The Effect Of Leadership Style Of The Principal On The Performance Of Secondary School Teacher
1.1 Background Of The Study
Increasing numbers of people worldwide are using the Internet (1,574,313,184 as of December 31, 2008). It has been recently reported that adolescents today spend a significant amount of time on the Internet for multiple purposes (Ito, Horst, Bittanti, Boyd, Herr-Stephenson, Lange, et al., 2008). Studies have indicated that the use of the Internet can be helpful to adolescents to complete schoolwork more effectively and efficiently (Borzekowski & Robinson, 2005; Jackson, et al., 2006). However, other investigators have suggested direct negative effects of Internet use on academic outcomes (Choi, 2007; Sirgy, Lee, & Bae, 2006). Excessive Internet use has been associated with problems with maintaining daily routines, school performance, and family relationships (Rickert, 2001).
The Internet is a global linking of computers that allows information transfer. The Internet was established in the early 1960s by the U.S. Department of Defense (Schneider, Evans, & Pinard, 2006), primarily for military purposes. Since then, the continual improvement of the Internet technology has provided an extraordinary level of public accessibility to a wide range of forms of communication, e.g. intra-organizational and inter-organizational email; data storage, management and transfer; social websites like Facebook; text messaging such as Twitter, and so forth. Due to the development and spread of cheaper and more user-friendly computer technology and software (e.g., portable computers, Microsoft Word etc.), the use of the Internet has increased dramatically. In 2010, the world’s Internet use was 28.7% of the population. While this may not seem like a very large portion of the world’s population, the growth in the use of the Internet has been dramatic. For example, between 2000 and 2010, the rate of growth of Internet use was 444.8% (Internet World Stats, 2010).
There are many benefits associated with Internet use, such as access to needed information, worldwide access to news and events, and interpersonal communication through email. However, along with the phenomenal growth of the Internet and its use, 2 there has been a growing concern worldwide regarding the risks associated with Internet over-use (Buchholz, 2009; Daily News, 2008, 2009; Fackler, 2008; Janta, 2008; Khaosod, 2007; The Associated Press, 2009). It is now believed that there could be widespread „addiction‟ to it, in particular amongst college and university students (Chou & Hsiao, 2000; Fortson, Scotti, Chen, Malone, & Del Ben, 2007; Kim, et al., 2010; Kubey, Lavin, & Barrows, 2001; Morahan-Martin & Schumacher, 2000; Scherer, 1997; H. Yan, Liu, Ni, & Chen, 2009; M. Yang et al., 2009). Internet plays a fundamental role in organizations and society. The basic fact justifies the information revolution that has been taking place across the globe in recent times. The term Internet according to Cawkell in Ogedebe (2004, p.152) is a large computer network formed out of some thousands of interconnected networks, and it supports a whole range of services such as electronic, file transfer protocol, database access and many others. It is therefore not surprising the success story behind the advent of Internet.
For obvious reasons, it should be noted that the impact of Internet access on on-campus instruction is still very low for various reasons: The technology is new, very costly, and perhaps too threatening to existing academic structures and traditions. This view was supported by Brownand Duguid (1996). The influence of Internet on Academic Performance of students differs depending on population. Sanni et al (2009) in a recent study observed that there is a gender difference in internet use and thus adequate attention should be paid to ensuring equal access between male and female students.
The study also establishes that the present level of capabilities for internet-assisted research is encouraging and that improving internet facilities in our universities will enhance academic research in Nigerian tertiary institutions if strategically embarked upon. A review of literature reveals that teachers and students are the most frequent users of the Internet, using it mainly for educational purposes rather than for entertainment. Several studies Oagboro, 2003; Panda and Sahu, 2003; Hanauer2004) have established a high degree of access and use of the Internet among college students.
Hanauer’s (2004) report showed that 83% of Internet users had access at their homes and 51% at their colleges or libraries. Eighty-one percent of the students access the Internet mostly for college work and 80% for e-mail/chat. Mishra, Yadav and Bisht (2005) conducted a research study on the Internet usage patterns of undergraduate students at the G B Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar.Their findings indicated that a majority of the students (85.7%) used the Internet, and 61.5% of the males and 51.6% of the females used it for preparing assignments. A majority of the respondents, 83.1% male and 61.3% female, indicated the slow functioning of Internet connections as a major challenge.
Robinson (2005) examined Internet use among African-American college students and concluded that the use of the Internet for most of the students occurred at school or in the workplace. In 2002, the Corporation for Public Broadcasting conducted a research on children’s Internet use in the United States. Findings revealed that children experienced the equivalent of an adolescent growth in their use of the Internet between 2000 and 2002. 65% of American children ages 2-17 were observed to use the Internet from home, school, or some other location – a 59 percent growth rate since 2000, when 41 percent of children went online from any location (CTF, 2002).
