Effect Of Integrating Indigenous Knowledge Instructional Strategy On Senior Secondary School Physics

Physics Education Project Material

Effect Of Integrating Indigenous Knowledge Instructional Strategy On Senior Secondary School Physics


Abstract


This study was carried out to evaluate the effect of integrating indigenous knowledge instructional strategy on senior secondary school physics. This study therefore was carried out using our indigenous knowledge system strategy to present physics in the classroom as a familiar science. Three research questions were raised and two null hypotheses were formulated to guide the study. This study adopted mixed method research design, where both qualitative and quantitative data were collected and analysed. The qualitative approach involved the use of Focus Group. The quantitative approaches of data gathering employed was non- equivalent control pre-test and post-test quasi experimental design using a sample of 321 Senior Secondary two physics students consisting of two intact classes from two schools. One hundred and thirty three students (69male and 64 Female) formed the treatment group while 188 students (101 male and 87female) formed the control group. Focus Group Discussion Protocol (FGDP) was applied to unravel the indigenous knowledge systems within the community where the school is located while pre- and post-achievement tests were used for quantitative data collection for the study. The instruments were validated by two experts in physics education. Data collected were analyzed with ANCOVA using SPSS 23.0. Findings showed that students from the locality possess rich indigenous knowledge backgrounds and systems that can be deployed to teach physics. Results also revealed that students taught harnessing their indigenous knowledge system performed better than those taught using the conventional method [F (1,318) =68.27; p<0.05]. More so, there is no statistically significant difference in performance between male and female students taught using indigenous knowledge system strategy [F (1,130) =0.002; p>0.05]. It is therefore recommended that physics teachers should use indigenous knowledge system strategy in teaching classroom physics for meaningful learning and consequent better performance.


Table of Content


  • Title Page
  • Certification
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Table of Content
  • List of Tables
  • Abstract

Chapter One:

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3 Objective of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Research Hypothesis
  • 1.6 Significance of the Study
  • 1.7 Scope of the Study
  • 1.8 Limitation of the Study
  • 1.9 Definition of Terms
  • 1.10 Organisations of the Study

Chapter Two:

Review of Literature

  • 2.1 Conceptual Framework
  • 2.2 Theoretical Framework
  • 2.3 Empirical Review

Chapter Three:

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Population of the Study
  • 3.3 Sample Size Determination
  • 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
  • 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
  • 3.6 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
  • 3.8 Validity of the Study
  • 3.9 Reliability of the Study
  • 3.10 Ethical Consideration

Chapter Four:

Data Presentation and Analysis

  • 4.1 Data Presentation
  • 4.2 Analysis of Data
  • 4.3 Answering Research Questions
  • 4.4 Test of Hypotheses

Chapter Five:

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • References
  • APPENDIX
  • QUESTIONNAIRE

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

Today, there is an increasing recognition of the importance of using indigenous (traditional) knowledge for contextualising school science instruction, because it forms essential part of students’ prior experiences and sources of information that they carry to school learning. Despite its proven effectiveness as useful teaching tool, there is yet no systematic effort, to develop effective framework for incorporating indigenous knowledge into school science curriculum to complement instruction process in Nigeria schools. No wonder, poor performance still persists (Erinosho, 2013).

Indigenous Knowledge System (IKS) is described in the South African Revised Curriculum Statements as a body of knowledge embedded in African philosophical thinking and social practices that have evolved over thousands of years (DOE, 2002). It is also a way for people to understand themselves (Semali & Kincheloe, 1999). Nakashima and Roue (2002) described it as sophisticated arrays of information, understandings and interpretations that guide human societies in their innumerable interactions with the natural milieu. It is the sum total of the knowledge and skills which people in a particular area possess and which enable them to get the most out of their natural environment (Mhakure & Mushaikwa, 2014; De Beer & Whitlock, 2009; Odora Hoppers, 2004). Jones and Hunter (2003), and Michie (nd)identified the following common themes embedded within indigenous knowledge that are intrinsic to its integration into the science curriculum: Based on experience; Often tested over centuries of use; Developed collective data base of observable knowledge; Adapted to local culture and environment; Dynamic and changing a living knowledge base; Application of problem solving; Oral transmission sometimes encapsulated in metaphor; Not possible to separate indigenous knowledge from ethics, spirituality, metaphysics, ceremony and social order; Bridging the science of theory with the science of practice; A holistic(indigenous knowledge) versus a reductionist(Western science) approach; An ecologically based approach; Inclusive versus the specialisation of knowledge, and contextualised versus decontextualized science.

