lagos State.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
The quality and quantity of service delivery by the public sector for two decades now have generated some serious national concerns. There have been sharp drop in effectiveness and efficiency with which the public sector discharge their constitutional responsibilities. This is justified by pathetic nature of the high rates of under development across the length and breadth of Nigeria. This is as a result of nonchalant attitude of the government and management of public sector over human resources planning and development which are essential for any nation that wants to remain relevant in the present dynamic society.
Regrettably in the Nigerian public sector emphasis has shifted from manpower planning and staff development to controlling and sharing of the national cake meant for public service delivery. Human resources planning and development are considered as luxury affairs and human resources supply is seen as an elastic item which can be expanded anywhere leading to acute neglect of manpower planning with its attendant effect on employees’ poor performance.
Furthermore, there is highly recognized inadequate manpower planning and development processes in various public organizations. There is growing evidence that inadequate development of employees contributed to poor service delivery with its associated long-run bankruptcy of the public sector in Nigeria. This is traceable to poor manpower planning. In view of the above, manpower planning, recruitment and selection, training and development, promotion and compensation which are the critical aspects of human resources management had been neglected and manipulated by incompetent personnel managers which in turn have hindered productivity, efficiency and performance of the Nigerian public sector (Omisore and Okofu, 2014). It is against this backdrop that this research study seeks to investigate theeffect of manpower planning and development on public service delivery in the public sector with specific reference to Badagry Local Government Area (LGA).
1.3 Objectives of the Study
The major objective of this study is to assess the effect of manpower planning and development on public service delivery in the public sector.
Other specific objectives are:
- To examine the relationship between human resources planning and employee productivity in the public sector.
- To determine the relationship between manpower training and development and efficiency in the Nigeria public sector.
- To assess the roles of manpower planning in enhancing service delivery in the public sector.
- To identify current challenges to manpower planning and development in the Nigerian public sector.
1.4 Research Questions
This research project will be guided by the following research questions;
- What is the relationship between human resources planning and employee productivity in the public sector?
- To what extent does manpower training and development promote efficiency in the Nigeria public sector?
- What is the role of manpower planning in enhancing service delivery in the public sector?
1.5 Research Hypotheses
The under listed hypotheses will be tested at 5% level of significance:
- Ho: There is no significant relationship between human resources planning andemployee productivity in the public sector.
Hi: There is a significant relationship between human resources planning and employee productivity in the public sector.
- Ho: Manpower training and development is not related to efficiency in the Nigeria public sector.
Hi: Manpower training and development is significantly related to efficiency in the Nigeria public sector.
- Ho: Manpower planning does not have a significant effect on service delivery in the public sector.
Hi: Manpower planning has a significant effect on service delivery in the public sector.
Summary, Recommendation and Conclusion
The result of the study has show that man power planning and development are two indomitable pillars that determine the effectiveness and efficiency of any organization whether public and private sector. Manpower planning plays important role in translating organizational goals as put forth in mission statement and business planning into human resource objective, making it possible for the organization to realize its stated goals. Human resource planning is ostentatiously guided by the desire to have right calibers of employee in an organization in a right job specification and at right time which make room for effectiveness and efficiency.
In other words, the productivity of an organization can be measure to the extent to which organization plan for its future manpower needs acquired them and develop their employee in order to get best out of them.
Human resource planning and development are the competitive strategies of organization. Any organization which wants to be progressive and successful must be dynamic in order to meets the societal socio-economic and political development needs. Manpower planning and development prepares organization or government parastatals to remain relevant and current in dynamic society and to keep tract with current event and methods. It helps organization to take advantage of opportunities and minimize risk.
In addition the information on current manpower existing in an organization and organizational objectives informs all aspects of human resources planning process recruiting from forecasting, action plan and implementation to evaluation and redesigning of the human resources plan. So manpower planning process is a vicious cycle that is inbuilt in corporative organizational plan.
Further more manpower planning process is a systematic activities, in which successful accomplish of any stage leads to another and its dependents nature with the general organizational plan leads to achievement of overall organizations objectives/goals.
This study has exposes to its totality that human resource of an organization is its essential assets as the major stock of industrialized country is not its physical resources, financial or information resources but revolves solely on the calibers of human resources. According to the author of the best seller “in search of Excellence”, if you want productivity and financial resources that goes with it, you must treat your workers as your important assets.
Based on the context this research work revealed that manpower planning and development are the major tools for development of not only in the public sector but all private sectors.
The research work in the paper shoes that merit system is no longer considered because political associates, friends and relations of the political incumbents, under the condition/circumstance, manpower planning process and manpower supply procedure become irritating encumbrance which must be eliminated. Consequently, this condition gives use to employment of mediocre, whose effort constitute a cog in the wheel of progress of the government. When merit system is not considered productivity retards. This is the major reason local government today remains unproductively.
In addition, most organization especially local government neglect the adequate use of manpower inventory and forecasting in human resources management which was also worsen by the poor personnel data management. It has resulted to over staffing and/ or understaffing, duplication of and agencies fighting with emergencies when the need areas, procurement of wrong hand which have devastating effect on the realization of organizational goal and cost effectiveness.
Moreover, building of employee’s capacity is a veritable tool for inducing maximum performance of workers. This is because staff development has the ability of increasing the confidence, motivation and commitment of staff; it enhances the responsibility of workers, provides recognition and the possibility of increase pay and promotion and it gives personnel satisfaction and achievement, and broaden opportunities for career progression.
