Effect Of Use Of Jigsaw Strategy On Chemistry Students Achievements In Mole Concept In Bokkos Local Government

Project and Seminar Material for Chemistry Education

Effect Of Use Of Jigsaw Strategy On Chemistry Students Achievements In Mole Concept In Bokkos Local Government


Abstract


This study was carried out to examine the effect of use of jigsaw strategy on chemistry students achievements in mole concept using some selected senior secondary schools in Pankshin Local Government Plateau State as a case study. The study was specifically set to determine whether there is a significant relationship between jigsaw strategy and chemistry students achievements, find out whether jigsaw teaching strategy is utilized during the teaching/learning of chemistry in secondary schools in Pankshin Local Government, determine whether the use of Jigsaw strategy enhances the effective teaching of mole concept in biology in secondary schools, and ascertain whether jigsaw teaching strategy have a significant positive effect on students academic performance in chemistry. The survey design was adopted and the simple random sampling techniques were employed in this study. The population size comprise of chemistry teachers and students of some selected senior secondary schools in Pankshin Local Government Plateau State. In determining the sample size, the researcher conveniently selected 200 respondents and 150 were validated. Self-constructed and validated questionnaire was used for data collection. The collected and validated questionnaires were analyzed using frequency tables. While the hypotheses were tested using Chi-square statistical tool. The result of the findings reveals that there is a significant relationship between jigsaw strategy and chemistry students achievements. The study also revealed that the use of Jigsaw strategy enhances the effective teaching of mole concept in chemistry in secondary schools. Therefore, it is recommended that chemistry curriculum developers should include the teaching of chemistry using Jigsaw strategy as part of the teacher education syllabus during the training of chemistry teachers. This makes it part of the curriculum which may address the problem of dismal performance in the subject. To mention but a few.


Table of Content


  • Title Page
  • Certification
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Table of Content
  • List of Tables
  • Abstract

Chapter One:

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3 Objective of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Research Hypothesis
  • 1.6 Significance of the Study
  • 1.7 Scope of the Study
  • 1.8 Limitation of the Study
  • 1.9 Definition of Terms
  • 1.10 Organisations of the Study

Chapter Two:

Review of Literature

  • 2.1 Conceptual Framework
  • 2.2 Theoretical Framework
  • 2.3 Empirical Review

Chapter Three:

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Population of the Study
  • 3.3 Sample Size Determination
  • 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
  • 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
  • 3.6 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
  • 3.8 Validity of the Study
  • 3.9 Reliability of the Study
  • 3.10 Ethical Consideration

Chapter Four:

Data Presentation and Analysis

  • 4.1 Data Presentation
  • 4.2 Analysis of Data
  • 4.3 Answering Research Questions
  • 4.4 Test of Hypotheses

Chapter Five:

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • References
  • APPENDIX
  • QUESTIONNAIRE

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

Education is shaped with respect to the demands of the changing world; a knowledge based economy has shaped educational approaches, pedagogy and curriculum. Individuals and societies are being shaped spontaneously with respect to changing demands. Countries are beginning to start educational reforms to reach or keep pace with increasing knowledge (Tang et al. 2012; Dogan et al. 2015). This could be achieved through education by raising the individuals who have analytical thinking strategies. In this aspect, it is important that the individuals in the society have science literacy, understanding of science and ability of using scientific process. Active learning is one of the methods which can be used to reach the desired goals (Gardner and Belland 2012).

Active learning may trigger the situational interest of students in topics; thus, this may help students to understand conceptual facts (by using deeper processing strategies). Cooperative learning methods are also one of the active learning methods and it is based on simple psychological needs for competence which promotes learning (Rotgans and Schmidt 2011; Uyanik 2016). Active learning is a good way to facilitate learning because it enhances thinking strategies which in fact develops cognitive skills of students (Buckley et al. 2011; Byrd 2012).

However, to improve the students’ thinking strategies, it is also necessary to ask them appropriate questions. This means teachers should also be prepared for unexpected questions and answers from students. Moreover, it is also important to give students hands-on activities or homework since it is an essential tool of visualizing the lecture topics for the students (Shieh et al. 2010). Studies point out that students, when become teachers, tend to teach in the way they learned through their education life.

This means pedagogy or core concepts taught at school about teaching and information is not embraced by the future teachers but instead they tend to act with respect to facts based on their experiences. In that case, it is important to give information to students (future teachers) in a constructivist approach which may help the students to experience meaningful learning, and help their future students to achieve better meaningful learning (Tang et al. 2012).