Teaching sciences generally needs to be rooted in indigenous knowledge and practices (Ugwu&Diovu, 2016). Jegede and Aikenhead (2000) observed that the current development towards ‘science for all’ in all parts of the globe necessitates that consideration be given to how pupils move between their everyday life–world and the world of school science; how pupils deal with cognitive conflicts between those two worlds, and what this means for effective teaching of science. They maintain that all learning is mediated by culture and takes place in a social context. Culture encompasses the knowledge, beliefs, art, morals, laws, customs and habits acquired by the people of the society (Jegede&Okebukola, 1991). It has been observed that without going to formal school, learning and quoting any theory or law of physics by Western scientists, Africans had evolved industries, produced tools, instruments and machines that apply or utilize so many physics concepts, principles, theories and laws, such as production and use of heat (furnace) in black smiting, gold smiting and pottery; musical instruments such as African Guitar, animal leather percussion drum, talking drum, wooden drum, metal gong, konga, wooden flutes and animal horn flutes; use of crow-bar as lever system machine for lifting heavy loads, inclined plane also for lifting loads to heights, carving wooden canoes that carry heavy loads and still float and move on water. These and many other physics concepts are unknowingly or unconsciously practised indigenously but in isolation from physics as a school science subject (Owolabi et al, 2016).


1.2 Statement of the Problem

Physics is one of the science subjects taught in senior secondary school that deals with the fundamental constituents of the universe, the force that exerts on one another and the effects of these forces, and the most basic of the science field (Adeyemo, 2012). Knowledge of physics established the means of transport in the air, on the land and in the sea. Factory plants and equipment, home and office appliances, and the world most needed development force-the information and communications technology (ICT), are all products and applications of physics. Despite the importance of physics in the scientific, technological and consequently, economic development of any nation (Onasanya and Omosewo 2011), physics in Nigerian secondary schools in the past, has suffered serious setbacks (Owolabi, 2010) ranging from poor teaching to poor learning, poor performance and finally poor enrollment. Of all these, poor teaching has been found to be the fundamental, as buttressed by Mohapatra (2015) that if the learner did not learn, then the teacher has not taught. The genesis of the anomaly is secondary school where physics as a separate science subject is presented to the students for the first time and therefore how the subject is presented by the teacher is how the supposedly innocent students would see it. That is why classroom delivery remains a very essential part of curriculum implementation. Plethora of studies have shown a persistent poor performance in physics examinations such as WAEC SSCE, NECO SSCE and GCE, which in turn leads to poor enrollment in physics and physics-related courses. Obviously, within the teaching and learning process, there must be a lacuna. To this Owolabi, Akintoye and Adeyemo (2011) lamented that, the teaching of physics in most Nigerian schools was dominated by teachers without professional qualifications and so cannot work out the teaching strategy that will work. Okoronka and Wada (2014) in their study identified poor teaching methodology as the strongest force causing poor learning and consequently poor performance and low enrollment. African society has rich indigenous knowledge system and live applications of physics concepts and principles that would enhance the teaching and learning of physics in secondary schools, but they are not harnessed nor utilized in the physics class (Owolabi, 20I0). It therefore, becomes imperative to integrate indigenous knowledge and practices of the people in the society into physics teaching in order to dispel the notion that the subject is foreign, abstract and has no relevance to the community daily activities. If the teacher can build on the previous knowledge of the students which include their indigenous knowledge system, indigenous language, indigenous instructional materials and indigenous technologies that utilize the theories, laws and principles of physics concepts, then physics will become familiar and friendly and understanding will be enhanced optimally.


1.3 Objectives of the Study

The main aim of this study is examine the effect of integrating indigenous knowledge instructional strategy on senior secondary school physics. Specifically this study seeks to:

  1. Investigate if there are indigenous knowledge systems within the students’ locality that can be deployed to teach physics.
  2. Ascertain the effect of deploying the students’ indigenous knowledge systems within the environment on their academic performance in physics.
  3. Determine if there any statistically significant difference in performance between male and female students taught using indigenous knowledge system strategy.

1.4 Research Questions

The following research questions will be answered in this study:

  1. Are there indigenous knowledge systems within the students’ locality that can be deployed to teach physics?
  2. What is the effect of deploying the students’ indigenous knowledge systems within the environment on their academic performance in physics?
  3. Is there any statistically significant difference in performance between male and female students taught using indigenous knowledge system strategy?

1.5 Research Hypothesis

  • HO1: There is no statistically significant difference in achievement between students taught using indigenous knowledge systems strategy and those taught using the conventional method.
  • HO2: There is no statistical difference between the performance of male and female students exposed to indigenous knowledge systems strategy.

