The Effect Of Internet On The Academic Performance Of Secondary School Students

Project and Seminar Material for Education

The Effect Of Internet On The Academic Performance Of Secondary School Students


Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

Increasing numbers of people worldwide are using the Internet (1,574,313,184 as of December 31, 2008). It has been recently reported that adolescents today spend a significant amount of time on the Internet for multiple purposes (Ito, Horst, Bittanti, Boyd, Herr-Stephenson, Lange, et al., 2008). Studies have indicated that the use of the Internet can be helpful to adolescents to complete schoolwork more effectively and efficiently (Borzekowski & Robinson, 2005; Jackson, et al., 2006). However, other investigators have suggested direct negative effects of Internet use on academic outcomes (Choi, 2007; Sirgy, Lee, & Bae, 2006). Excessive Internet use has been associated with problems with maintaining daily routines, school performance, and family relationships (Rickert, 2001).

The Internet is a global linking of computers that allows information transfer. The Internet was established in the early 1960s by the U.S. Department of Defense (Schneider, Evans, & Pinard, 2006), primarily for military purposes. Since then, the continual improvement of the Internet technology has provided an extraordinary level of public accessibility to a wide range of forms of communication, e.g. intra-organizational and inter-organizational email; data storage, management and transfer; social websites like Facebook; text messaging such as Twitter, and so forth. Due to the development and spread of cheaper and more user-friendly computer technology and software (e.g., portable computers, Microsoft Word etc.), the use of the Internet has increased dramatically. In 2010, the world’s Internet use was 28.7% of the population. While this may not seem like a very large portion of the world’s population, the growth in the use of the Internet has been dramatic. For example, between 2000 and 2010, the rate of growth of Internet use was 444.8% (Internet World Stats, 2010).

There are many benefits associated with Internet use, such as access to needed information, worldwide access to news and events, and interpersonal communication through email. However, along with the phenomenal growth of the Internet and its use, 2 there has been a growing concern worldwide regarding the risks associated with Internet over-use (Buchholz, 2009; Daily News, 2008, 2009; Fackler, 2008; Janta, 2008; Khaosod, 2007; The Associated Press, 2009). It is now believed that there could be widespread „addiction‟ to it, in particular amongst college and university students (Chou & Hsiao, 2000; Fortson, Scotti, Chen, Malone, & Del Ben, 2007; Kim, et al., 2010; Kubey, Lavin, & Barrows, 2001; Morahan-Martin & Schumacher, 2000; Scherer, 1997; H. Yan, Liu, Ni, & Chen, 2009; M. Yang et al., 2009). Internet plays a fundamental role in organizations and society. The basic fact justifies the information revolution that has been taking place across the globe in recent times. The term Internet according to Cawkell in Ogedebe (2004, p.152) is a large computer network formed out of some thousands of interconnected networks, and it supports a whole range of services such as electronic, file transfer protocol, database access and many others. It is therefore not surprising the success story behind the advent of Internet.

For obvious reasons, it should be noted that the impact of Internet access on on-campus instruction is still very low for various reasons: The technology is new, very costly, and perhaps too threatening to existing academic structures and traditions. This view was supported by Brownand Duguid (1996). The influence of Internet on Academic Performance of students differs depending on population. Sanni et al (2009) in a recent study observed that there is a gender difference in internet use and thus adequate attention should be paid to ensuring equal access between male and female students.

The study also establishes that the present level of capabilities for internet-assisted research is encouraging and that improving internet facilities in our universities will enhance academic research in Nigerian tertiary institutions if strategically embarked upon. A review of literature reveals that teachers and students are the most frequent users of the Internet, using it mainly for educational purposes rather than for entertainment. Several studies Oagboro, 2003; Panda and Sahu, 2003; Hanauer2004) have established a high degree of access and use of the Internet among college students.

Hanauer’s (2004) report showed that 83% of Internet users had access at their homes and 51% at their colleges or libraries. Eighty-one percent of the students access the Internet mostly for college work and 80% for e-mail/chat. Mishra, Yadav and Bisht (2005) conducted a research study on the Internet usage patterns of undergraduate students at the G B Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar.Their findings indicated that a majority of the students (85.7%) used the Internet, and 61.5% of the males and 51.6% of the females used it for preparing assignments. A majority of the respondents, 83.1% male and 61.3% female, indicated the slow functioning of Internet connections as a major challenge.

Robinson (2005) examined Internet use among African-American college students and concluded that the use of the Internet for most of the students occurred at school or in the workplace. In 2002, the Corporation for Public Broadcasting conducted a research on children’s Internet use in the United States. Findings revealed that children experienced the equivalent of an adolescent growth in their use of the Internet between 2000 and 2002. 65% of American children ages 2-17 were observed to use the Internet from home, school, or some other location – a 59 percent growth rate since 2000, when 41 percent of children went online from any location (CTF, 2002).

