The Effect Of Leadership Styles On Job Satisfaction And Performance
This chapter provides a general overview of the topic of this research study which is the effect of leadership styles on job satisfaction and performance. This studyis claimed at studding how the leadership styles adopted by the management of an organization affect its employee’s attitude at work and their overall performance.
1.1 Background Of The Study
There are two kinds of people that make up an organization. The leaders and the led (or followers). The former are saddled with the responsibility of getting things done through the efforts of the latter. A leader can only lead his followers to accomplish tasks to the extent to which he is able to motivate and influence their actions and behaviours.
Irrespective of the style the leadership adopts he is expected to give his followers (or members in his group) reasons to remain committed and determined towards achieving group goals. However there may be times where the task at hand and process of meeting group goals appear difficult resulting to negative attitudes of employees about their jobs and the goals to be achieve. Such negative attitude if prolonged may lead to the group members been dissatisfied with their jobs. Also, the manner of which the leader interacts with his subordinates could make them uncommitted and poorly motivate. This is turn can affected their attitude towards their job. Once an employee has a negative attitude towards his work, he will be less concerned with group or organizational goals. A dissatisfied employee will record poor performance at work. Therefore, it is the role of the leadership to ensure that employees are satisfied at work so that they can altogether be highly motivated to accomplished stated goals.
1.2 Statement Of The Problem
Leadership in an organization has been regarded as dynamic (Cole, 2004). This means that there is no one best way of leading people. The leadership style adopted by an organization be it democratic, autocratic or lesser fare, does not count. The most important thing is that the leadership in an organization should be able to influence follower’s behaviours and actions so as to achieve organizational objectives.
Weihrich and Koontz (2005) stated that the essence of leadership is fellowship in other words; it is the willingness of people to follow those whom they see as providing a means achieving their own desires, wants and needs. This means that a leader should inspire commitment and loyalty of his follows by making them happy at job situations, which is what job satisfaction is all about.
Leadership and motivation are closely related. By understanding motivation, one can appreciate better what the people want and why they act as they do. Leaders may not only respond to subordinates motivation but also heighten or lessen them by means of the work climate they create.
Hence, this study examines problems in work place that relates to leadership, job satisfaction and performance. It also aims to proffer solution on reconciling these forces.
1.3 Objectives Of The Study
The major objective of this study is to examine the relationship between leadership and job satisfaction and performance in an organization.
The specific-objectives of this study are:
- To examine the extent to which leadership styles adopted by an organization affects employees job performance.
- To examine the significant difference change of leadership styles and organizational efficiency and effectiveness.
- To identify the relationship between job satisfaction and job performance of organizational workers.
- To determine if directive leadership is more effective than participative leadership on organization performance.
1.4 Research Questions
The following research questions would be examined with a view to providing answer to them.
- What is the relationship between leadership style and job satisfaction and performance?
- To what extent can the leadership style affect employees’ productivity in an organization
- What is the significant difference in the change of leadership styles on organizational efficiency and effectiveness?
- What is the relationship between job satisfaction and job performance of organizational workers?
- Is participative leadership more effective than directive leadership on organization performance?
1.5 Statement Of Hypotheses
The following research hypotheses will be tested in this research work.
- H0: There is no relationship between leadership style and job satisfaction and performance.
- Hl: There is positive relationship between leadership style and job satisfaction and performance.
- H0: Leadership style has no effect on employees’ productivity level in an organization
- Hl: Leadership style has positive effect on employees’ productivity level in an organization
- H0: There is no significant difference in the change of leadership styles organizational efficiency and effectiveness.
- H1: There is significant difference in the change of leadership styles on organizational efficiency and effectiveness.
- H0: There is no relationship between job satisfaction and job performance of organizational workers.
- H1: There is positive relationship between job satisfaction and job performance of organizational workers
- H0: Participative leadership is less effective than directive leadership on organization performance.
- H1: Participate leadership is more effective than directive leadership on organization performance.
1.6 Scope Of The Study
The study focuses on the effect of leadership style on job satisfaction and performance in an organization. There are various types of leadership styles ranging from autocratic, democratic and lasses faire to more detailed one like directive leadership, supportive leadership, participative leadership, etc.