1.6 Significance of the Study

The researcher’s contribution to science education research through this study is two-pronged. The first is with regards greater recognition of IK in science education, and the second regards the importance of appropriate methodologies for IK-science education research.


1.7 Scope of the Study

This study is structured to generally examine the effect of integrating indigenous knowledge instructional strategy on senior secondary school physics. Thus, the study will be delimited to some selected senior secondary schools in Lagos State Education District V. Badagry Zone of the district.


1.8 Limitation of the Study

Like in every human endeavour, the researcher encountered slight constraints while carrying out the study. Insufficient funds tend to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature, or information and in the process of data collection, which is why the researcher resorted to a limited choice of sample size. More so, the researcher simultaneously engaged in this study with other academic work. As a result, the amount of time spent on research will be reduced.


1.9 Definition of Terms

Indigenous knowledge (IK):

Specific forms of knowledge that is local and specific to place. In languages where verbs are more central than nouns, Indigenous knowledge could be synonymous to ‘ways of knowing’.

Indigenous Knowledge / Practices:

Refers to thoughts and beliefs existing among the local people to which value is attached and transcended along the lines of descent as being meaningful and correct in a particular locality. The context of this study is particular about those indigenous practices that shares the same outcome or result with certain Chemistry concepts and that students must have been familiar with from their locality.

Indigenous Knowledge Systems (IKS):

The totality of the knowledge that a community holds. IKS includes worldview, and is therefore broader than IK.


1.10 Organizations of the Study

The study is categorized into five chapters. The first chapter presents the background of the study, statement of the problem, objective of the study, research questions and hypothesis, the significance of the study, scope/limitations of the study, and definition of terms. The chapter two covers the review of literature with emphasis on conceptual framework, theoretical framework, and empirical review. Likewise, the chapter three which is the research methodology, specifically covers the research design, population of the study, sample size determination, sample size, and selection technique and procedure, research instrument and administration, method of data collection, method of data analysis, validity and reliability of the study, and ethical consideration. The second to last chapter being the chapter four presents the data presentation and analysis, while the last chapter(chapter five) contains the summary, conclusion and recommendation.


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations:

5.1 Introduction

This chapter summarizes the findings on the effect of integrating indigenous knowledge instructional strategy on senior secondary school physics. The chapter consists of summary of the study, conclusions, and recommendations.


5.2 Summary of the Study

In this study, our focus was to evaluate the effect of integrating indigenous knowledge instructional strategy on senior secondary school physics. The study specifically was aimed to find out if there are indigenous knowledge systems of the students that are relevant to the identified physics concepts, find out the effect of deploying the students’ indigenous knowledge systems within the environment on their academic performance in physic, and ascertain whether there is any significant difference in performance between male and female students taught using indigenous knowledge systems strategy.

The study adopted mixed method research design, where both qualitative and quantitative data were collected and analyzed. A total of 321 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondents are public Senior Secondary School Two (SSS 2) Physics students in the Lagos State Education District V.


5.3 Conclusions

Based on the findings of this study, the researcher made the following conclusion.

The persistent poor performance in WAEC senior school certificate examinations in physics in Nigeria over the decades, suggests that the teaching and learning of physics in Nigeria are largely unsatisfactory. In this study, the researcher applied the teaching strategy that harnessed the indigenous knowledge system of the students. The students became fascinated, and learned more meaningfully. As a result their performance was commendably higher than those taught as usual (conventional method). Findings showed that indigenous knowledge system strategy is integrated into classroom physics, will solve the problem of poor performance that has characterized physics examinations over the years.


5.4 Recommendations

Based on the findings of the study, the following recommendations are proffered.

  1. Physics teachers should identify and harness the relevant indigenous knowledge systems of the students to demystify physics.
  2. Physics teachers should use the students’ indigenous knowledge system to make physics familiar and friendly as to imbue meaningful learning.
  3. Practical physics should employ the local concepts live applications that constitute the students’ indigenous knowledge systems.
  4. Ministry of education should adapt teacher preparatory programme to incorporate indigenous knowledge systems, and their integration with the classroom science teaching.
  5. Federal and state governments through the curriculum planners should integrate these indigenous knowledge systems into the educational system.
  6. Nigerian authors of physics textbooks should use local examples and familiar illustrations to show that physics is part of the students’ local community and not foreign.
  7. Physics teachers and authors should incorporate female students in physics demonstrations and assignments, to balance gender consideration so that physics should stop being classified as masculine subject.

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