However, despite the usefulness of the Internet to students, several studies have examined the negative effects it could have on teens. For instance, immoral contents can be viewed in the closet, on a laptop, on a palmtop, etc. without the reservation that any other person will know about the content being consumed. According to Longe, et 01. (2007), the Internet has also served as the platform for pedophiles who take undue advantage of the innocence of children and teenagers to engage them in sex chat rooms and eventually invite them for sexual escapades. Hertlein & Piercy (2006) are of the opinion that people are using the Internet more frequently to form friendships and romances and to initiate inordinate affairs. They provided a critical review of the literature on Internet infidelity. Cheryl (2007) revealed that the average age of a child when first exposed to Internet pornography is at 11 years old, with the largest consumers of pornography in America being the 12-to-17-year old group. Almost 90 percent of eight to 16-year-olds have viewed pornography online, most while doing homework. This study aims at examining the use and miss-use of the Internet by secondary school students in Nigeria.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

Despite the usefulness of the Internet to students, several studies have examined the negative effects it could have on teens. For instance, immoral contents can be viewed in the closet, on a laptop, on a palmtop, etc. without the reservation that any other person will know about the content being consumed. According to Longe, et 01. (2007), the Internet has also served as the platform for pedophiles who take undue advantage of the innocence of children and teenagers to engage them in sex chat rooms and eventually invite them for sexual escapades. Hertlein & Piercy (2006) are of the opinion that people are using the Internet more frequently to form friendships and romances and to initiate inordinate affairs.

Things are changing globally, and there are different and modern ways of doing things, if the essence of the educational policy is aimed at producing man-power which can cope with the ever-changing modern world, and be part of the global village “the chalk and talk method”; hardly bringing participatory interaction method must give way to the use of innovation and technology driven which the ICT proffers. Things are changing globally, and there are different and modern ways of doing things, if the essence of the educational policy is aimed at producing man-power which can cope with the ever-changing modern world, and be part of the global village “the chalk and talk method”; hardly bringing participatory interaction method must give way to the use of innovation and technology driven which the ICT proffers.

The overwhelming and glaring features of the present educational systems and structures are the abnormal and unending deterioration if the quality of education at all level over the years. The West African Examination and National Examination Council result have constantly elicited this groin reality which seriously necessitates urgent attention. Thus it is the aim of this study to provide a template on which the revival of the educational system can be built, also to find out the impact and effects of internet on academic performance of secondary schools students through the use of ICT and as well as investigating the problems associated with the use of internet in teaching and learning process.


1.3 Objective of the Study

The main objective of this study is to find out the use of internet services and how it affects student’s performance.

Specifically, the aims of the study are to

  1. Find out the frequency of internet use.
  2. Find out the most preferred location of internet use. iii. Find out the purposes for browsing the internet. iv. Find out the most used internet service.
  3. Find out the influence of internet use on academic performance. vi. Find out the problems faced by students during internet use.

1.4 Research Questions

The following research questions have been formulated to guide this study.

  1. What is the frequency of internet use among the students?
  2. What is the most preferred location of internet? iii. What are the purposes for browsing the internet?
  3. Which is the most used internet service?
  4. Does internet services influence student’s academic performance? vi. What are the problems faced by students in using internet services?

1.5 Basic assumptions

The following are the assumptions of the researcher.

  1. It was assumed that students use the internet all weekdays except weekends. ii.It was assumed that students prefer to browse in the cybercafé than in the library.
  2. It was assumed that student use the internet for social networking.
  3. It was assumed that the Google search is the most used internet service by students.
  4. It was assumed that the internet has affected the students positively towards their educational goal.
  5. It was assumed that illiteracy is the problem faced by students most in internet use.

1.6 Significance of the Study

The study could be beneficial for students as well as for the institution. The valuable feedback gotten from respondents should help students to realise the benefits of internet in their education. Institutes can invest more in internet facilities to enhance the academic performance of their student and produce better results. Note that the relevance of internet facilities is measured by how effective, sufficient and accessible it is to students and users. The research will also provide in-depth insight into the various internet facilities and how students can be able to use them to improve academic performance.


1.7 Scope and Delimitation of the Study

The self-report criterion is a limitation. Future research should employ more objective measures of internet use. This study covers all regular secondary students in Secondary school of Abuja, Nigeria. These are 100 – 400 levels student including 500 levels law. The study therefore excludes centre for distance learning and continuing education (CDL and CE) students and sandwich students. Also, the study is not restricted to any gender. It includes both male and female, and undergraduates at all level of study.


1.8 Abbreviations and Definition of Terms

1.8.1 Abbreviations
ICT

Information Communication Technology

ARPA

Advanced Research Project Agency

E-Commerce

This relates to commerce using electronic resources and means E-Banking-This relates to the electronic system of banking which is done in developed countries of the world.

E-Business

This relates to business transaction that is done through electronic means. Example is the internet buying and selling with credit and masters card.

