Effect Of Land Dispute On The Socio-Economic Activities In Ogbe-Ijaw Community, Warri South-West L.G.A Of Delta State
1.1 Background of the Study
Land is the basis for every form of physical development and constitutes the primary medium for food production, for the provision of sheets and utilities, for the manufacture of goods and the establishment of institutions to support the basic needs of modern communities (Lanus ad Olufemi 2006). Ukaejiofor (2009) posited that land at the heart of social, political and economic life of the most African countries. He stressed further that, it is the key factor for economic growth and development of every nation and the foundation for shelter in the urban areas as well as the source of livelihood in the rural areas. Therefore, it is an indisputable source of employment and wealth (Idoma and Muhammed, 2014). In recent times, the struggle for available land resource has often resulted to land disputes and conflicts. A land dispute is a disagreement over the possession/control of land between two or more terrestial entities or over the possession or control of land, usually between a new state and the occupying power (Afzalur, 2010).
Robert (2012) asserted that land disputes are often related to the possession of natural resources such as rivers, fertile farmland, mineral or oil resources although the disputes can also be driven by culture, religion and ethnic nationalism. Land disputes result often from vague and unclear language in a treaty that set up the original boundary. According to Afzalur (2010) land disputes are a major cause of wars and terorism as states often try to assert their sovereignty over a territory through invasion, and non-state entities try to influence the actions of politicians through terrorism. International law does not support the use of force by one state to annex the territory of another state.
Deininger and Castagnini (2004) observed that widows are mostly affected by land conflicts and are the worst hit of land disputes. Studies have shown that female-headed households and widows are particularly affected and that the enactment of the 1990 Land Use Act has failed to reduce the number of pending land conflicts. The government of Nigeria has suggested amending the above said Land Use Act in a bid to resolve the ever emerging land conflicts between the Land lords and the sitting tenants. This suggests that, especially in Africa, attention to land-related conflicts and exploration of ways to prevent and speedily resolve them would be an important area for policy as well as research. Land is a treasured resource for development in every respect and at all levels especially in the sub Saharan regions, and it has become a source of conflict (Afzalur, 2010).
Evidence shows that the highest numbers of cases registered by Local Council Courts from village level to sub-county level are land related (Michael, 1992). According to interactions with the Local Council members in Warri South-West L.G.A of Delta State, these cases range from unclear boundaries, grabbing, disputes of inheritance to deceased property, sell of “air” (land that is not there) and forceful eviction of sitting tenants by the land lords like those in Warri Estates. In Nigeria, over 80% of its population practice agriculture and these depend on land, this is also the case in Warri South-West L.G.A of Delta State especially in the Ogbe-Ijaw sub-region unlike in Warri Metropolis which is predominately an Urban Place. What should be observed in this region is that land is limited due to the high population that has lead to land fragmentation. This has in turn hindered the socio-economic development of the region due to the various land disputes resulting from the scarcity of land resources in Ogbe-Ijaw community.
Studies (such as Michael, 1992; Lanus ad Olufemi 2006; Ukaejiofor, 2009; Afzalur, 2010; Robert, 2012) have shown that there is no sufficient empirical data to show the effect of land dispute on the socio-economic activities in Ogbe-Ijaw, Warri South-West L.G.A of Delta State and as such there is no basis where land disputes can be handled. Little attention has actually been devoted to the study of land disputes despite evidence on increasing incidences of such disputes. It is therefore; against this background that the researcher will investigate the effect of land dispute on the socio-economic activities in Ogbe-Ijaw community, Warri South-West L.G.A of Delta State.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
The major problem associated with land dispute is the loss of lives and valuable properties. Land disputes often occur between individuals, groups and organizations. Land dispute in recent times have caused more damage and harm than good to the modern day society (Ukaejiofor, 2009). Land dispute often hinder the socio-economic activities of most urban and rural dwellers leading to economic hardship, poverty, health problems, food scarcity, low standard of living, among others. This is evidence that the problems emanating from land disputes are enormous. It has been discovered in repeated studies that land disputes often results to death and serious injury during conflict battles especially in situations where it is communal disputes or territorial conflicts (Fischer, 2012).
