The Effect Of Malnutrition In Children From 1 – 5 Years – A Case Study Of Kumbotso LGA Of Kano State

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The Effect Of Malnutrition In Children From 1 – 5 Years – A Case Study Of Kumbotso LGA Of Kano State


Abstract


The study examined the effect of malnutrition in children from 1– 5 years a case study of Kumbotso LGA of Kano State. The study had four objectives, four research questions. Survey and observation method were used for research design of the study, questionnaire was adopted as research instrument of data collection and data were analysed in tabulated using contingency tables such as frequency and percentages. The study found that poor nutrition among children under-five years cause poor development of a child whether physical, social, emotional, intellectual etc and also cause lack of interest and study also found that about 90% of the respondent agreed that children that are well nourished perform better academically person that malnourished of 3 years above. The study concluded that parents ought to have some basic knowledge on how and when to feed their children given all the benefit of breastfeeding, mothers should breastfeed their babies for the first six month of life disregarding their traditional and cultural beliefs. The study further recommended that there should be an urgent need to invest in programmes that will enhance the knowledge of infant nutrition in Nigeria which the parents should follow to avoid malnutrition among children and public enlightenment campaigns directed at dissuading customers/consumers from the use of infant formula should be adopted and encouraged to do away with the cultural beliefs associated with breastfeeding.


Table of Contents


Preliminary Page(s)

  • Title page
  • Approval page
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgment
  • Abstract
  • Table of contents

Chapter One:

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the study
  • 1.2 Statement of the problem
  • 1.3 Objectives of the study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Significant of the study
  • 1.6 Scope and limitation of the study
  • 1.7 Definition of terms

Chapter Two:

Literature Review

  • 2.0 Introduction
  • 2.1 Child malnutrition
  • 2.2 Causes of poor malnutrition
  • 2.2.1 Poverty
  • 2.2.2 Sanitation
  • 2.2.3 Social inequality factor
  • 2.2.4 Diseases
  • 2.2.5 Maternal factor
  • 2.3 Result of good nutrition
  • 2.4 Nutritional status of children of 1 – 5 years
  • 2.5 Stunting among children from 1 – 5 years
  • 2.6 Pre-natal and post natal nutrition
  • 2.6.1 Anti-natal nutrition
  • 2.6.2 Post-natal nutrition

Chapter Three:

Research Methodology

  • 3.0 Introduction
  • 3.1 Anthropometric measurement
  • 3.2 Design of the study
  • 3.3 Population of the study
  • 3.4 Sample size
  • 3.5 Sampling techniques
  • 3.6 Instrument of data collection
  • 3.7 Data collection procedure
  • 3.8 Method of data analysis

Chapter Four:

Data Analysis and Presentation

  • 4.1 Introduction
  • 4.2 Personal data of respondents
  • 4.3 The effect of malnutrition in children from 1 – 5 years

Chapter Five:

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.0 Introduction
  • 5.1.1 Summary of finding
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendations
  • References
  • Appendix I: questionnaire
  • Appendix II: Malnutrition children picture

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

Nutrition is essential for life. Growth and development of an individual is determined by the quality of food consumed. The nutritional status of any person is dictated by the quality and quantity of nutrients absorbed and the body’s ability to use them for its metabolic needs. People who have a good nutritional status have no malnutrition. Malnutrition is the condition that occurs when the body is not getting the right amount of vitamins, minerals and other nutrients, required to maintain healthy functioning of tissues, organs and the body system in general, (John, 2013). The most vulnerable group prone to malnutrition is children due to their weak immune system. Children are prone to diseases, infection and malnutrition because their immune system are not fully developed and are dependent on others for their basic needs, and this stage of life is a critical stage that requires growth and development, hence the need for sufficient nutrients that will aid them in their growth and development, (UNICEF, 2013).