However, despite the usefulness of the Internet to students, several studies have examined the negative effects it could have on teens. For instance, immoral contents can be viewed in the closet, on a laptop, on a palmtop, etc. without the reservation that any other person will know about the content being consumed. According to Longe, et 01. (2007), the Internet has also served as the platform for pedophiles who take undue advantage of the innocence of children and teenagers to engage them in sex chat rooms and eventually invite them for sexual escapades. Hertlein & Piercy (2006) are of the opinion that people are using the Internet more frequently to form friendships and romances and to initiate inordinate affairs. They provided a critical review of the literature on Internet infidelity. Cheryl (2007) revealed that the average age of a child when first exposed to Internet pornography is at 11 years old, with the largest consumers of pornography in America being the 12-to-17-year old group. Almost 90 percent of eight to 16-year-olds have viewed pornography online, most while doing homework. This study aims at examining the use and miss-use of the Internet by secondary school students in Nigeria.
1.2 Statement Of The Problem
Despite the usefulness of the Internet to students, several studies have examined the negative effects it could have on teens. For instance, immoral contents can be viewed in the closet, on a laptop, on a palmtop, etc. without the reservation that any other person will know about the content being consumed. According to Longe, et 01. (2007), the Internet has also served as the platform for pedophiles who take undue advantage of the innocence of children and teenagers to engage them in sex chat rooms and eventually invite them for sexual escapades. Hertlein & Piercy (2006) are of the opinion that people are using the Internet more frequently to form friendships and romances and to initiate inordinate affairs.
Things are changing globally, and there are different and modern ways of doing things, if the essence of the educational policy is aimed at producing man-power which can cope with the ever-changing modern world, and be part of the global village “the chalk and talk method”; hardly bringing participatory interaction method must give way to the use of innovation and technology driven which the ICT proffers. Things are changing globally, and there are different and modern ways of doing things, if the essence of the educational policy is aimed at producing man-power which can cope with the ever-changing modern world, and be part of the global village “the chalk and talk method”; hardly bringing participatory interaction method must give way to the use of innovation and technology driven which the ICT proffers.
The overwhelming and glaring features of the present educational systems and structures are the abnormal and unending deterioration if the quality of education at all level over the years. The West African Examination and National Examination Council result have constantly elicited this groin reality which seriously necessitates urgent attention. Thus it is the aim of this study to provide a template on which the revival of the educational system can be built, also to find out the impact and effects of internet on academic performance of secondary schools students through the use of ICT and as well as investigating the problems associated with the use of internet in teaching and learning process.
1.3 Objectives Of The Study
The main objectives of this study is to investigate the effect of internet on the academic performance of secondary school students. The specific objectives are:
- To discover the exposure of students to internet
- To find out the importance of internet on the academic performance of the students
- To discover the reason for abuse of internet among the youth and adolescents
- To find out how exposed the teachers are to internet facilities.
1.4 Research Questions
The following research questions will guide the researcher to achieve the specified objectives:
- How exposed are the students to internet facilities
- Is there any significance relationship between using of internet and the academic performance of students?
- What are the reasons for the abuse of internet among the youth?
- How exposed are the teachers to internet facilities
1.5 Significance Of The Study
This research work will expose the students, lecturers/teachers, parents, government at various levels and the general public to the impacts of internet on teaching as well as the national development on the suggestion that would be made if well utilized will reduce teacher’s burden in teaching jobs, also facilitating teaching and learning activities. It will also help the students to study through the use of internet without teacher’s been the intermediary, also the use of Computer Aided Instruction (CAI) among others will be exposed too, and it will enable Nigerians education to compete with well developed countries education system.
1.6 Scope Of The Study
This study cover the entire student of the federal republic of Nigeria but due to financial and time constraint samples are taken from four schools in two local government area of Lagos state and Ogun state. The school used are:
- D Ivy College
- Air force Secondary school
- Iganmode Grammar school
The Effect Of Leadership Style Of The Principal On The Performance Of Secondary School Teacher
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Frequently Asked Questions
Does the principal’s leadership style affect students’ performance?
From the literature reviewed and observations in the school system that the principal’s leadership style have a profound effect on teachers’ job performance, and ultimately on students’ academic performance.
How does leadership style affect teacher job performance?
The correlation findings from the structural equation modeling revealed that the directive leadership style had a significant effect on teacher job performance in the studied schools, followed by the supportive and achievement-oriented leadership styles.
What is the best style of leadership for teachers?
Thus the autocratic style is the best style of leadership that can improve the productivity and performance of teachers in schools. He also recommended that the principals should use both autocratic and democratic leadership styles in their schools from situation to situation in order to improve teacher’s job performance.
What is the role of a principal as an instructional leader?
As the NSDC (2002) principals, as instructional leader; focus on helping teachers to improve their classroom performance and make academic instruction as their schools top priority. In one way (MoE, 2010) argued that principals need to have the theoretical knowledge, skill and adequate experiences in school leadership and management.