Effect Of Laboratory Materials In The Performance Of Biology Students In Senior Secondary School In Gwagwalada.

Biology Education Project Material

Effect Of Laboratory Materials In The Performance Of Biology Students In Senior Secondary School In Gwagwalada (Charles)


Abstract


This study was carried out to examine the effect of laboratory materials in the performance of biology students in senior secondary school in Gwagwalada, Abuja. The study was specifically set to find out if laboratory materials is available in secondary schools in Gwagwalada, investigate the extent to which the use of laboratory materials will enhance the student’s performance in mathematics in Gwagwalada, find out if there are necessary equipment that will aid the teaching and learning of biology in the laboratory, and investigate if laboratory materials will improve the academic achievement of secondary school students in biology. The survey design was adopted and the simple random sampling techniques were employed in this study. The population size comprises biology teachers and students in senior secondary school in Gwagwalada, Abuja. In determining the sample size, the researcher conveniently selected 200 respondents while 150 were received and validated. Self-constructed and validated questionnaire was used for data collection. The collected and validated questionnaires were analyzed using frequency tables. The result of the findings reveals that biology teachers and students in senior secondary school in Gwagwalada, Abuja. Furthermore, the result of the findings reveals that biology laboratory materials improve the academic achievement of secondary school students. In regard to the findings, the study recommends that science teachers should be more resourceful by providing support materials for science teaching and learning so that students learn by doing, develop thinking skills, and attempt innovations. To mention but few.


Table of Content


  • Title Page
  • Certification
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Table of Content
  • List of Tables
  • Abstract

Chapter One:

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3 Objective of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Research Hypothesis
  • 1.6 Significance of the Study
  • 1.7 Scope of the Study
  • 1.8 Limitation of the Study
  • 1.9 Definition of Terms
  • 1.10 Organisations of the Study

Chapter Two:

Review of Literature

  • 2.1 Conceptual Framework
  • 2.2 Theoretical Framework
  • 2.3 Empirical Review

Chapter Three:

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Population of the Study
  • 3.3 Sample Size Determination
  • 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
  • 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
  • 3.6 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
  • 3.8 Validity of the Study
  • 3.9 Reliability of the Study
  • 3.10 Ethical Consideration

Chapter Four:

Data Presentation and Analysis

  • 4.1 Data Presentation
  • 4.2 Analysis of Data
  • 4.3 Answering Research Questions
  • 4.4 Test of Hypotheses

Chapter Five:

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • References
  • APPENDIX
  • QUESTIONNAIRE

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

The emphasis on teaching and learning of science is on ensuring that teachers not only teach the process of science but also are able to subject scientific concepts to the sensory experience of the learners. By this, the ‘hands’ and ‘minds’ of learners must be on scientific activities such that learners will be able to learn actively and thereby participate in knowledge construction (Ausubel, 1963, cited in Omesa, 2014). In essence, the focus is on activity based science lesson which entails both best classroom and laboratory practices. This direction of teaching and learning of science subjects in schools is viewed to lead students to acquiring the required science process skills, life skills and competence as enshrined in the revised edition of (National Policy on Education (NPE) (FRN, 2013) National core curricular for Biology, Chemistry, Mathematics and Physics etc. However, the efforts of teaching in achieving the goals of NPE 2013, the Millennium Development Goals (MDGS), EFA, Science Education for all, NEEDS, Vision 20:2020 faces great challenges. The challenges facing science teaching and learning includes the use of teacher-centred approaches to teaching, lack of adequate and relevant instructional materials, inadequate classroom and laboratories and laboratory materials etc.

Laboratory is at the centre of scientific studies and/or sciencing so long as science remains both a product and process. The availability of laboratory equipment, facilities and materials play a vital role in determining the extent of best laboratory practices that will ensure acquisition of science process skills and competence in science concepts by the learners. According to Abimbola (2001) one major aspect of Science education that is of great concern is in the area of availability and effectiveness of use of specialized and relevant science equipment, facilities and instructional materials. The school laboratories that are well designed, stocked and safe for teaching and learning of science ensure active practical exercises (Katcha, 2005).