E-Learning

This is the use of electronic materials and equipment’s for teaching and learning in institutions

NSF

National Science Foundation

NCES

National Centre for Education Statistics

GVU

Graphical Visualisation and Usability

WWW

World Wide Web

ICANN

Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers

IETF

Internet Engineering Task Force

URL

Uniform Resource Locator

1.8.2 Definition of Terms
i. Internet:

This is a combination of networks with database of information which is interconnected to serve users.

ii. Performance:

This relates to the results and appraisal gotten from studying samples.

iii. Undergraduates:

These are students in institutions of higher education.

iv. Information and Communication Technology (ICT):

Refers to computer based tools used by people to work with the information and communication processing needs of an organisation, government agencies or individuals. It covers both the software and hard ware devices that are used in the information processes.

V. Secondary School:

Refers to an educational institution designed for instruction, examination or both of students in many branches of advanced learning, conferring degrees in various faculties, and often embodying colleges and similar institution


Chapter Five


5.0 Summary, Recommendations and Conclusion

5.1 Introduction

This chapter contains the summary, recommendations and conclusions of the research.


5.2 Summary

The study examined the issue of internet use and its implication on the academic performance of Secondary school of Abuja, Nigeria. The research went further to identify the frequency of internet use, most preferred location of internet usage, purpose for browsing the internet, the most used internet service and the challenges facing the effective use of the internet. The literature review of the work also had a detailed review of the concept of internet based on past research of other scholars. The results have so far demonstrated that the use of internet contributes immensely to the academic performances of students.

Finally to ensure that equal opportunity was given to the students, the research was conducted using a survey kind of research which gives room for effective studying of the populations. Samples were taken from the various levels. Simple frequency and percentage was used for analysing data. The major findings include slow functioning of internet servers, lack of computer skills among secondary students and problem of paying for online services.


5.3 Recommendations

  1. There is a need for extensive training programmes organised at regular intervals so that all categories of users can improve their efficiency in the use of the internet.
  2. To solve the problem of slow functioning of internet connectivity, the secondary school body should acquire high speed internet connection with maximum bandwidth.
  3. The cost of browsing should be reviewed downward so that student’s access to internet can increase. Students should be informed of possible resource websites via website guides which could be pasted on the notice boards at strategic places on campus and cyber-cafe to enable students know the websites that will fetch them relevant academic materials. This will reduce fruitless exercise experienced by students who claim not to get relevant materials when browsing and it can also help improve academic performance as a result of adequate research.
  4. Government should as a matter of necessity improve on the present state of power in the country. Internet can only be accessed when there is power to start up servers and computers. If there is constant power supply in the country, it will help boost student’s research by access to internet from personal homes.
  5. Despite the short comings of the internet, its role as distinct from the use of textbooks and lecture notes should be emphasized by academic staff to help motivate students do research and increase and broaden their knowledge.
  6. Printing facility should be provided so that users can get print out of their study materials and other important documents.

5.4 Conclusion

The fact that internet and its services play an important role on the student’s academic performance cannot be over emphasized. This it does through constant exposure of students to up-to-date information and relevant information in their various fields of study. The number of hours spent on the internet will have an effect on the student’s academic performance. The study shows that the use of internet for study purpose and academic achievements are directly proportional to each other. It was revealed that majority of respondents access the internet every day.

Even though the access to internet services has been grossly affected by the level of poverty and degree of exposure amongst other factors, the reduction in rates charged at internet and computer education centres could go a long way to enabling students have more access to latest and useful academic materials. If this suggestion and other recommendations in this study are taken it consideration, it is assumed that the future of the internet use and its academic influence on students is bright.


5.5 Suggestions for further Studies

Further areas of research could include determining the variations of internet usage by students from disciplines, determining the nature and extent of relationships between internet usage and academic performance, impact of internet at the Secondary school of Abuja in two years to come since it is increasingly used for learning. Also a further study should look into the role of power in effective utilization of internet facilities.


The Effect Of Internet On The Academic Performance Of Secondary School Students


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Frequently Asked Questions


Does Internet use affect academic performance of senior high school students?

However, studies on internet use among Senior High School Students are limited in the Wa Municipality. It is therefore uncertain whether the students use internet and the effect it has on their academic performance. Hence, this study investigates the internet use and its effects on Senior High School students in the Wa Municipality.

Does Internet usage affect academic achievement of secondary school students in Adamawa?

HO: There is no significant relationship between internet usage and academic achievement of secondary school students in Adamawa state. HA: There is significant relationship between internet usage and academic achievement of secondary school students in Adamawa state.

Does the Internet cause problems for students?

Some people believe that Internet use causes problems, especially for high school and younger students. We would like to learn more about what effect using the Internet has on YOU and YOUR friends.

What is the effect of Internet usage on learning?

The effect of internet usage on learning is currently in relation to the internet to facilitate teaching and learning. 

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