Effect Of Jigsaw 2 Cooperative Learning Strategy On Senior Secondary School Students Academic Achievement In Algebra

Mathematics Education Project Material

Effect Of Jigsaw 2 Cooperative Learning Strategy On Senior Secondary School Students Academic Achievement In Algebra (Daniel)


Abstract


This study examined the effect of jigsaw 2 cooperative learning strategy on senior secondary school students academic achievement in algebra in Gombe State, Nigeria. The study adopted the pre-test, post-test, quasiexperimental and control group design. A sample of 146 students using multistage sampling procedure was drawn from four schools and was later divided into two groups; experimental group and the control group. The instrument used for the study is Algebraic Achievement Test (AAT). It was validated by experts in mathematics education and a reliability index of 0.78 was obtained using Kuder Richardson 20 (KR20.) . The study revealed that students in the experimental group achieved significantly higher mean score than students in the control group in academic achievement in mathematics F =40.78(df ,1,45),P=0.00). However, the finding on gender revealed that there is no statistical significant difference in the achievement scores of male and female students taught using jigsaw II learning strategy F =0.07(df ,1,75),P=0.94). Based on the findings of the study, it was recommended that mathematics teachers should encourage jigsaw II learning strategy among students during mathematics lessons since it improved their academic achievement.


Table of Content


  • Title Page
  • Certification
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Table of Content
  • List of Tables
  • Abstract

Chapter One:

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3 Objective of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Research Hypothesis
  • 1.6 Significance of the Study
  • 1.7 Scope of the Study
  • 1.8 Limitation of the Study
  • 1.9 Definition of Terms
  • 1.10 Organisations of the Study

Chapter Two:

Review of Literature

  • 2.1 Conceptual Framework
  • 2.2 Theoretical Framework
  • 2.3 Empirical Review

Chapter Three:

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Population of the Study
  • 3.3 Sample Size Determination
  • 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
  • 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
  • 3.6 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
  • 3.8 Validity of the Study
  • 3.9 Reliability of the Study
  • 3.10 Ethical Consideration

Chapter Four:

Data Presentation and Analysis

  • 4.1 Data Presentation
  • 4.2 Analysis of Data
  • 4.3 Answering Research Questions
  • 4.4 Test of Hypotheses

Chapter Five:

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • REFERENCES
  • APPENDIX
  • QUESTIONNAIRE

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background to the Study

In recent years, educational researchers and practitioners have increasingly emphasized the importance of employing effective teaching strategies to enhance students’ academic achievement across various subjects. One such strategy that has garnered significant attention is the Jigsaw II cooperative learning approach. This study aims to investigate the impact of the Jigsaw II cooperative learning strategy on the academic achievement of senior secondary school students in algebra within the Nigerian educational context.

Cooperative learning strategies, rooted in the social interdependence theory proposed by Kurt Lewin in the 1940s, emphasize collaborative efforts among students to achieve common learning goals (Johnson & Johnson, 2014). The Jigsaw II technique, an extension of the original Jigsaw method developed by Elliot Aronson in the early 1970s, involves dividing students into small, heterogeneous groups where each member becomes an expert in a specific topic before teaching it to their peers (Aronson et al., 1978). This approach fosters active engagement, promotes positive interdependence, and encourages students to take ownership of their learning process.

Algebra, as a fundamental branch of mathematics, plays a crucial role in senior secondary education, serving as a foundation for higher-level mathematical concepts and applications. However, algebra has often been perceived as challenging by students due to its abstract nature and reliance on problem-solving skills (Capraro & Joffrion, 2006). Consequently, educators continually seek innovative instructional methods to enhance students’ understanding and performance in algebra.

Nigeria, like many other countries, faces educational challenges, including large class sizes, limited resources, and diverse student populations with varying learning needs (Akpan, 2018). In this context, exploring effective teaching strategies becomes imperative to address the diverse learning requirements of students and improve academic outcomes.