This study focuses on autocratic and democratic leadership which can also pass for directive and participative leadership respectively. The democratic or participative style is one in which both the leader and his subordinates jointly make decisions takes to achieve group goal on the other hand, the autocratic or directive leadership style is one in which the leader unilaterally makes decision while his subordinates just follows instruction.
Job satisfaction is a concept that have been viewed from many perspective while some see it as the positive attitude of workers towards job others view it as both positive and negative attitude of workers concerning their jobs for the purpose of this study, job satisfaction is the positive feelings a behaviours and attitude workers have towards works.
Job performance in this study refers to the outcome of the effort a person put into his job such outcome could be below or even surpass the standard when his job outcome is above the set in the organization he can be said to have achieved high performance and vice versa.
1.7 Significance Of The Study
Firstly, this study is expected to contribute to the body of knowledge on the study of leadership in an organization.
Secondly, this study will be beneficial to state holders in the academic circle whose preoccupation has been pointed on the study of management and administration of organizations. Leadership have been pointed out as an essential part of management and administration. Hence it will benefit students and scholars of the management and administration.
Thirdly, this study will be of great benefit to practicing managers and administrators of organizations. Whether the stators of organization is big or small, simple or complex, public or private, profit making or nonprofit making, they require the role or leadership to influence people behaviours and actions so as to achieve stated goals.
Lastly, this study will be great worth to the nation as a whole. Any group of people that come together to achieve some goals directly or indirectly constitutes an organization. Hence, an organization could be a football club, as school, government establishment, a business firm, or even nation most social commentators have attributed the problem of Nigeria to that of leadership with some conceptual and theoretical issues discussed on leadership, this study will be beneficial to the leaders of the nation.
1.8 Definition Of Terms Effectiveness
Some of the terms that will feature frequently or producing the results required and at the night time. It is the ability to use the right resources to achieve the right objectives at the right time.
This is the ability reduce cost and waste to be barest minimum while at the same time achieving the state foals and objectives.
This is the ability of a person to directly or indirectly cause another person to do something he would not want to do of his own will.
This is the outcome or result of the effort a person puts into his job in other to carry out some task.
This is the positive feelings behaviours and attitude of a worker concerning his job.
This is the mind set or ideology which a person adopts to lead a group of people.
This is the method or approach with which a leader uses to influence the actions and behaviours of his subordinates.
This refers to two meanings firstly, it refers to the people who lead in an organization. Secondly, it refers to the process of influencing people’s actions and behaviours so as to achieve group or organizational goals.
This is refers to two meanings firstly, it refers to the person in the organization who manages all the resources. Secondly it refers to the process. of planning organizing motivating’ and controlling organizational resources so as to achieve stated goals.
This is a force which propels people to act in ways which they see as benefiting to their needs and aspirations.
This is a group of people who come together and work towards accomplishment of common goals
This is person who is below another person in the organization all hierarchy.
This is a term used to refer to an approach or a method of doing something through the point of views of those at the top of the organization, the opposite is bottom top which requires doing things from the point of view of people at the lower positions in an organization.
1.9 Organization Of Study
In line with the general format, this study has five chapters. They include the following:
This is the chapter one of the study. This chapter gives a general overview of the topic of this study. It also states. The problem of the study other aspect of this chapter is the statement of the research objectives questions and hypothesis. The scope and significance of the study as well as the definition of terms and the organization of study are all within chapter one.
ii. Review Of Related Literature:
This is chapter two of this study this chapter lays the conceptual and theoretical basis of this study.
This is chapter three of this study. This chapter present, the methods of analysis and procedure to be vise in the field work of this study. The research design, population of the study, the sample size and sampling techniques will also be determined. Also the data collection instrument, how it will be administered and the method of data analysis will also be discussed in this chapter.
iv. Data Presentation Analysis And Interpretation:
This is chapter four of this study. The data collected from the research subjects of this study will be analyzed in this chapter with a view to providing answers to the research questions and testing the research hypothesis of this study.
v. Summary Of Finding, Conclusions And Recommendations:
This is chapter five of this study, and it represents the concluding part of this research work within this chapter the finding from the analysis of the data supplied by the respondents would be summarized conclusions on the findings would be made and the way forward will be recommended.
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