The Effect Of Leadership Style Of The Principal On The Performance Of Secondary School Teacher

Project and Seminar Material for Education

The Effect Of Leadership Style Of The Principal On The Performance Of Secondary School Teacher


This study was to examine the effect of leadership style of the principal on the performance in Kano Municipal Local Government secondary schools. The study was conducted using a quantitative design approach. A total of 134 respondents were selected from the population figure out of which the sample size was determined. The primary source of data collected was mainly the use of a structured questionnaire which was designed to elicit information on the effect of Leadership Style of the Principal on the performance of Secondary School Teacher. Data collected will be analyzed using frequency table, percentage and mean score analysis while the nonparametric statistical test (Chi-square) was used to test the formulated hypothesis using SPSS (statistical package for social sciences). The findings revealed ways the principals could adjust their leadership style to create an environment conducive for learning and in turn high academic performance are expected to be achieved by the students. The findings can be helpful for the managers to understand that which kind of leadership style is most appropriate in terms of its outcomes and how they can modify their leadership styles to make it more effective and result oriented.

Chapter One


1.1 Background of the Study

The success of any organization is highly rated upon the head, boss or the manager of such an enterprise, like business, school or any organization. The leadership impact is desirable in organization to aid easy and maximum success. Leadership is an instructional used in an organization for behavior modification. It determines the goals of organization and means of accomplishing them. Therefore, leadership in organization has been seen as motivator whereby one person who is the head motivates others towards, the achievement of specific goals of the organizations. However, fellowship is the essence of leadership, in other words it is willingness of the people to follow that makes a person a leader. Moreover, people follow those perceived to be providing means of achieving their own desires, wants and needs. In secondary school administration, the success of any school to achieve its stated goals or objectives depends on the ability of the chief administrator otherwise known as the principal and his leadership style. Effective leadership role provided by the principal will lead to the achievement of the school’s goals and objectives. There is on adage which says “Get the right man in the leadership and your problem will be solved”.

Education among other concern is an instrument for effecting national development. To achieve the stated aims and objectives of the national policy, all stakeholders in the educational sector have different roles to play. At the grass root level, the management available resources rest solely upon the schools’ principals inclusive in principals roles is the provision of effective administrative skills which cannot be separated from their leadership styles. With the close review of the setbacks being experienced in some secondary schools, pressure groups are agitating for effective leadership styles. It is glaring that some principals have not considered their styles of leadership as the determinants of students’ academic performance level. Hence, some principals seem to find it difficult to effectively administer their schools (Adeyemi 2004). Every school principal is in a unique position as the manager or administrator of the `resources in their schools. The school administrator is a leader of the staff and the students of the school. He is expected to be knowledgeable in the area of administration and should be in nature. He should be able to address difficult issues or problems of different point in time. Leadership is concerned with human experience and energy in an organized group and the concept is also of prime importance to administration. The leadership style of the principal is demonstrated in his abilities which make him to be recognized as leader of a group. Many people strongly believe even when there is an educational plan, good school programmers, adequate staff and facilities, what is more important is good administrative leadership to coordinate all these for the progress and success of the school. In case, where the leadership style of the principal is ineffective, even the best school programme, the most adequate resources and the most motivational staff and students will be rendered unproductive. Therefore, the importance of good leadership style in an organization cannot be overemphasized.

Students too not left out of the reason for the blame as most of them are not ready to face their studies as required. students level of productivity in school determine how the principals’ administrative role and leadership style are rated. The key for an effective leader is the ability to lead effectively, coordinate a complex situation and show concern through the effective leadership style for students performance. Therefore, among the administrative functions of the principal is to persuade students and use his leadership style to coordinate all activities to ensure they contribute willingly for students performance. It worth knowing that the improvement of students performance in any secondary schools depends on quality of its principal leadership styles. are therefore expected to be committed to facilitate the teaching process. To ensure the possibility, principals too must provide conductive atmosphere in the school. The type of leadership style being operated in the school will make students to achieve their objectives. Homan et al (2005) stated that belief of people that the efficiency with which any school organization can be operated depends to a large extent on the effective leadership style, both individually and collectively. The issues of students’ performance in the classroom, based on principals’ leadership style is a concern of this project.