While the original Jigsaw method has been widely researched and shown positive effects on students’ academic achievement and social interactions (Aronson et al., 1978), limited studies have investigated the efficacy of its modified version, Jigsaw II, specifically in the Nigerian educational setting and its impact on algebra learning outcomes among senior secondary school students.

Therefore, this study seeks to fill this gap by examining how the implementation of the Jigsaw II cooperative learning strategy influences senior secondary school students’ academic achievement in algebra. By conducting rigorous empirical research, this study aims to provide valuable insights into the effectiveness of cooperative learning methods in enhancing mathematics education in Nigeria.

In the subsequent sections, the methodology employed in this study, including the research design, participants, intervention procedures, data collection instruments, and data analysis techniques, will be elaborated upon. Additionally, the theoretical framework underpinning the study and the significance of the research findings will be discussed in detail.

Through this research endeavor, it is anticipated that educators, policymakers, and stakeholders in Nigerian education will gain valuable insights into the potential of cooperative learning strategies, such as Jigsaw II, to improve students’ academic achievement in algebra, thereby contributing to the enhancement of mathematics education and overall learning outcomes in senior secondary schools.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

In Nigeria, as in many other countries, mathematics education at the senior secondary school level faces numerous challenges, including low academic achievement and student disengagement. Algebra, a foundational component of mathematics, often presents significant difficulties for students due to its abstract nature and complex problem-solving requirements (Akpan, 2018). Despite efforts to improve mathematics education, including curriculum reforms and teacher training initiatives, students’ performance in algebra remains a concern.
In addressing the challenges of algebra education, various instructional strategies have been proposed and implemented. One such strategy gaining attention is the Jigsaw II cooperative learning approach. The Jigsaw II method, an extension of the original Jigsaw technique, emphasizes collaborative learning and positive interdependence among students (Aronson et al., 1978). However, despite its potential benefits, the effectiveness of the Jigsaw II cooperative learning strategy in enhancing senior secondary school students’ academic achievement in algebra within the Nigerian context remains largely unexplored.

Therefore, the primary problem addressed in this study is:

To what extent does the implementation of the Jigsaw II cooperative learning strategy influence the academic achievement of senior secondary school students in algebra in Nigeria?

This overarching problem encompasses several specific research questions, including:

  1. What are the baseline levels of academic achievement in algebra among senior secondary school students in Nigeria?
  2. How does the implementation of the Jigsaw II cooperative learning strategy impact students’ attitudes towards learning algebra?
  3. What are the perceived challenges and facilitators associated with the adoption of the Jigsaw II cooperative learning strategy in Nigerian senior secondary schools?
  4. Are there variations in the effectiveness of the Jigsaw II cooperative learning strategy based on students’ demographic characteristics, such as gender, socio-economic status, or prior mathematical achievement?

Addressing these questions will provide insights into the potential of cooperative learning strategies, specifically Jigsaw II, to improve algebra education outcomes among senior secondary school students in Nigeria. Additionally, it will contribute to the existing body of knowledge on effective teaching methods in mathematics education, informing educators, policymakers, and stakeholders about evidence-based approaches to enhance students’ academic achievement in algebra.


1.3 Objective of the Study

The purpose of the study is to investigate the effect of jigsaw 2 cooperative learning strategy on senior secondary school students academic achievement in algebra.

The specific objectives of the study are listed below:

  1. To determine the effect of jigsaw II cooperative learning strategy and lecture method on academic achievement in algebra among SS II students in Gombe state.
  2. To compare the effect of jigsaw II cooperative learning strategy on academic achievement of male and female SS II students in algebra in Gombe state.

1.4 Research Questions

In order to achieve the objectives of the study, the following research questions were raised to guide the direction of the study:

  1. What is the mean difference between achievement scores of Senior Secondary School Students (SS II) taught algebra using jigsaw II co-operative learning strategy and those taught with the lecture method?
  2. What is the mean difference between achievement scores of male and female Senior Secondary School Students (SS II) when taught algebra using jigsaw II co- operative learning strategy?

