Effect Of Lecture And Demonstration Method On The Academic Achievement Of Students In Chemistry In Some Selected Secondary Schools

Project and Seminar Material for Chemistry Education

Effect Of Lecture And Demonstration Method On The Academic Achievement Of Students In Chemistry In Some Selected Secondary Schools


Abstract


This study was carried out to determine the effect of lecture and demonstration methods on academic achievement of students in Chemistry in the Bariga Local Government Area of Lagos State. Fifty eight (58) Chemistry students (boys and girls) in the Senior Secondary School One (SS1) from two randomly selected schools were involved in the study. Necessary data were collected and the validated reliable data were analyzed using t-test at a significant level of 0.05. Results obtained revealed that students perform better in Chemistry when taught using the demonstration method as compared to the lecture method. The boys and girls are better in academic achievement when taught using demonstration method than when lecture method was used. The demonstration method shows equality in the performance of boys and girls. Hence the adoption of demonstration methods in the teaching and learning of Chemistry and science in general is hereby recommended.


Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of Study

The level of education has increase overtime with improved method of teaching and demonstration in most secondary schools today in Nigeria. Over the years, there have being an increased rate of poor performance in chemistry due to inexperienced teachers and the unavailability of instructional materials to demonstrate before the students while teaching subject like chemistry.

This effect is mostly noticed in most of the village schools; maybe due to lack of infrastructural development and finances to run the activities of the schools.

Take bariga local government for instance as a case study; Bariga local government is among the interior areas of Lagos state with limited resources and poor infrastructure such as good schools, hospitals etc.

Since the intervention of the federal government of Nigeria as regard the poor academic performance of most students in chemistry, there have being a great improvement in terms of the academic achievement of students in learning chemistry.

Series of programs have created by the federal government of Nigeria through the Nigeria union of teachers (NUT) to improve teaching methods among teachers of most secondary schools in Bariga local government area of Lagos.

The act of demonstration with instructional materials during chemistry class is very important to enhance the students’ achievement in learning chemistry since images stick more than words in the mind of students.

Chemistry is a subject that has to do with chemicals with different colours and textures; take for instance a chemical like copper which is bluish in colour can stick properly in the mind of students when the students see the chemical. A chemistry teacher can tell the students the colour of a chemical, at the end of the day most students tends to forget most of this colours.

Statistics shows that most schools that adopt the method of teaching and demonstration tend to produce better students than those schools that teach students without instructional materials.


1.2 Statement of Problem

Lecture and demonstration method have improve the academic achievement of most students in learning chemistry; but the case is different with Bariga local government area of Lagos some because of lack of infrastructure such as lack of constant supply of electricity, lack of good roads, poor laboratory, dilapidated school library and lack of experienced teachers and lack of instructional materials for demonstration during teaching.

The federal government of Nigeria through the Nigerian union of teachers has put in so much effort to see to the development of most of the schools in Bariga local government area of Lagos.


1.3 Aims and Objectives of Study

The effect of poor academic achievement of students in learning chemistry due to lack of lecture and demonstration method in learning chemistry has led to the formulation of the following objectives to help improve learning among secondary schools in Bariga local government area of Lagos; some of the objectives are stated below:

  1. To elicit information on the importance of lecture and demonstration method teaching and learning of chemistry
  2. To determine the roles of the federal government of Nigeria in the development of most schools in Bariga local government
  3. To determine the causes of poor academic performance of students in chemistry
  4. To determine the role of teachers in the student’s choice of learning chemistry
  5. To assess information on the effect of learning on the academic achievement of students

1.4 Research Questions

In order to achieve the following objectives the study put up the following questions to have deep understanding of the topic

  1. What is the importance of lecture and demonstration method in teaching and learning of chemistry?
  2. What are the roles of the federal government of Nigeria in the development of most schools in Bariga local government?
  3. What are the causes of poor academic performance of students in learning chemistry?
  4. What are the roles of teachers in students’ choice of learning chemistry?
  5. What is the effect of learning on the academic achievement of students?

1.5 Research Hypothesis

Hypothesis 1
  • H0: There is no significant relationship between lecture and demonstration and students’ academic achievement in learning chemistry
  • H1: There is significant relationship between lecture and demonstration and students’ academic achievement in learning chemistry
Hypothesis 2
  • H0: There is no significant difference between students who are taught by demonstration and those who are lectured.
  • H1: There is significant difference between students who are taught by demonstration and those who are lectured
Hypothesis 3
  • H0: Gender does not influence students’ academic performance in chemistry who were taught by demonstration and those that were lectured
  • H0: Gender influences students’ academic performance in chemistry who were taught by demonstration and those that were lectured

1.6 Significance of the Study

The study is indeed of great significance as it will elicit information on the effect of lecture and demonstration method in teaching on student’s achievement in learning chemistry, the study will also discuss the cause of poor academic performance of students in learning chemistry. The study will look at the roles of teachers in student’s choice in learning chemistry and finally the study will discuss the effect of learning on student’s academic achievement in learning chemistry.