It has been observed that the number of land cases in most Nigerian towns, villages and cities has sometimes led to war which has displaced citizens from their natural habitats thereby hindering their socio-economic activities and day-to-day business activities in the areas (Robert, 2012). Presently, parties have still not come to terms on how to resolve land disputes especially between villages, towns and cities. Communal conflicts still dominate the southern parts of Nigeria since the discovery of oil in the Niger Delta Region. The need for arable land has also increased over the years giving room for conflict issues and land disputes. No matter the effort made by the federal, state and local government to resolve land disputes between villages, towns, and cities, land disputes is still common in these areas especially among the villagers who see land possession as wealth and inheritance (Fischer and Ferlie, 2013).
It is no doubt today that, the problems associated with land disputes could hinder the socio-economic activities and well-being of most urban and rural dwellers of Ogbe-Ijaw community and its environs. The socio-economic activities of the people in Ogbe-Ijaw community which ranges from primary activities (farming, agriculture, fishing, etc), secondary activities (trading, business, artesian, etc) to tertiary activities (banking, industries, factories, etc) have been seriously hindered by land disputes. Businesses are often shut down during crisis, war and conflicts resulting from land disputes. This often leads to loss of perishable goods, increase in food prices, high cost of living, unstable society, loss of infrastructural facilities, damage to available community services and basic/social facilities and poor infrastructural development.
Evidences have shown that land dispute has a direct effect on the socio-economic activities of the Ogbe-Ijaw people. Studies also shown that not much effort have been directed towards examining these effects land dispute has on the socio-economic activities of the Ogbe-Ijaw people especially on finding possible ways to address these problems. It has also been discovered that there is dealt in literature on the effect of land dispute on the socio-economic activities in Ogbe-Ijaw community. This study therefore seeks to fill this gap which previous studies have failed to cover and thereafter address the aforementioned problems which necessitated this study.
1.3 Aim and Objectives of the Study
The aim of this study is to examine the effect of land dispute on the socio-economic activities in Ogbe-Ijaw community, Warri South-West L.G.A of Delta State.
In order to achieve the above stated aim, the following objectives were designed to guide the study. They include to:
- Identify the socio-economic activities in the area;
- Identify the causes of land disputes in the study area;
- Examine the consequent effect of land dispute on the socio-economic activities of the people in Ogbe-Ijaw community;
- Examine the problems associated with land dispute in the study area;
- Find possible solutions to the problems associated with land dispute in Ogbe-Ijaw community.
1.4 Research Questions
The following research questions were raised to guide the study;
- What are the socio-economic activities in Ogbe-Ijaw community?
- What are the causes of land disputes in Ogbe-Ijaw community?
- What are the effects of land dispute on the socio-economic activities of the people in Ogbe-Ijaw community?
- What are the problems associated with land dispute in Ogbe-Ijaw community?
- Are there possible solutions to the problems associated with land dispute in Ogbe-Ijaw community?
1.5 Research Hypothesis
The following hypothesis stated in the null and alternative form will be tested in this study;
- H0; Land dispute has no significant effect on the socio-economic activities in Ogbe-Ijaw community.
- H1; Land dispute has a significant effect on the socio-economic activities in Ogbe-Ijaw community.
1.6 Significance of the Study
The study is intended to establish how land disputes have affected the socio-economic activities in Ogbe-Ijaw community, Warri South-West L.G.A of Delta State. It may also enhance and build a body of knowledge on the causes of land disputes and the consequent effects of land disputes on the socio-economic activities in the study area. This study will also help to unfold the numerous problems associated with land disputes as well as suggesting possible ways to solve such problems. Besides these the Research is a partial fulfillment leading to the Award of Bachelor of Science Degree in Geography and Regional Planning and opening up for further future research undertakings.
1.7 Scope and Limitation of the study
This study is restricted to assessing the effects of the land disputes on the socio-economic activities in Ogbe-Ijaw community, Warri South-West L.G.A of Delta State with particular emphasis on the causes of land disputes, consequences and how it has affected the socio-economic activities in Ogbe-Ijaw community.