Jigsaw technique is one of the active learning techniques used for educational purposes. This technique relies on sharing materials, purpose and time between students within a group. By doing this, it is assumed that students will benefit from each other, socialize, gain responsibility and regulate their learning (Doymus 2007; Yoonkyung and Yongseob 2015). Bonestroo and Jong (2012) pointed out that self-learning activities are one of the key factors increasing students’ critical thinking levels. However, it is also important to incorporate proper planning into learning activities since studies also indicated that planning has the biggest effect among the factors affecting students’ achievement. Cetin and Akkus (2016) also implied similar points of view. In their paper, they implemented jigsaw technique in the chemistry laboratory and they argued that if course content is not related with proper assessment then positive learning outcomes would not be achieved. Implementing cooperative learning in the right way not only increases academic success but also have positive effects on long term retention of knowledge (Dat 2016). Warfa (2016) in his paper showed that there is a positive relationship between cooperative learning and chemistry achievement. Similar findings were reached by Joel et al. (2016), pointing out that cooperative learning groups have better academic achievement than traditional groups and these findings are statistically significant. Yoruk (2016) used Jigsaw technique in Chemistry laboratory, and pointed out in his paper that using Jigsaw technique in chemistry laboratory increases students’ awareness towards chemistry, chemistry laboratory, and their surroundings along with increasing positive social skills.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

There is consistent poor achievement of students in Chemistry at senior secondary school level. This poor achievement of students in Chemistry is suspected to be related and attributed to constant use of traditional teaching method (talk and chalk method) in teaching and learning Chemistry. Chemistry as a science subject is practically oriented, hence; there is the need to use innovative strategies such as Jigsaw instructional strategy that guarantees students’ active participation in teaching and learning encounter. Previous research reports show that the use of Jigsaw instructional strategy enhances students’ achievement in subjects like Physics, Chemistry, Biology and even Geometric Construction in mathematics. Thus, it is not known if the use of Jigsaw instructional strategy could help students to improve their achievements in mole concept in Chemistry. This gap is what the present study intends to fill.


1.3 Objectives of the Study

The general objectives of the study is to examine the effect of use of jigsaw strategy on chemistry students achievements in mole concept in Pankshin Local Government. Specific objectives are:

  1. Determine whether there is a significant relationship between jigsaw strategy and chemistry students achievements.
  2. Find out whether jigsaw teaching strategy is utilized during the teaching/learning of chemistry in secondary schools in Pankshin Local Government.
  3. Determine whether the use of Jigsaw strategy enhances the effective teaching of mole concept in chemistry in secondary schools.
  4. Ascertain whether jigsaw teaching strategy have a significant positive effect on students academic performance in chemistry.

1.4 Research Questions

The study will be guided by the following questions;

  1. Is there is any significant relationship between jigsaw strategy and chemistry students achievements?
  2. Is jigsaw teaching strategy is utilized during the teaching/learning of chemistry in secondary schools in Pankshin Local Government?
  3. Does the use of Jigsaw strategy enhances the effective teaching of mole concept in chemistry in secondary schools?
  4. Does jigsaw teaching strategy have a significant positive effect on students academic performance in chemistry?

1.5 Research Hypothesis

  • Ho: Jigsaw teaching strategy does not have a significant positive effect on students academic performance in chemistry
  • Ha: Jigsaw teaching strategy have a significant positive effect on students academic performance in chemistry.

1.6 Significance of the Study

The findings of this study will be beneficial to secondary school chemistry teachers by helping them to use learning strategies which arouse the interest of the learners and with high participation of the learners. The outcomes of the study will help the chemistry teachers appreciate that girls can also perform well in chemistry by use of appropriate learning strategies and thus have positive attitude towards girls in chemistry classrooms. This study will help the secondary school students to identify the learning strategy that enhances achievement in chemistry. The head teachers and the head of departments will benefit from the suggestions on how to support the teachers on use of appropriate learning methods. This study will inform the teacher educator about effective teaching strategies in preparation of the teachers and thus enhancing students‟ achievement in chemistry . The study is also beneficial to education officers and also policy makers in deciding on the appropriate learning strategies for learners to improve the students‟ chemistry achievement.


1.7 Scope of the Study

The scope of this study boarders on the effect of use of jigsaw strategy on chemistry students achievements in mole concept in Pankshin Local Government Plateau State. However the study will be delimited to some selected senior secondary schools in Pankshin Local Government Plateau State.


