Effect Of Instructional Materials And Teachers Motivation On Senior Secondary School Student Academic Performance In Chemistry (A Study Of Secondary Schools In Lagos State)

Project and Seminar Material for Chemistry Education

Effect Of Instructional Materials And Teachers Motivation On Senior Secondary School Student Academic Performance In Chemistry (A Study Of Secondary Schools In Lagos State)


Abstract


The broad objective of this study is to examine the effect of instructional materials and teachers motivation using senior secondary schools in Lagos state as case study. on senior secondary school student academic performance in chemistry. The study further discusses the extent of availability of chemistry instructional materials in senior secondary school and whether teacher’s lack of motivation does not have effect on senior secondary school student academic performance in chemistry. The research adopted the survey descriptive design and with the aid of convenience sampling method, the researcher conveniently selected eighty (80) participant who are teachers in senior secondary schools in Lagos State. Self- structure questionnaire was issued to the respondent of which seventy-seven (77)responses were retrieved and validated for the study. The study made use of of descriptive analysis and inferential statistics where data from field survey was analyzed using simple percentage, presented in frequencies and tables. Hypothesis test was conducted using Chi-Square Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS v.23). Finding of the study reveals that the extent of non-availability of chemistry instructional materials and lack of Teacher’s motivation in senior secondary school is high. areas responsible for low motivation among chemistry teachers includes irregular, payment of salaries, poor working condition, lack of teachers’ on-the-job training, teachers workload, lack of adequate teaching facilities. Further findings reveals that instructional materials and teachers motivation have effect on senior secondary school student academic performance in chemistry. The study therefore recommends that Training and re-training programmes should be embarked upon by the government to assist and foster positive teachers’ attitude towards making improvisation as part of their duty.


Table of Content


Chapter One:

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3 Objective of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Research Hypothesis
  • 1.6 Significance of the Study
  • 1.7 Scope of the Study
  • 1.8 Limitation of the Study
  • 1.9 Definition of Terms
  • 1.10 Organization of the Study

Chapter Two:

Review of Literature

  • 2.1 Conceptual Framework
  • 2.2 Theoretical Framework
  • 2.3 Empirical Review

Chapter Three:

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Population of the Study
  • 3.3 Sample Size Determination
  • 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
  • 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
  • 3.6 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
  • 3.8 Validity of the Study
  • 3.9 Reliability of the Study
  • 3.10 Ethical Consideration

Chapter Four:

Data Presentation and Analysis

  • 4.1 Data Presentation
  • 4.2 Analysis of Data
  • 4.3 Answering Research Questions
  • 4.4 Test of Hypotheses

Chapter Five:

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • REFERENCES
  • APPENDIX

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

Education is largely a matter of a learning process that involves interactions between teacher and learner. When this process works well, real learning takes place. In the past, academic performance was often measured more by ear than today. According to Omiko (2015)teachers’ observations made up the bulk of the assessment and today’s summation, or numerical, method of determining how well a student is performing is a fairly recent invention.

Today, changes have been made to incorporate differentiation for individual students’ abilities, and exploration of alternate methods of measuring performance is ongoing. Performance results also allow students to be ranked and sorted on a scale that is numerically obvious, minimizing complaints by holding teachers and schools accountable for the components of every grade. Effective teaching of any subject will not only stimulates student’s interest in the subject but also enhance their achievement in the examination.

Many factors contribute to a student’s academic performance, including individual characteristics and family and neighborhood experiences. But research suggests that, among school-related factors, like instructional material and teachers motivation matter most. As established by Okpala(2021), to achieve effective teaching and learning process, there is the need for use of instructional materials and for teachers to be enabled through motivation to do their job effectively, their students are enabled to learn effectively. Instructional materials are the different teaching aids or apparatus which a classroom teacher employs to facilitate his or her teaching for the achievement of the stated objective. The use of instructional materials in teaching of science subject like Chemistry is very important because it provides a concrete basis for conceptual thinking motivates people to learn and captures pupils’ imagination if used correctly (Ajalla, 1997).