It will be limited to the period of one academic year, as delimitation to the scope of study for better management and during this period many land disputes will be experienced. This period is optimal to have a clear picture of the land disputes in Ogbe-Ijaw community. The study will be carried out in the various quarters that make up Ogbe-Ijaw community comprising of urban and rural areas. This study is also limited by inadequate finance, time, unavailability of resource materials, language and communication barrier.
1.8 Study Area
Ogbe-Ijaw is an ancient community in the Niger Delta coast of Nigeria. Ogbe-Ijaw is well known to be one of the Ijaw communities in Nigeria. Ogbe-Ijaw community is the administrative headquarter of Warri-South-West Local Government Area of Delta State.
1.7.1 Location and Size
Ogbe-Ijaw lies within latitude 50521N and 50451N of the equator and longitude 50751E and 50311E of the Greenwich meridian. From West to South, the area is wrapped by the Forcadoes on the west, Warri South L.G.A on the east, Burutu L.G.A on the South and Warri North L.G.A on the north. Ogbe-Ijaw has an estimated population of over 116,000 people (NPC, 2006). The location and size of the study area is such that favours oil exploitation activities and man has through his various human and anthropogenic activities (resources exploitation) destroyed the natural environment. This has given rise for various land disputes in the community.
1.7.2 Relief and Drainage
Ogbe-Ijaw area is directly underlined by quaternary formation. The whole of Ogbe-Ijaw is a low-lying plain consisting mainly of recent unconsolidated sediments of quaternary age. These sediments are partly of marine and partly of fluvial origin. Land elevation is generally under 50metres above mean sea level and there is a marked absence of imposing hills that rise above the general land surface. The area is transverse by numerous flat-floored rivers that drain into the Atlantic Ocean. The Forcadoes River is prone to flooding especially during the wet season mainly because of the heavy rainfall, high ground water table and the flat-floored valleys.
Aweto (2004) described the climate of Warri South-West to be a humid subequatorial climate with a long wet season lasting from March to October and alternates with shorter dry season that lasts from November to February. The climate is influenced by the south-west monsoon climate and the north-east winds. The dry season is significantly marked by the cool ‘harmattan’ dusty haze from the north-east winds. The rainy season has a brief dry spell in August, but it frequently rains even in dry season. The area is characterized by tropical equatorial climate with the mean annual temperature of 32.80C and annual rainfall amount of 2673.8mm. There are high temperatures of 36˚C and 37˚C. Rainfall is significant most months of the year and the short dry season has very little effect.
The climate of the study area is usually described in terms of its elements such as rainfalls, temperature, humidity, solar radiation, evaporation, etc. with the low flat topography of the area; the climate of Ogbe-Ijaw is mainly a function of longitudinal location and nearness to the sea.
1.7.4 Vegetation and Soil Characteristics
The natural vegetation of Ogbe-Ijaw is the rainforest vegetation with swamp forest occurring in flat-floored valleys and adjoining low-lying areas that are seasonally or permanently waterlogged. The rainforest is floristically diverse and structurally complex with several layers of trees and was also rich in palm and fruit trees. The forest was a major source of timber and the fruit tree was important as they created source of income and dietary supplement for rural people. Virtually all the rainforest in Ogbe-Ijaw has been destroyed as a result of shifting cultivation and the establishment of small scale holdings of rubber trees coupled with commercial lumbering.
Today, much of the countryside is dominated by secondary re-growth vegetation with oil palms, rubber plantations and patches of swamp forests along rivers. The influence of industrialization has almost left the region without vegetation. In recent times, land dispute in the study area have leveled the natural vegetal cover to a secondary re-growth and have destroyed the natural environment and the socio-economic life of the inhabitants of the study area.
The closeness to water encourages the equatorial climate which in turn determines the increase in rainfall, leading to increased underground water and infiltration of water into the soil i.e. flooding which cover most of the roads during the rainy season. The soil has a low acidic level making it fairly rich in nutrients. Currently, land dispute in the study area has posed serious threat to the natural soil and has in turn lead to low agricultural productivity which has hindered the socio-economic development of the study area.