1.8 Limitation of the study

Like in every human endeavour, the researchers encountered slight constraints while carrying out the study. The significant constraint was the scanty literature on the subject owing to the nature of the discourse thus the researcher incurred more financial expenses and much time was required in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature, or information and in the process of data collection, which is why the researcher resorted to a limited choice of sample size. Additionally, the researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. More so, the choice of the sample size was limited as few respondent were selected to answer the research instrument hence cannot be generalize to other secondary schools. However, despite the constraint encountered during the research, all factors were downplayed in other to give the best and make the research successful.


1.9 Definition of Terms

Jigsaw:

Jigsaw puzzle is a picture printed on cardboard or wood, which has been cut up into a lot of small pieces of different shapes that you have to fit together again (The Free Dictionary, Jan 20, 2012). In this study it refers to a grouping strategy in which members of the class are organized into learning groups called “Home groups” and then rearranged in new groups to share their learning.

Jigsaw Cooperative Learning Strategy:

This is where each student of a “home” group specializes in one aspect of a learning unit. Students meet with members from other “home” groups who are assigned the same aspect, and after mastering the material, return to the “home” group and teach the material to their group members (Aronson, 2000).


1.10 Organization of the Study

The study is categorized into five chapters. The first chapter presents the background of the study, statement of the problem, objective of the study, research questions and hypothesis, the significance of the study, scope/limitations of the study, and definition of terms. The chapter two covers the review of literature with emphasis on conceptual framework, theoretical framework, and empirical review. Likewise, the chapter three which is the research methodology, specifically covers the research design, population of the study, sample size determination, sample size, and selection technique and procedure, research instrument and administration, method of data collection, method of data analysis, validity and reliability of the study, and ethical consideration. The second to last chapter being the chapter four presents the data presentation and analysis, while the last chapter(chapter five) contains the summary, conclusion and recommendation.


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations:

5.1 Introduction

This chapter summarizes the findings on the effect of use of jigsaw strategy on chemistry students achievements in mole concept using some selected senior secondary schools in Pankshin Local Government Plateau State as a case study. The chapter consists of summary of the study, conclusions, and recommendations.


5.2 Summary of the Study

In this study, our focus was to examine the effect of use of jigsaw strategy on chemistry students achievements in mole concept using some selected senior secondary schools in Pankshin Local Government Plateau State as a case study. The study was specifically set to determine whether there is a significant relationship between jigsaw strategy and chemistry students achievements, find out whether jigsaw teaching strategy is utilized during the teaching/learning of chemistry in secondary schools in Pankshin Local Government, determine whether the use of Jigsaw strategy enhances the effective teaching of mole concept in biology in secondary schools, and ascertain whether jigsaw teaching strategy have a significant positive effect on students academic performance in chemistry.

The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 150 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondent are chemistry teachers and students of some selected senior secondary schools in Pankshin Local Government Plateau State.


5.3 Conclusions

Based on the findings of this study, the researcher made the following conclusion.

  1. There is a significant relationship between jigsaw strategy and chemistry students achievements.
  2. jigsaw teaching strategy is utilized during the teaching/learning of chemistry in secondary schools in Pankshin Local Government.
  3. The use of Jigsaw strategy enhances the effective teaching of mole concept in chemistry in secondary schools.
  4. Jigsaw teaching strategy have a significant positive effect on students academic performance in chemistry.

5.4 Recommendation

Based on the responses obtained, the researcher proffers the following recommendations:

  1. Chemistry curriculum developers should include the teaching of chemistry using Jigsaw strategy as part of the teacher education syllabus during the training of chemistry teachers. This makes it part of the curriculum which may address the problem of dismal performance in the subject.
  2. Since jigsaw teaching strategy has demonstrated its effectiveness in increasing meaningful learning in chemistry because it is an activity-oriented method which involved checking and assessing individual academic confidence level at every new stage or units in knowledge without leaving a stone unturned. It is therefore recommended that all levels of education should adopt jigsaw teaching strategy because it boosts the participation of students in chemistry thereby improving the academic achievement of students in chemistry.
  3. Government should organize workshops and seminars for teachers to train them on how to plan lessons in various subjects using the Jigsaw strategy
  4. When implementing Jigsaw teaching strategy, teachers should consider whether students can adapt to and accept the curriculum reform and whether the content is suitable for a flipped classroom.
  5. Teachers should consider the number of the students, learning stage, subject area, and intervention duration before implementing Jigsaw teaching strategy.

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