In developing countries, millions of children suffer from poor nutrition. There is now a large and increasing evidence to indicate that poor nutrition affects children’s cognitive motor and behaviour development both pre and post natal. The situation is further complicated in that children who suffer from poor nutrition usually come from poor socio-cultural environment, and suffers from myriad of deprivation and disadvantages that could themselves be detrimental to intellectual and behavioral development. It is upon this fact, that the researcher found it necessary to be involved in such an important part of the child’s development. No one is in doubt that the rate at which children under the ages of fifteen (15) years suffer is of course an issue of national urgency.

As at 2006, poor nutrition continues to be a worldwide problems. According to the food and agricultural organization of the United Nations “850 millions people worldwide were undernourished in 1999 to 2005, the most recent years for which figures was available”, and the number of malnourished people has recently been increasing (FAO, 2007). Malnutrition is more common in developing countries aside under-five children certain groups have higher rates of under nutrition including women who are pregnant or breast feeding and the elderly under nutrition becomes more common due to physical, psychological and socials factors (Ronnie, Rosenthnal, Micheal, Zenilman Mark and Katic, 2011). In revaluating the effect of poor nutrition on a child’s development, the researcher traditionally focus on motor and cognitive development in children from 1 – 5 years. However, it is critical to evaluate social and emotional development as well, because these factors may be equally to important to an individual’s success in life.

Furthermore, Poor nutrition is a cause of deficiency disease in humans that are directly or indirectly caused by a lack of essential nutrients in the diet. Poor nutrition is as old as man’s existence on earth. Nutrition particular in protein and energy giving food which the world health organization (WHO) referred to as silent emergency is an accomplice in at least half of the 10.4 million children death each year. According to Awake (2003) poor nutrition covers a wide range of illness from under nourishment due to a lack of one or more nutrient such as vitamins and mineral deficiency to obesity and other diet related to chronic diseases. The world health organization (2010) reported that poor nutrition is not limited to children only. However, developed countries are not free from poor nutrition. All cells need nutrients to grow and work. Lack of vitamins, mineral calories and protein can weaken your immune system and make it less able to find and destroys germs. This means that people who are poorly nourished are more likely to develop infection. People who are malnourished either do not take in enough calories and nutrients, or the body can’t use the food it takes in. in that way, it can weaken the immune system. Poor nutrition can affect children performance in school and is consistently reported as one of the causes of most death in our country that is, in Nigeria. However, poor nutrition occurs as a result of deficiencies in all food nutrient that are being taken by us. This is both quality and quantity that lead to poor nutrition in man. If the food eaten by the person is very low in calorific value that may result to only a little energy supplied of the body or the immune system, this condition is also called marasmus.

Protein – calorie malnutrition is called kwashiorkor, the name “Kwashiorkor” is said to come from west Africa and means “Deposed child” kwashiorkor is a nutritional disorder of children that occurs after a baby is weaned from the breast. If treated promptly, the prognosis is good, but many proteins have stunted physical development. Kwashiorkor is essentially a disease of poor socio economic condition. However protein calories and nutrition is the most serious and widespread form of deficiency disease in the world today and occurs most frequently in children the years of rapid growth (Scrimchaw, 1997)


1.2 Statement of the Problems

Evaluation of effects of malnutrition among pre-school children is a very vital issue often under reported in pediatrics practice and in this part of the world, its importance therefore cannot be downplayed especially its impact on health which had been mentioned above. Poor nutrition causes health problems. Malnutrition is a poor condition that occurs when people do not consistently consume or absorb the right amounts and typed of food and essential nutrients (CS-SUNN, 2014).

The main indicator for malnutrition is stunting (when children are too short for their age). Growth stunted children have poor physical growth and development of the brain, preventing them from thriving and living up to their full potentials. There are factors which influence malnutrition among the vulunerable group which links to the poor physical growth and development of the under-five children year, the factors include poverty, ignorance, lack of food disease condition, educational level, large family size and disaster [WHO, 2010; Akanbiem, 2014; Gulat, 2010] and magnitude of these factors vary from one place to another (URT, 2010.)

As a result of all mentioned and aforementioned, there is need for the study as its importance not be overemphasized. This study therefore is aimed at examine the effect of malnutrition in children from 1-5 years age in Kumbotso local government area of Kano State.