Moreover, it will be erroneous to conclude that all school principals in this country fail to acknowledge the significance of good human relation. It is evident that leadership approach vary from one principal to other as a result of prevailing situation. “What can be said to be true about one situational environment may not be true about another. What may be wise action in one situation may be wise action in one situation may be unwise in another. The understanding of the existence of a great variety of patterns, conditions and responses in the beginning of wisdom of approaching the problem of leadership style.

1.2 Statement of the Problem

The relationship between principals’ leadership style and teachers performance has been a subject of controversy by many researchers. The controversy was centered on whether or not the style of leadership of principals influences the level of performance among students. Common observation in the school system shows that the style of leadership of a principal could perhaps have serious impact on students’ performance. Lack of performance of some students is secondary schools because of the leadership styles operated by some principals. minimal attainment of students’ academic performance in study area lack of knowing the relationship between the principals’ leadership style on the students’ academic performance, and lack of school principals’ model to follow the suits.

Fundamentally less has been targeted to the relationship between principal leadership behaviour and academic performance of students. Moreover, there need is to explore the perceptions of principals’ about their own leadership behaviour towards its effect on students’ academic performance. Accordingly the perceptions of teachers’ about their principals’ leadership behaviour and its effect on students’ performance is necessary to be investigated.

There is a need to evaluate, explore, understand, and describe the principals’ leadership style on the students’ academic performance. The quantitative design study explores and describes the leadership styles and types of principals by interviewing the principals and students in Kano Municipal Local Government secondary schools.

Therefore, it is against this background that the researcher intends to examine the different leadership styles and types exhibited by principals, their effects on the students’ teachers performance with an aim to suggest a model that will at least maintain or enhance teacher performance in study area,

1.3 Objectives of the Study

The objectives of this study include the following:-

  1. To find out the most commonly used leadership style among principals in study area
  2. To identify if there is any significant relationship between principal and leadership style and teachers performance.
  3. To investigate the differences in students’ performance under principals using autocratic leadership style and those using democratic leadership style

1.4 Research Questions

Base on the above research objectives, the following research questions are suggested:

  1. Which leadership style is most commonly used by principals in secondary schools?
  2. Is there any significant relationship between principals’ leadership style and students’ academic performance?
  3. Is there any significant difference in students’ performance in schools having principals using autocratic leadership style and in schools having principals using democratic leadership styles?

1.5 Significance of the Study

This study is significant because the principal function that leads to students’ academic performance could be more appreciated. It could also help the ministries of education, to appreciate the extents of the school principals’ appropriateness. It could go a long way to assisting in timely decision making concerning the schools and the principals by the ministry of education and the other stakeholders. This study would be of great importance in diverse ways. This research on principal’s leadership styles that relates to the students’ academic performance will help the society in an insight of a unique model for leadership and that in turn boost the students’ academic performance. The model proposed in the research will, hopefully, facilitate and simplify the practitioner’s implementation process for the leadership not only in schools but also in the industry. The research findings will also help to enlighten and provide the insights for quality leadership styles and types as such; it is expected to benefit both researchers and practitioners.

Furthermore, this study would be of great importance to the research community, because when students are trained and educated, the production of right workforce will be achieved in the community and the society. Thus, this study will help some principals who for one reason or the other have not been effective in carrying out their responsibilities, and work with more effectiveness and efficiency using appropriate leadership style to improve students performances that in turn lead to the academic achievement of the students.

The findings of this study will be highly contributed to knowledge, which might justify stakeholders’ expectations of the Principals. The researcher believed that the starting point to improve the principals leadership styles as well as the improvement of the students’ academic performance is to have good leadership. The findings revealed ways the Kano Municipal Local Government principals could adjust their leadership style to create an environment conducive for learning and in turn high academic performance are expected to be achieved by the students.

