The Effect Of Land Scope On Soil Loss From Erosion Sites (A Case Study Of Nekede And Akaokwwa All In Imo State)

Project and Seminar Material for Agricultural Economics and Extension

The Effect Of Land Scope On Soil Loss From Erosion Sites (A Case Study Of Nekede And Akaokwwa All In Imo State)


Abstract


Erosion is an environmental problem that is generally spread in our country today. One of the most serious environmental problems facing our country and the world on general is the loss of top soil layer through the process of detachment and transportation caused by the impact of raindrops and the resulting overland flow. In this study, the effect of lanf scope on soil loss form erosion sites, precisely in Nekede, and Akaokwa, Imo State, was examined. The soil samples collected from two erosion sites were subjected to soil tests like, plastic limit, liquid limit test, grain size analysis, moisture content, shear strength, and soil conditioning test with cassagrand method. It was found that slope is major factor on the rate of soil loss. It is also recommended that the erodibility of a soil can be controlled by good conservation practices, use of organic and in organic matter which improves the soil structure. Farmers who engage in tillage practices should be educated on sound conservation practices to prevent and control soil erosion in the field for example use of mulches, crop rotation, mixed farming simple and cheap hand level or striding levels in laying out fields. This can help to save the huge cost of controlling erosion since the best erosion scheme is one that minimizes cost and environment damage and at the same time producing maximum performance and maximum safety.


Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

Soil is the naturally occurring, unconsolidated or loose covering or broken rock particles and decaying organic matter on the surface of the earth, capable of supporting life. Soil is also known as earth; it is the substance from which our planet takes its name. it consists of sand, clay, sit and organic matters. The important of foil is too many to mention. For instance, the life we are living today depend on soil. Soil is a critical component in the mining and construction industries. Soil serves as a foundation for most construction projects. Massive volumes of soil can be involved in surface mining, road construction, and construction of other structures. Soil is critical to the environment, as well as food and fiber production. Soil provides plants with minerals and water. Soil absorbs rainwater and releases through evaporation preventing and controlling both flood and drought respectively. Soil is also the natural dwelling place for earth micro and macro organisms. Also houses water for mans use.

Today, one of the most serious environmental problems facing our nation and the world on general is the loss of top soil layer through the process of detachment and transportation caused by the impact of raindrop and the resulting overland flow. Soil erosion is the process by which the surface of the land is attacked, resulting to gullies, in valleys, cliffs and hills and it is completely washed into water bodies. It is composed of many factors the most basic if it is the soils and rainfall factors which is a function of intensity, duration, infiltration, susceptibility including soil detachability and transportability.

When water is applied into the soil continually in form of irrigation or rainfall, it filter downward into the soil at a certain time the soil will be saturated, then the excess above infiltration capacity will result to surface runoff thereby leading to transportation of detached particles and erosion. The basic causes of erosion have been classified into three factors, the climatic factor and geologic factor and human activities.

The climatic factor:

The climate factors that influence erosion are rainfall amount, intensity and frequency. During the period of frequent rainfall, a greater percentage of the rainfall will become runoff this is due to high soil moisture or saturated conditions.

The Geologic factors:

This is caused as result of the action of the wind, water, ice and gravity in wearing away rock to form soil and shape the ground surface.

The Human Activities:

Erosion Human causes most soil erosion when strip the natural vegetation from the sleeper slopes and do not put back a cover of healthy grass of other vegetation. This leads to the worse erosion. Take for instance in Imo state, high annual rainfall helps in speeding up soil erosion including river bank and sediment transportation. The geology of an area is a useful index for gauging the erodibility if particular that place.