1.5 Hypotheses of the Study

The following null hypotheses were formulated and tested at 0.05 level of significance:

  • H01: There is no significant difference between the mean achievement scores of Senior Secondary School Students (SS II) taught algebra using jigsaw II co-operative learning strategy and those taught using the lecture method.
  • H02: There is no significant difference between the mean achievement scores of male and female Senior Secondary School Students (SS II) taught Algebra using jigsaw II co- operative learning strategy.

1.6 Significance of the Study

This study investigating the effect of the Jigsaw II cooperative learning strategy on senior secondary school students’ academic achievement in algebra holds several significant implications for various stakeholders within the Nigerian educational context and beyond.

The findings of this study will provide valuable insights to educators, curriculum developers, and instructional designers regarding the efficacy of cooperative learning strategies, particularly Jigsaw II, in improving students’ performance in algebra. Understanding how such strategies impact academic achievement can inform pedagogical practices and curriculum design aimed at enhancing mathematics education in Nigerian schools.

Policymakers in the Nigerian educational system can benefit from the outcomes of this study to make informed decisions regarding the integration of cooperative learning approaches into educational policies and initiatives. By recognizing the potential of cooperative learning strategies to enhance student outcomes, policymakers can advocate for the implementation of supportive frameworks and resources to facilitate their widespread adoption.

The study outcomes directly impact senior secondary school students by potentially improving their learning experiences and academic performance in algebra. By experiencing the benefits of cooperative learning firsthand, students may develop enhanced problem-solving skills, critical thinking abilities, and interpersonal competencies, which are essential for their future academic and professional endeavors.

Teacher training programs and professional development initiatives can utilize the findings of this study to equip educators with effective instructional strategies for teaching algebra. By incorporating cooperative learning methodologies into teacher training curricula, educators can be better prepared to create engaging and inclusive learning environments that foster collaboration and student success.

This study contributes to the existing body of research on mathematics education and cooperative learning by providing empirical evidence of the effectiveness of the Jigsaw II strategy in a Nigerian context. Researchers interested in educational psychology, curriculum development, and instructional methods can build upon these findings to further explore the mechanisms underlying cooperative learning and its impact on academic achievement.

In summary, this study holds significance for advancing educational practices, informing policy decisions, empowering students, enhancing teacher training programs, and enriching the broader research discourse on effective teaching and learning strategies in mathematics education. By addressing these various stakeholders’ needs, the study contributes to the overarching goal of improving educational outcomes and fostering academic success in Nigeria and beyond.


1.7 Scope of the Study

The study will analyze the effect of jigsaw 2 cooperative learning strategy on senior secondary school students academic achievement in algebra in Gombe State. The study is limited to some selected Secondary Schools in the area. Hence, the respondents for this study will be obtained from and among secondary school students in the study area.


1.8 Limitation of the Study

In the course of carrying out this study, the researcher experienced some constraints, which included time constraints, financial constraints, language barriers, and the attitude of the respondents. However, the researcher were able to manage these just to ensure the success of this study.


1.9 Definition of Terms

Jigsaw II Cooperative Learning Strategy:

Jigsaw II is a cooperative learning strategy derived from the original Jigsaw method. It involves dividing students into small, heterogeneous groups where each member becomes an expert in a specific topic before teaching it to their peers. The Jigsaw II approach fosters collaborative learning, positive interdependence, and active participation among students.

Senior Secondary School Students:

Senior secondary school students refer to learners typically aged between 15 and 18 years old who are enrolled in the last three years of secondary education. In Nigeria, senior secondary education usually covers grades 10 to 12.

Academic Achievement:

Academic achievement encompasses students’ performance and success in educational activities, including exams, assessments, projects, and coursework. In the context of this study, academic achievement specifically pertains to students’ proficiency and attainment levels in algebra, a branch of mathematics.

