The Effect Of Leadership In Public Sector Performance
This work was aimed at investigating the effect of leadership in public sectors performance for cost effectiveness and thoroughness, the researcher concentrated on the federal ministry of labour and productivity, the causal comparative research design like employed and structured questionnaires were administered to a sample size of 103 workers representing employees on grade level of 01-16 spanning the prime department in the ministry. Some of the major recommendations includes the removal of obstructive attachment that hinders democracy in the public sector and the need to grant leaders the power to motivate any efficient officer under them by way of promotion and monetary and non monetary incentives rather than writing for a general promotion of workers.
An element of directing as a managerial function which gives motivation as well as discouragement to workers is leadership. No organization can function effectively with efficient leadership because it is the leader that directs the activities of the organization (Aka 2005). A leader shows the way that others would follow so that the objectives of the organization will be realized.
The efficiency of management on any corporate organization is measured in terms of achievement of the organization objectives. To achieve these objective management needs to corporate effectively with the various activities of the workers and this can be achieved when there is effective leadership (Ugbaje 2004). An effective leader is visionary courageous and dedicated to the services of an organization effective leadership requires that the manager or supervisor should communicates effectively with his/her subordinate. Effective leader communicate with all workers at all times. He reviews instructions from the top management on organizational policy and passes information to the supervisor who now oversees the activities of the subordinates. In the same way the leader receives feedback from thee subordinates and send the information to top management for necessary actions.
Another important factor of leadership in the public sector is motivation an effective leader is on who is able to motivate his followers to perform, to motivate means to induce or cause an individual to act and work towards achieving a set objectives.
Motivating the workers means that the leader is making them achieve their aspiration in the work place or that the reward system has led to the satisfaction of their needs. Thus the absence of motivation means poor leadership and under this circumstance, it is difficult to carry subordinates along, attaining the set objectives with therefore be a fleeting illusion to be pursued.
The public sector has earned the disrepute of performing poorly and this phenomenon is attributed to poor leadership the government ministries, parastatals and agencies are filled with leaders that lack vision, initiative innovativeness and are rigid, consequently they fail to produce the ingredients for effective leadership. To be effective and efficient these leaders have to adopt measure that will facilitate communication, provide motivation and enhance labour relation in these establishment.
1.1 Background of the Study
The feedback ministry of labour and productivity has been in existence, (with different names) since 1939 with the central purpose of ensuring cordial relationship between management and employees in public and privates sector. The body created after the start of second world war to coordinate resources for the war efforts with and first and second labour inspector attached to the governor’s office with growling water agitation over cost of living allowance. The department of labour was establish on 1st Oct. 1942 it has headed by commissioner and two labour officer and was charged with responsibility of labour movement, issues ensuring the orderly development of industrial relation and enforcing protective legislations. The organization grew in the industrial center of Enugu, Kaduna and Lagos. Later a ministry of labour we created in addition to the development of labour and this two were emerged of first April 1958. After independence in 1960, the ministry of employment of labor and productivity in 1979 and the ministry of labour and productivity 2007, however, 1979, the federal government had ensure that many establishment of this important ministry is established in some state o the federation.
1.2 Statement of Problem
The Nigeria public sector is reputed as lacking effective leadership and this has adversely affected the performance of the corporation organization. The leadership problem leading to this phenomenon may be related to the following: –
- Lack of vision, initiative and willingness as well as commitment .
- Poor and ineffective communication with subordinates.
- Lack of motivation on the subordinates.
- Poor management employee relation and
- Poor working conditions and physical work environment.
1.3 Objectives of the Study
The objectives of the study are: –
- To examiner the nature of leadership public sector.
- To examine the factors affecting leadership.
- To examiner the role of leadership in the public sector.
- To identify leadership problems in the public sector.
- To suggest ways of ensuring effective leadership in the public sector.
1.4 Research Questions
- What type of leadership exist in the public sector?
- What is the role of leadership in the public sector?
- What factors militate against effective leadership in the public sector?
- What factors effects leadership in the public sector?
- How can effective leadership be ensure in the public sector?
1.5 Statement of Hypothesis
- Ho: Most leaders in the public sector are not democratic.
Hi: Most leaders in the public sector are democratic.
- Ho: Ineffective leader system is not responsible for poor leadership.
Hi: Ineffective leader system is responsible for poor leadership.