Significantly, a well-motivated teacher always completes the tasks set for him, even when such tasks or assignments are difficult or seem uninteresting. Motivation involves a number of psychological factors that start and maintain activities towards the achievements of personal goals and refers to reasons that underlie behaviour that is characterized by willingness and volition. Motivation in education can have several effects on how students learn and their behavior towards subjects matter. Tella (2015) assert that motivation of teachers and students in the teaching and learning process can direct behavior towards particular goals, leads to increase effort and energy, enhances cognitive processing, increases imitation of and persistence in activities, determines what consequences are reinforcing and it can also lead to improved performance. Owo(2019)is of the view that motivated teachers always look for better ways to do their teaching job and, as a result, they are more productive. Therefore, it means that motivated teachers are determined to give their best to achieve the maximum output (qualitative education).


1.2 Statement of the Problem

Teachers in Nigeria have expressed a lot of dissatisfaction about the lack of human resource development, poor working conditions, poor remuneration and lack of teaching aids that exist in schools has lowered their motivation. This has resulted in high teacher turnover coupled with poor results in Senior High Schools due to lack of commitment towards work. Researchers such as Obioha (2006) and Ogunleye (2002) referenced in Omiko(2015)reported that there were inadequate resources for teaching Science subjects in secondary schools in Nigeria. They further stated that the available ones are not usually in good conditions. Adebimpe (1997) and Daramola, (2008) cited in Okpala(2021) noted that although there is room for improvisation, but this demands adventure, creativity, curiosity motivation and perseverance on the part of the teacher, such skills are only realizable through well-planned training programme on improvisation.

The operating conditions of service appear to fall short teachers expectation manifesting in resignations, vacation of post, non –resumption at post after teachers leave of absence and study leave. The general mood of those remaining is not encouraging as they exhibit other forms of withdrawal behaviour such as absenteeism, lateness and passive job behaviour which is likely to affect the performance of student in science classes. Unfortunately, in spite of the importance and complexity of these issues, there is very limited good quality literature has been published on them (Bennel 2004 cited in Owo2019). Upon this premise, the researcher set out to throw more light on factors influencing teacher motivation to teaching so that management of education institutions can do something to motivate teachers to improve their level of performance. Therefore this study is focused on the effect of instructional materials and teachers motivation. on senior secondary school student academic performance in chemistry.


1.3 Objectives of the Study

The main focus of this study is to investigate the effect of instructional materials and teachers motivation. on senior secondary school student academic performance in chemistry.

Specifically, it sought:

  1. To examine the sources or areas responsible for low motivation among chemistry teachers
  2. To find out the extent of availability of chemistry instructional materials in senior secondary school.
  3. To investigate whether the teacher’s lack of motivation affects senior secondary school student academic performance in chemistry.
  4. To ascertain whether non-availability of instructional materials affects senior secondary school student academic performance in chemistry.

1.4 Research Questions

  1. What the sources or areas responsible for low motivation among chemistry teachers?
  2. What is the extent of availability of chemistry instructional materials in senior secondary school?
  3. Does the teacher’s lack of motivation affects senior secondary school student academic performance in chemistry?
  4. Does non-availability of instructional materials affects senior secondary school student academic performance in chemistry.

1.5 Research Hypothesis

Ho1: Instructional materials and teachers motivation does not have effect on senior secondary school student academic performance in chemistry

Hi1: Instructional materials and teachers motivation have effect on senior secondary school student academic performance in chemistry.


1.6 Significance of the Study

The findings arrived at this study shall contribute to the continuing growth of educational system in Nigeria and around the world. This study would help in describing or explaining the pivotal role of motivation on the needs satisfaction of economics teachers in Nigeria. The result of this study would also help educationist and policy makers in emphasizing the need for the inclusion on motivation packages for economics teachers so as to prepare them for better performance. This study will be useful to classroom teachers, curriculum planners, students, researchers and parents. For teachers they will be better informed on how to help and guide their students on better way of producing instructional materials. The teachers can also engage students to do some of the illustrations during chemistry instructions.