1.7 Scope of Study

The study will focus on the effect of lecture and demonstration method in the academic achievement of students’ chemistry; the study will cover the effect of learning on the academic achievement of students in learning chemistry. The study will consider a total number of fourty (40) respondents in Bariga local government area of Lagos.


1.8 Limitation of Study

Financial Constraints:

Financial constraints tend to impede the students ability to get all the materials needed for the study but with the materials available the researcher was able to get meaningful information concerning the research topic above

Time Constraints:

The researcher being a student will be involved with departmental activities like seminar presentation and attendance to class, but the researcher was able to meet up with the time allocated for the completion of the research work.


1.9 Definition of Terms

Demonstration:

Demonstration in accordance to the study is an act of showing that something is in existence

Lecture:

This is simply an educational talk to an audience, especially one of students in a university.

Academic Achievement:

Refers to a student’s success in meeting short- or long-term goals in education. In the big picture, academic achievement means completing high school or earning a college degree.


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations

5.1 Introduction

The chapter presents the summary of the entire research work, conclusions drawn from the study, recommendations, suggestions for further studies and limitations of the study.


5.2 Summary

The study investigated the effect of Demostration and Lecture methods of instruction on students’ performance in social studies in Colleges of Education in North West Geopolitical zone in Nigeria. Five research questions and five hypotheses were generated to guide the study. Since the study had to do with finding the effects of two different teaching methods simultaneously, a pre-test, post-test quasi experimental design which required having two experimental groups and one control group was adopted for the study. The students were therefore assigned to two experimental groups and one control group. The experimental groups were taught some social studies concepts using the guided demostration and guided lecture methods respectively while the control group did not receive treatment.

The population of the study consisted of all the colleges of education in North West zone of Nigeria offering NCCE approved social studies programmes. A purposive sampling technique was employed to select six federal and state colleges of education and a sample of 300 social studies students were used for the study. Two research instruments were used for this study. The first is a forty multiple choice social studies performance test (SPT) which covered different aspects of social studies such as Population and family lifeeducation, Modernization, Globalization and Culture was taught using the instructional plans developed by the researcher. The second instrument is a twenty item social studies scale (SSAS) developed to establish students attitudes towards social studies. The two instruments were trial tested on twenty NCE 3 students who were not part of the study sample and a reliability co-efficient of alpha level of .963 was obtained for the attitude scale, while a reliability co-efficient of .85 was obtained for the test instrument. The data collected was analyzed through different procedures. The bio data variables were analyzed through frequencies and percentage distributions. The research questions were analyzed using frequencies, means, and standard errors to determine level of responses and comparative opinions. The research hypotheses were analyzed using inferential statistics. Hypotheses one and two were analyzed using the Independent t-test statistic. Hypothesis three was analyzed using Analysis of Co-variance (ANCOVA). Hypothesis four was analyzed using the Non-parametric test of Man-Whitney while hypothesis five was analyzed using the Non-parametric test of Kruskal-Wallis. All the five hypotheses tested in this study were rejected.


5.3 Conclusions

From the findings of this study, the following can be concluded

  1. Using guided demostration method to teach social studies produces a better performance than the guided lecture method;
  2. Students taught using the guided demostration and guided lecture methods performed significantly better than those taught using traditional method;
  3. Gender has an effect on performance in social studies with male studentsperforming better than their female counterparts
  4. Guided demostration method influences students’ attitudes positively towards social studies better than the guided lecture method; and
  5. Integrated guided demostration and guided lecture teaching methods is more effective than traditional method in improving students’ attitudes towards chemistry

5.4 Recommendations

In view of the results of the findings and the conclusions reached in this study, the following recommendations are hereby offered:

  1. Government, curriculum planners, heads of chemistry departments in colleges of education should further emphasize the use of demostration related teaching strategies in the implementation of chemistry curriculum as it produces a better performance than other teaching methods;
  2. The use of traditional lecture in teaching chemistry where lecturers primarily give information while students take down notes must be discouraged. It should be modified into other types of lectures such as the guided lecture method;
  3. Government should work towards eliminating the bias against females in our educational system particularly in the North so that both males and females can have equal learning opportunities thereby reducing the differential gender effects on achievement;
  4. Lecturers of chemistry in colleges of education should be urged by their heads of departments to utilize the guided demostration approach in improving student’s attitudes towards chemistry lessons;
  5. Emphasis should not only be placed on the acquisition of knowledge of chemistry concepts and facts, the affective domain of learning should be given cognizance so that learners will acquire more of moral and ethical values.

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