Laboratory work is an indispensable part of science instruction, and no effective science education can exist without practical work (Udo, 2010). Laboratory practicals are dependent on the level of equipping of the laboratory with relevant instructional materials and the ability of the teacher to effectively and efficiently utilize them. The challenges often faced in doing practicals in inadequately equipped laboratories has led teachers to separate science lessons into practical and theory lessons or classes and or shifting practical work until the second term of the final year (Ekpo, 1999). According to Ekpo any effort to separate Science into practical and theory lesson account to perpetuating the dichotomy and this is antithesis of what science is. The biology students have been performing below expectation because of poor laboratory practicals. The biology students are often many because it is thought to be simpler than other science subjects and instructional aids seemed to be very common as they can be sourced in the environment. However, the students and teachers always found that the required materials are in short supply considering the number of students to utilize them and consequently students persistent poor performance in biology (WAEC, 2013). The current trend in science curricular emphasis implies that science laboratory work should be taught as an integral part of classroom instruction in science with pre-and-post laboratory discussion (Udo, 2010).


1.2 Statement of the Problem

The dwindling students’ performance in science especially biology has been a source of concern to all stakeholders – the parents, teachers, students, science education researchers, government and the general public. Despite the efforts by science educators the performance of many students in science is still at abysmal level. In essence there are still gaps in the efforts and results available. This situation is easily attributed to factors of laboratory material supplied, gender factors and attitudes of students to science teaching and learning among others. With laboratory materials, the modern trend emphasizes laboratory practicals as an integral part of classroom instruction in science with pre-and-post laboratory discussion if students have to learn Science as a process and product, and achieve to expectations of all the stakeholders. The problem of non-availability of laboratory facilities for effective teaching of Biology in our secondary schools persists thereby giving rise to poor academic performances, as discussion and lecture methods of teaching have been dominating the teaching and learning activities where students need to do practical work (Abdulrahaman, 2009). Based on this, he opined that students always perform very poor in the practical part of their examination thereby leading to poor academic performance in science courses. In view of the above, this study seek to examine the effect of laboratory materials in the performance of biology students in senior secondary school in Gwagwalada.


1.3 Objectives of the Study

The study’s overall purpose is to investigate the effect of laboratory materials in the performance of biology students in senior secondary school in Gwagwalada. The study, on the other hand, was focused on achieving these precise goals.

  1. To find out if laboratory materials is available in secondary schools in Gwagwalada.
  2. To investigate the extent to which the use of laboratory materials will enhance the student’s performance in mathematics in Gwagwalada.
  3. To find out if there are necessary equipment that will aid the teaching and learning of biology in the laboratory.
  4. To investigate if laboratory materials will improve the academic achievement of secondary school students in biology.

1.4 Research Questions

The study will be guided by the following questions;

  1. Is biology laboratory materials available in secondary schools in Gwagwalada?
  2. What is the extent to which the use of laboratory materials will enhance the student’s performance in biology in Gwagwalada?
  3. Are there necessary equipment that will aid the teaching and learning of biology in the laboratory?
  4. Will biology laboratory materials improve the academic achievement of secondary school students?

1.5 Research Hypothesis

The following are tested in this study:

  • Ho: The use of laboratory materials will not improve the academic achievement of secondary school students.
  • Ha: The use of laboratory materials will improve the academic achievement of secondary school students.

1.6 Significance of Study

Findings from the study will be relevant to government, teachers, parents and the academia. It will also make the government through the ministry of education to realize the need for provision of laboratory facilities thereby exposing the students to laboratory activities posting of qualified science teachers, technicians and technologists to secondary schools. It will motivate parents to through the avenue of the PTA make requirements of practical lesson(s) for their children in secondary schools and also this convince the science teachers that practical lessons are mostly essential for effective teaching especially in Biology. Finally, the study would contribute empirically to the body of existing literature and it would serve as a reference source to students or other researchers who might want to carry out their research on the similar topic.