Warri South-West has its headquarters in Ogbe-Ijaw with an area of 1,722 square kilometers and a population 116,000 people (NPC, 2006). Ogbe-Ijaw has expanded due to infrastructural development to include towns in recent years with various road networks linking these places into one search of these towns as its own administrative structure. The major people in Ogbe-Ijaw comprise the Urhobos, Ijaws and Itsekiris. The people are hospitable and lively in any part of the Ogbe-Ijaw environment.
The rise in population also implies the rise in the demand for available land leading to land scarcity which often leads to land disputes among the villagers and community people. The effect of this land dispute on the socio-economic activities could be felt in the slow down and damage of viable businesses and major source of livelihood of the people in the area. Furthermore, this rapid increase could be attributed to the industrial activities in the area. Also the high rate of industrialization in the study area through environmental degradation and pollution have in turn degraded the natural environment and had a negative impact on their socio-economic activities and other socio-economic welfare.
1.7.6 Socio-Economic Activities
Ogbe-Ijaw is known for farming, fishing, trading, lumbering, palm wine tapping, mining, etc. But after the oil discovery as well as the exploitation of oil, these primary activities gave way for manufacturing and service industries. Ogbe-Ijaw is presently a main centre of commerce; it is a coastal port and has long been established as a centre of commerce since pre-colonial times. Ogbe-Ijaw is important for wholesale and retail trade in electronics, hardware, light industrial and agricultural machinery, textiles, furniture and foodstuff. Ogbe-Ijaw is important for ship building, oil refining and petrochemical industries. Other economic activities include teaching, transportation, shipping, etc. Some of the industries in Ogbe-Ijaw include Nigerian Ports Authority (NPA), Shell Petroleum Development Company, McDermott, Panalpina, Chevron, Globestar, Julius Berger, Nigerian Western Dredging and Marine Limited, amongst others. Although, the various multinational oil companies have developed the communities, nevertheless, these oil companies have through their quest for land created land disputes among the people of Ogbe-Ijaw which has in turn hindered the socio-economic activities which most of the inhabitants depend on for their source of livelihood and has in turn hindered the socio-economic development of the study area.
Summary of Findings, Conclusion and Recommendation
5.1 Summary of Findings
This study examined the effect of land dispute on the socio-economic activities in Ogbe-Ijaw community, Warri South-West L.G.A of Delta State. The study identified the socio-economic activities in the area, identified the causes of land disputes in the study area, examined the consequent effect of land dispute on the socio-economic activities of the people in Ogbe-Ijaw community, examined the problems associated with land dispute in the study area, and suggested possible solutions to the problems associated with land dispute in Ogbe-Ijaw community.
The study adopted the concept of land disputes and conflict resolution in explaining the effect of land dispute on the socio-economic activities in the study area and reviewed related literature on land dispute/conflict, history of land disputes, types of land conflict, causes of land disputes, consequences of land disputes and its effects on the socio-economic activities and the various ways of resolving land disputes. The review of related literature showed that land disputes have a negative effect on the socio-economic activities in the study area.
The study adopted the descriptive survey research design in administering the research instrument (questionnaire) to the respondents in the study area. Thereafter, the descriptive statistical technique was used to analyze the data collected while the chi-square method was used to test the hypothesis formulated. The result of the hypothesis indicated that land dispute has a significant effect on the socio-economic activities in Ogbe-Ijaw community. The findings also revealed that land dispute has disrupted the socio-economic activities of the Ogbe-Ijaw people especially in the rural areas of the community.
The study concluded that land dispute has a significant effect on the socio-economic activities in Ogbe-Ijaw community since the X2 critical table value (9.488) at 0.05 level of significance.
The study also concluded that land dispute has disrupted the socio-economic activities of the Ogbe-Ijaw people especially in the rural areas of the community and that land dispute has affected the socio-economic life of the Ogbe-Ijaw people.
The study recommended the following;
The government of Nigeria should lay emphasis on the protection of citizens through intervention in land disputes.
This should be done through identifying various organizations groups in Ogbe-Ijaw community.
There should proper enlightenment to land owners on the need for boundary delineation to ensure peace and harmony among the inhabitants of the study area.
The government should play a key role in handling this issue through conflict resolution policy.
Effect Of Land Dispute On The Socio-Economic Activities In Ogbe-Ijaw Community, Warri South-West L.G.A Of Delta State
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