1.6 Significance of the Study
The significance of this study derived from its usefulness to government management and students firstly, the government with understand from the study why there is poor leadership performance in Nigeria public sector. This by identifying and revealing all the factors leading to poor leadership performance in the public organizations the government can be the information to adopt policies and programme that will ensure effective and efficient leadership in the public sector. The recommendations will go a long way be useful in this regards.
Similarly, management of private enterprise will benefit from the study. They can understand the reason for poor leadership in their establishment. They can then provide remedies.
Finally, student and other general public will wish to carry out related studies in the future will also benefit from the study. This is because the project report will serve as data bank for them. Furthermore, the research findings can provide the basis for further studies.
1.7 Scope of the Study
The scope of this study covers types of leadership factors militating against leadership problems determinant of leadership quality and leadership role in the public sector especially in the federal ministry of labour and productivity.
1.8 Limitation of the Study
In carrying out this study the following limitation were experienced.
1. Uncooperative attitude of the individuals:
This factor arising from the fact that many workers interview in ministry were afraid of official reprisals, if they give information on the types of leadership they have. It was therefore difficult for the researcher to get adequate primary data for the study.
2. Lack of fund:
The study could have been expanded to the private sectors and other areas of public sector, but the researcher did not have adequate fund to cover all additional expenses that would have arisen consequently, the study was restrict to fled department in the federal ministry of labour and productivity.
Finally, the study was carried out within a limited period of time. this is because of the demand placed on the researcher by other academic work, the researcher did not have ample time to the study.
1.9 Definitions of Terms
This is an abstract quality in human beings to induced his followers to do what ever he is directed to do with zeal and confidence. Also leadership is the activity of influencing people willingly for group objectives.
It is defined as a method of coordinating activities aimed at achieving an objective. An organization is cohesive body established for a specified purpose such like government owned organ, which means in itself and organization established or financed through public fund.
Is the need or drive with an individual that drives him or her towards goal oriented action. The extent of drive depends on the perceived level of satisfaction that can be achieve by the goal.
Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation
In this study, our focus was to examine the effect of leadership in public sector performance using Federal Ministry of Labour and Productivity, Abuja as a case study. The study specifically was aimed atexamining the nature of leadership public sector, examine the factors affecting leadership, examiner the role of leadership in the public sector, identify leadership problems in the public sector, and suggest ways of ensuring effective leadership in the public sector.
The study adopted the survey research design and conveniently enrolled participants in the study. A total of 103 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondent are staffs of Federal Ministry of Labour and Productivity, Abuja.
The findings revealed that:
- The leadership that exist in the public sector is mostly autocratic and authoritative
- The role of leadership in the public sector include provide a Vision, Establish Effective Organizational Structure and Communication Protocols, Be an Effective Role Model, Inspire and Motivate, Delegate and Empower, and Effective Time Management
- The factors militate against effective leadership in the public sector include Poor motivation due to low, Poor Work Culture and Attitude, Poor Performance Management Practices, Weak State of Records Management, Poor Work Environment, Inadequate Staffing, Limited development and implementation, and Ineffective leader system
- The factors that have effects on leadership in the public sector include, The Focus On Outcomes, The Paradox of Innovation and Creativity, The Public Perception of Value, The Need To Build More Resilience (To Deal With, and Factors Such As Stress And Mental Health)
- Effective leadership can be ensured in the public sector through Creation a supportive environment, Maintaining confidentiality, Staying focused and be prepared, Managing all agreements, Using open, honest and direct communication, Having a proper attitude for learning, and Being self-monitoring.
- Most leaders in the public sector are not democratic.
- Ineffective leader system is responsible for poor leadership.
Based on the responses obtained, the researcher proffers the following recommendations:
- Leaders should be carefully chosen in an organizational set up and they must be sent on training to update their knowledge and skills.
- Information concerning the responsibilities of the employees should be promptly and clearly communicated to them so that they will be better placed to discharge their duties effectively and efficiently.
- Organization should create opportunity for workers training and development and leaders should show equity and fairness in dealing with employee.
- That leadership style is one of the tools used in attainment of organizational goals and objectives, therefore every organization should as issue of importance, ensure of getting the right leader that will man their organization; in order to achieve their set goals/objectives.
- Rewarding employee performance is also recommended to the three transport companies, as it enhances workers moral and spur them to increase their input in the company.
- There should be removal of obstructive attachment that hinders democracy in the public sector and the need to grant leaders the power to motivate any efficient officer under them by way of promotion and monetary and non monetary incentives rather than writing for a general promotion of workers
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