1.6 Scope of the Study

The aim of this study was to examine the impact of principal’s leadership styles on student’s academic performance in some selected secondary schools. The target population of this study is Kano Municipal Local Government secondary schools. The scope of this research is that it measures the principal’s leadership styles using a questionnaire.

1.9 Definition of Terms

Leadership Styles:

These are specific patterns of behaviour emphasized and exhibited by the leader of a group to influence the members of a group towards the accomplishment of the organizational goals.


This is the duty of the teachers in the acting place of parents; taking care of the students under his care pastorally.

Professionally-Trained Principals:

Defined in this context as those principals who have received training as TC II, NCE, B.ED/ or M.ED; Implying that these principals underwent all training in the act of teaching.

Non-Professionally-Trained Principals:

Those principals who had their degree in other areas but later went to do a post-graduate diploma in education (PGDE) so as to remain principals.


Principal is the chief or head or director of the school. He is an overall person in charge (boss) in the school setting.

Leadership Style:

Leadership style is the manner and approach of providing direction, implementing plans, and motivating people. These are the ways principals handled subordinates to achieve their goals or targets in the secondary schools and these are seen / observable practically.

Secondary School:

Secondary school is the next step up from primary school.


The strong effect or influence that something has on a situation or person.

Chapter Five

Conclusion and Recommendation

5.1 Conclusion

According to the theoretical exploration carried on this study, it was revealed that transformational leadership style positively impacts employee performance. On the other hand, transactional leadership style does not significantly impact employee performance. A transactional leader relies heavily on power and authority to lead his members, and the use of a „reward and penalty‟ system is an integral role in such a leadership style. As per various researches, transactional leadership is not very effective and can de-motivate employees.The followers of transactional leaders might display a tendency only to achieve minimal expectations that would help them avoid penalties (Bass 1990).On the other hand, Inspirational motivation of transformational leadership is the articulation and representation of a vision by the leader; thus, followers are motivated.Because of the leaders` positive attributes, followers develop an emotional attachment to the leader. In this style, trust and confidence are likely to be built in followers. Idealized Influence (behavior) creates a collective sense of mission and values. Idealized influence and inspirational motivation are often conceptualized as charismatic leadership dimensions in much research on transformational leadership.

The findings of this study have several implications for research and practice. The findings can be helpful for the managers to understand that which kind of leadership style is most appropriate in terms of its outcomes and how they can modify their leadership styles to make it more effective and result oriented.This study helps managers better understand the need for adopting a transformational leadership style to increase employee performance. The findings could add knowledge to the existing literature.

5.2 Recommendations

  1. Creation of Awareness on the Impact of Leadership styles on teachers Job Performance.
  2. Management should emulate the best style of leadership that will help improve teachers working morale in primary school.
  3. More research should be done on this project.
  4. The impact of leadership styles should have positive effect on primary school teachers job performance.

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Frequently Asked Questions

Does the principal’s leadership style affect students’ performance?

From the literature reviewed and observations in the school system that the principal’s leadership style have a profound effect on teachers’ job performance, and ultimately on students’ academic performance.

How does leadership style affect teacher job performance?

The correlation findings from the structural equation modeling revealed that the directive leadership style had a significant effect on teacher job performance in the studied schools, followed by the supportive and achievement-oriented leadership styles.

What is the best style of leadership for teachers?

Thus the autocratic style is the best style of leadership that can improve the productivity and performance of teachers in schools. He also recommended that the principals should use both autocratic and democratic leadership styles in their schools from situation to situation in order to improve teacher’s job performance.

What is the role of a principal as an instructional leader?

As the NSDC (2002) principals, as instructional leader; focus on helping teachers to improve their classroom performance and make academic instruction as their schools top priority. In one way (MoE, 2010) argued that principals need to have the theoretical knowledge, skill and adequate experiences in school leadership and management.

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