1.7 Scope of the Study

This study will be focusing on the effect of laboratory materials in the performance of biology students in senior secondary school in Gwagwalada. The study will be delimited to some selected senior secondary schools in Gwagwalada.


1.8 Limitation of the Study

Like in every human endeavour, the researcher encountered slight constraints while carrying out the study. Insufficient funds tend to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature, or information and in the process of data collection, which is why the researcher resorted to a limited choice of sample size. More so, the researcher simultaneously engaged in this study with other academic work. As a result, the amount of time spent on research will be reduced.

Moreover, the case study method utilized in the study posed some challenges to the investigator including the possibility of biases and poor judgment of issues. However, the investigator relied on respect for the general principles of procedures, justice, fairness, objectivity in observation and recording, and weighing of evidence to overcome the challenges.


1.9 Definition of Terms

Laboratory:

A laboratory is a facility that provides controlled conditions in which scientific or technological research, experiments, and measurement may be performed.

Practical:

Of or concerned with the actual doing or use of something rather than with theory and ideas.

Academic Performance:

Academic achievement represents performance outcomes that indicate the extent to which a person has accomplished specific goals that were the focus of activities in instructional environments, specifically in school, college, and university.


1.10 Organizations of the Study

The study is categorized into five chapters. The first chapter presents the background of the study, statement of the problem, objective of the study, research questions and hypothesis, the significance of the study, scope/limitations of the study, and definition of terms. The chapter two covers the review of literature with emphasis on conceptual framework, theoretical framework, and empirical review. Likewise, the chapter three which is the research methodology, specifically covers the research design, population of the study, sample size determination, sample size, and selection technique and procedure, research instrument and administration, method of data collection, method of data analysis, validity and reliability of the study, and ethical consideration. The second to last chapter being the chapter four presents the data presentation and analysis, while the last chapter(chapter five) contains the summary, conclusion and recommendation.


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations:

5.1 Introduction

This chapter summarizes the findings on the effect of laboratory materials in the performance of biology students in senior secondary school in Gwagwalada, Abuja. The chapter consists of summary of the study, conclusions, and recommendations.


5.2 Summary of the Study

In this study, our focus was to examine the effect of laboratory materials in the performance of biology students in senior secondary school in Gwagwalada, Abuja. The study was specifically set to find out if laboratory materials is available in secondary schools in Gwagwalada, investigate the extent to which the use of laboratory materials will enhance the student’s performance in mathematics in Gwagwalada, find out if there are necessary equipment that will aid the teaching and learning of biology in the laboratory, and investigate if laboratory materials will improve the academic achievement of secondary school students in biology.

The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 150 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondent are biology teachers and students in senior secondary school in Gwagwalada, Abuja.


5.3 Conclusions

Based on the findings of this study, the researcher made the following conclusion.

  1. Biology laboratory materials are not available in secondary schools in Gwagwalada.
  2. The extent to which the use of laboratory materials will enhance the student’s performance in biology in Gwagwalada is high.
  3. There are necessary equipment that will aid the teaching and learning of biology in the laboratory.
  4. Biology laboratory materials improve the academic achievement of secondary school students.

5.4 Recommendation

Based on the findings of the study, the following recommendations are proffered.

  1. It is evident that availability of biology laboratory facilities promote learning of the subjects. Therefore government and all other stakeholders of education should as a matter of priority make available these facilities in the schools.
  2. It is important that resources are made available for establishing laboratories with adequate facilities in schools. Hence, the Nigerian government should include practical activities in science as a part of the formal assessment procedures and take immediate steps to equip/set up science laboratories for the effective teaching and learning of science.
  3. Science teachers should be more resourceful by providing support materials for science teaching and learning so that students learn by doing, develop thinking skills, and attempt innovations.

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