Staff training and development play important roles in imparting of necessary skills, knowledge and attitudinal change needed by employees for effective and optimum performance on the job. The study reveals that many staff has not receive and other additional training programme, despite the federal government effort in introducing three universities (UNN, OAU and ABU) basically for the training of local government staff. Consequently, the dearth of qualified professionals such as engineers, architects, accountants, doctors, nurses, Agriculture extension workers and administrators continue to militate against effective performance in most local government.
Various organizations both public and private, local government in particular has shown concern on how to improve the performance of the civil service. This desire to improve the performance of civil service can be supported by the number of commissions such as Morgan commission of (1965) Adebo commission of 1971, Udoji commission of 1974 and civil service reform of 1988 and many others that had been set up to examine and make recommendations to government in how to improve performance of civil service.
Though ideals do not approximate, these efforts of federal republic of Nigeria had not yield a commensurate impact on the quality and quantity of service delivery of many organization. In line with the above, this research work so far has adduce relevant data that exposed to its totality the poor performance of local government thereby inhibiting the rapid development of counting.
Sequel to the above scenario, this research work adduced recommendations analyze here under.
Local government administration in Nigeria could be given a new meaning if right attention would be given to manpower planning and development. Manpower planning must be linked with the general organizational plan and objectives. This will ensure that place of manpower planning in achieving organization objective will not be displaced in pursuit of goals of an organization. Management should give adequate commitment to manpower planning process. This is a loop of chain directed towards achievement the general objective of organization. Manpower planning process will salvage organization from employing unqualified personnel. Each stage is a steeping stone that connect to another stage which finally leads to enhancement of productivity.
The use of vital statistics is essential for manpower planning. Effective use of relevant data will enhance the quality of manpower planning which will in turn promote quality of service delivery. These vital statistics are mainly drawn from manpower inventory, organizational objective, organizational financial resources and organizational market and they are necessary in projection of future manpower needs.
This entails deducing future demand from past and present trends. It will aid local government in decision making in recruiting professional in relation of analyses job content and it gives management direction of recruiting internally or external or to retrench workers because of organization redundancies. Personnel data are critical in any organization in pursuit of excellence so it is necessary for organization to lean much on critical analysis of data in manpower planning as it for the basis of effectiveness.
Effective data management is crucial for any organization that wants to have competitive edge over other organization manual method of data management is obsolete in this our modern society. Local government should improves its data management activities through the use of computerize methods. This will aid easy recording and retrieval. Computerize method in data management will reduce drastically the problem of delay in manpower decision making and ensure effectiveness and efficiency.
The power delegated to chairman of local government by local government service commission which empowered him to influence the recruitment of employee in grade level of 01 to 06 should be removed as it is detrimental to future development of this country. Local government chairman in respect to the delegated power misplaced the place of merit system to recruitment of party loyalists, political associates, thugs, friends and his blood relations.
In sequel to the above scenario, the Career Officer (Head of PersonnelManagement) should hand the employment of junior staff in connection with other members of Junior Staff Management Committee. Local government chairman should be performing a supportive role. This will helps to enthrone meritocracy instead of employment of people based on political patronage. It will position local government as veritable organ for rural transformation.
The strategic manpower training and development are very enormous in enhancing management skill and employee potential. Local Government Service Commission should increase the number of candidate they select yearly for in-service training. Not only that, commission should also embark on inspectorate tour in several local governments in order to investigate if beneficiaries are giving benefit.
Specifically local government should embark on regular training, work shop, conference and utilization of the three universities in training their staff. There is growing evidence that investment in training is associated with long run profitability. Trainers could be invited from institution of leaving consultant firm to teach the workers in specific area.
To boast the finance of local government, there is need for constitutional reform the section 162 (6) which mandated each state to maintain a special “state joint local government account” should be amended and review. This is because the state government uses the opportunity provided by this constitutional provision to hijack the resources meant for local government. Many Local Governments especially ones in rural areas which their financial sources are too limited rely heavily on federal allocation. Direct allocation should be used. This will help to salvage the present local government from financial problem.
Federal government should strengthen their external audit board which will help them to mount constant investigation and supervision on financial matters of local government so as to curb corruption and financial mismanagement of local government.
Human capital is essential and scarce resource of local government. No country can boast of political, economic and social development without stable and adequate manpower. It is quite clear that local government cannot have required professional, technical and skilled manpower that can accelerate even and rapid development in Nigeria without manpower planning and development.
In the foregoing, the research has undertaken critical analysis between manpower planning process, staff development and productivity of local government in Lagos State. It is obvious that from the researchable variable that local government in Nigeria had not incorporate manpower planning and staff development in general organizational plan. With reference to identified problems in the study such as lack of commitment to manpower planning process, inadequate manpower inventory, inadequate use personnel data in forecasting, failure to strengthen strategies for training of workers, political patrols which result to employing of medicine and failure to use planning as a rational are responsible for low performance of local government in discharging of their constitutional goal.
Effective manpower planning reduces excessive recruitment and selection; regulate training and transfer, and thereby ensuring maximum productivity. Manpower planning should not be carried out in isolation of other corporate planning, but should be properly combined in order to enhance effective and efficient service delivery.
Manpower planning should be a continuous process with skilled employees continually developed. Finally, since the human factor is the most important of organizational resources, their quality determine the quality of organizational output and that of the nation’s economy in general, management therefore, needs to take their development and other issues like compensation package serious.
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