In Imo state particularly, soil erosion has a focus on the human activities as the primary cause of erosion, a good cover of vegetation, including grass shields the soil from the impact of raindrops. It also binds the soil together, making it more resistance to runoff and filters sediment. A cover of vegetation is one of the best protections against erosion.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

Erosion is an environmental problem that is generally spread in our country Nigeria today. It is seriously causing ecological problems by destroying lives and properties, Agricultural land and social infrastructures. Outside the distraction of form land through removal of top soil, houses, road, bridges, telecommunication, electric power and railway lines are being washed away. Also the erosion of arable land is a threat to food productions and agro-industrial raw materials. Erosion produces load of silts and other particles which pollutes our inland water and cause siltation of dams, reservoirs thereby reducing their storage capacity and useful life span of structures. The pollution of water by silt is known to have caused serious damage to our aquatic lives. Therefore urgent measures are needed to control erosion in other to avoid termination of lives and endangering of structures.


1.3 Objectives of the Study

Generally, this study aims at examing the effect of lanf scope on soil loss form erosion sites in Nekede, and Akaokwwa, Imo State. Specifically the Objectives of the study are

  1. Collection of soil samples from two erosion sites in Imo state namely, Nekede and Akoakwa.
  2. Selection of different rainfall intensities and shape
  3. Subjecting the collected soil samples to soil tests like, plastic limit test, liquid limit test, grain size analysis, moisture content, shear strength, and soil conditioning test with cassagrand method.
  4. To determine the rate of soil loss in Imo state.
  5. To relate land slope to erosion.

1.4 Research Question

The study will be guided by the following questions;

  1. What is the erodibility determination?
  2. What is the rate of soil loss in Imo state?
  3. How does land relate to erosion?

1.5 Significance of the Study

The outcome of this study will enlighten farmers and agriculturist on the effect of lanf scope on soil loss form erosion sites, precisely in Nekede, and Akaokwwa, Imo State.

Additionally, subsequent researchers will use it as literature review. This means that, other students who may decide to conduct studies in this area will have the opportunity to use this study as available literature that can be subjected to critical review. Invariably, the result of the study contributes immensely to the body of academic knowledge with regards to the effect of lanf scope on soil loss form erosion sites.


1.6 Definition of Terms

Erodibility:

This defines the resistance of the soil to both detachment and transport in term of its susceptibility to erosion.

Soil erosion:

This is simply defined as a process detachment and movement of soil by running water or by wind

Water Erosion:

This is the removal of soil from the exposed surface of the land by the impact of raindrops and running water, including runoff from rainfall, melted snow and ice.


Chapter Five


Conclusion and Recommendation

5.1 Conclusion

Soil loss was determined from the soil samples collected from the two selected sites in Imo State namely; Nekede and Akaokwa. The analysis showed that Nekede recorded the highest soil loss with 190.3g followed by Akaokwa with 178.0g respectively all at 9% slope.

From this work, it was found that slope is major factor on the rate of soil loss.

Also it was observed that, Imo State usually have low duration rainfall which comes with varying high intensity and has led to greater soil losses in Imo State.

Finally, the result showed that the more erodible the soil is, the more the soil loss.


5.2 Recommendation

Erosion control has been regarded as been the greatest problem facing the government and good people of Imo State. This problem of erosion has led to several losses of properties and loss of nutrients from agricultural farm land. Based on the result of this research the following recommendation was made to limit soil loss in order to improve farmland.

  1. Locally available material such as palm kernel shell which improves soil structures should be used to reduce soil detachment so as to check water erosion.
  2. Vegetative cover including grass which reduces soil detachment and as well tends to prevent soil erosion should be left undisturbed by inhabitants.
  3. It is also recommended that the erodibility of a soil can be controlled by good conservation practices, use of organic and in organic matter which improves the soil structure. All these minimize erosion and environmental damage and also provide maximum crop performance and safety
  4. Farmers who engage in tillage practices should be educated on sound conservation practices, simple measure to adopt, to prevent and control soil erosion in the field for example use of mulches, crop rotation, mixed farming simple and cheap hand level or striding levels in laying out fields. This can help to save the huge cost of controlling erosion since the best erosion scheme is one that minimizes cost and environment damage and at the same time producing maximum performance and maximum safety.
  5. Since this project focused on only two erosion sites in Imo state, it is also recommended that further study should be carried out on other erosion sites in Nigeria to ensure safety cropping and to ensure a safer environment for man activities.

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