1.3 Objective of the Study

The study is aimed at findings out the effect of malnutrition in children from 1 – 5 years age. The specific objectives include of the following:

  1. To examine the causes of poor nutrition in the children.
  2. To examine the effect of the adequate nutrition of children of that age of 1 – 5 years.
  3. To examine the relationship between anti-natal and post natal nutrition.
  4. Determine the pregnant mother diet stunting growth among children under-five years and how to overcome the effect through useful recommendation.

1.4 Research Questions

The following research questions were formulated.

  1. Does poor nutrition in children causes poor psycho motor development and interest?
  2. Does poor nutrition have direct effect on children’s central nervous system?
  3. Do children that are well nourished perform better academically than malnourished ones?
  4. What is the result of poor nutrition to children?
  5. What is the level of stunting rate among children under-five years and how to overcome stunting growth?

1.5 Significance of the Study

The benefits that could be derived from the outcome of the research work are as follows:

  1. It will provide useful information to parents on how best to provide the necessary nutrition to their children.
  2. Identification of the causes of poor nutrition on children and the implementation of the recommendations suggestion by various nutritional bodies that will lead to better and healthy nutrition.
  3. The result of the research work will be important to parents home economics in meal planning, meal managers community.
  4. Lastly, this research work tends to make health workers guide.

1.6 Scope of the Study

The study is based on the prevailing situation of children under the ages of five years in Kumbotso local government area of Kano State. The scope is going to cover only one local government and only on children from 1 – 5 years only.


1.7 Definitions of Operational Terms

1. Malnutrition:

Refer to as lack of food nutrients in the body or lack of adequate nourishment.

2. Nutrition:

This is the series of process by which the living organism obtain food substance needed to produce energy and materials for their growth, activities and reproduction.

3. Poor nutrition:

This is a situation of having a very small amount of required nutrient.

4. Cognitive Development:

This is the gradual growth of the child’s mental process of understanding. Also Cognitive development is a field of study in neuroscience and psychology focusing on a child’s development in terms of information processing, conceptual resources, perceptual skill, language learning.

5. Child Development:

This means gradual growth, which becomes more advanced stronger and more efficient. Child development entails the biological, psychological and emotional changes that occur in human beings between birth and the end of adolescence, as the individual progresses from dependency to increasing autonomy. It is a continuous process with a predictable sequence, yet having a unique course for every child.

6. Intellectual Development:

This means the development of the child’s ability to think in a logical way and understanding.

7. Motor Development:

This is the gradual growth of the body movement produced by the muscular and control by nerves.

8. Balanced Diet:

Balanced diet means choosing a wide variety of food and drinks from all the food groups. It also means eating certain things in moderation, namely Saturday fat, cholesterol, refined sugar, salt and alcohol. Balanced diet is also a diet that contains adequate amounts of all the necessary nutrients required for healthy growth.

9. Unbalanced Diet:

Unbalanced diet is when you don’t get (at least) the minimum amounts of each food group every day. It is also a diet that has too much of some nutrients and not enough of others.

10. Marasmus:

Marasmus is a progressive wasting of the body, occurring mostly in young children and associated with insufficient intake or mal-absorption of food. It is also conditions that deal with talking of food that are low in calorific value.

11. Anti-Natal Care:

Is the care given to a pregnant women before given birth.

12. Post Natal Care:

Is the care given to a mother after delivered the baby.

13. Calorific Value:

Calorific value is the amount of heat produced by the complete combustion of a material or fuel. It is also the measure of hearty power and is dependent upon the composition of the gas.

14. Morbidity:

This means the presence of disease or disease conditions.

15. Stunting Growth:

Consequence of chronic under nutrition in children arising from insufficient food intake and exposure to infections over long period.


The Effect Of Malnutrition In Children From 1 – 5 Years – A Case Study Of Kumbotso LGA Of Kano State


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The Effect Of Malnutrition In Children From 1 – 5 Years – A Case Study Of Kumbotso LGA Of Kano State


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