Algebra:

Algebra is a branch of mathematics that deals with symbols and the rules for manipulating those symbols to solve equations and analyze mathematical relationships. In the context of this study, algebra refers to the specific content and skills taught in senior secondary school algebra courses in Nigeria, which may include topics such as equations, inequalities, functions, and algebraic expressions.


1.10 Organization of the Study

This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows.

  • Chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the (overview, of the study), historical background, statement of problem, objectives of the study, research hypotheses, significance of the study, scope and limitation of the study, definition of terms and historical background of the study.
  • Chapter two highlights the theoretical framework on which the study is based, thus the review of related literature.
  • Chapter three deals on the research design and methodology adopted in the study.
  • Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding.
  • Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study.

Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations

5.1 Introduction

This chapter summarizes the findings on the effect of jigsaw 2 cooperative learning strategy on senior secondary school students academic achievement in algebra in gombe state. The chapter consists of summary of the study, conclusions, and recommendations.


5.2 Summary

The study indicated the existence of significant difference between the academic achievement of students taught using jigsaw II co-operative learning strategy and those taught using lecture methods in favour of those exposed to jigsaw II co-operative learning strategy. This implies that jigsaw II co- operative learning strategy was more effective than the lecture method in the teaching and learning of Algebra in mathematics. The result further suggests that jigsaw II co-operative learning strategy could help to enhance students’ understanding of algebraic concepts in mathematics more than the lecture method. This finding agrees with the results of Gubbad (2010), Chianson, Okwu and Kurumeh (2010), Gambari, Shittu and Taiwo (2013) as well as Zakaria, Solfitri, Daud and Abidin (2013) who discovered that jigsaw II co-operative learning improved students’ performance in mathematics.

The superiority of jigsaw II co-operative learning over the lecture method could be due to the fact that it is a strategy that emphasizes specialization on one aspect of a topic by each member of a group. Every group member must specialize on a portion of the topic while in the expert group, teach his portion to his group members, learn the whole lesson in the home group and individually solve some tasks. Thus, each student learns and helps his group members to learn by providing opportunity for dialogue and free discussion on a task, which is not obtainable in the lecture method. Also, the difference could be attributed to the group reward feature in-built in the jigsaw II strategy which serves as motivation to perform better in subsequent lessons by earning higher improvement scores.

The results of this study also revealed that there was no significant difference in the academic achievement of male and female students exposed to jigsaw II co-operative learning strategy. This result is in line with those of Chianson, and Kurumeh (2010), Keramati, Tahmasbi, Rafat and Khashab (2011) as well as Gambari, Shittu and Taiwo (2013) who detected that gender had no effect on academic performance of students in co-operative learning. The finding, however, debunked the results of Khairulanuar, Nazre, Sairabanu and Norasikin (2010) who found gender difference in favour of male when exposed to co-operative learning. The result of this study indicates that jigsaw II cooperative learning strategy favoured both male and female in algebraic aspect of mathematics and the strategy is more effective in enhancing both male and female students’ performance in mathematics.


5.3 Conclusion

Based on the findings of this study, the use of jigsaw II learning strategy enhances students’ academic achievement in algebra in senior secondary school mathematics. Gender has no influence on students’ academic achievement in algebraic concepts. Hence, it is hopeful that when mathematics teachers and teachers in other subjects use jigsaw II cooperative learning strategy as their teaching method, the students’ academic achievement will improve.


5.4 Recommendations

Based on the findings of this study, the following recommendations are made:

  1. Mathematics teachers should be encouraged to use jigsaw II co-operative learning strategy in their classrooms since it improved students’ academic achievement in mathematics.
  2. Mathematics Teachers should also actively involve male and female students in learning activities to avoid gender stereotyping. Both male and female students benefited from jigsaw II co- operative learning strategy as evident from the research outcome.

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