1.7 Scope of the Study

The scope of this study is to investigate the effect of instructional materials and teachers motivation. on senior secondary school student academic performance in chemistry. The study further discusses the extent of availability of chemistry instructional materials in senior secondary school and whether teacher’s lack of motivation does not have effect on senior secondary school student academic performance in chemistry. The study is however delimited to selected senior secondary schools in Lagos State.


1.8 Limitations of the Study

Like in every human endeavour, the researchers encountered slight constraints while carrying out the study. The significant constraint was the scanty literature on the subject owing that instructional materials and teachers motivationdiscourse is vast thus the researcher incurred more financial expenses and much time was required in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature, or information and in the process of data collection, which is why the researcher resorted to a limited choice of sample size covering onlyselected senior secondary schools in Lagos State.Thus findings of this study cannot be used for generalization for other states within Nigeria. Additionally, the researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work will impede maximum devotion to the research. Howbeit, despite the constraint encountered during the research, all factors were downplayed in other to give the best and make the research successful.


1.8 Definition of Key Terms

Motivation:

This is referred as the degree of readiness of an organization to pursue some designated, goals and implies the determination of the nature and locus of the forces that maintains degree of readiness.

Instruction Materials:

Facilities given to students, so that they can use every opportunity to develop full potential. Instructional materials include fixtures, equipment, and buildings necessary for the effective and efficient operation of the program of public education.

Academic Performance:

Refers to the level at which a student, teacher or institution has managed to reach their educational goals.


1.10 Organization of the Study

This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows.

  • Chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the (overview, of the study), historical background, statement of problem, objectives of the study, research hypotheses, significance of the study, scope and limitation of the study, definition of terms and historical background of the study.
  • Chapter two highlights the theoretical framework on which the study is based, thus the review of related literature.
  • Chapter three deals on the research design and methodology adopted in the study.
  • Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding.
  • Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study.

Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

5.1 Summary

The study’s overall objective is to examine the effect of instructional materials and teachers motivation using senior secondary schools in Lagos state as case study. on senior secondary school student academic performance in chemistry. The study further discusses the extent of availability of chemistry instructional materials in senior secondary school and whether teacher’s lack of motivation does not have effect on senior secondary school student academic performance in chemistry.

The research adopted the survey descriptive design and with the aid of convenience sampling method, the researcher conveniently selected eighty (80) participant who are teachers in senior secondary schools in Lagos State. Self- structure questionnaire was issued to the respondent of which seventy-seven (77)responses were retrieved and validated for the study. The study made use of of descriptive analysis and inferential statistics where data from field survey was analyzed using simple percentage, presented in frequencies and tables. Hypothesis test was conducted using Chi-Square Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS v.23).

This research is reported in five distinct yet interrelated chapters. In the chapter one we describes the study objectives clearly by stating the motive behind this study. Research hypotheses were developed for testing while the scope of this research was defined as well.


5.2 Conclusion

Instructional materials are wide varieties of equipment and materials use for teaching and learning by teachers to stimulate self-activity on the part of the students. The teaching of Biology without instructional materials may certainly result in poor academic achievement.

Finding of the study reveals that the extent of non-availability of chemistry instructional materials and lack of Teacher’s motivation in senior secondary school is high. areas responsible for low motivation among chemistry teachers includes irregular, payment of salaries, poor working condition, lack of teachers’ on-the-job training, teachers workload, lack of adequate teaching facilities. Further findings reveals that instructional materials and teachers motivation have effect on senior secondary school student academic performance in chemistry.


5.3 Recommendations

Based on the findings of this study, the following recommendations are hereby made to achieve desired and better results in biology instructional delivery and learning outcomes at the secondary school level.

  1. Training and re-training programmes should be embarked upon by the government to assist and foster positive teachers’ attitude towards making improvisation as part of their duty.
  2. The curriculum of Teacher Education Programme (TEP) at any level should be made to build in practical courses in material construction and utilization for the number of years the students-teacher will be in the school. Science, particularly chemistry teachers need to be exposed to practical aspects of the subject at any level of their study. This will enhance science process skills acquisition by the learners.
  3. Advocacy for learning-by – doing as an integration into teaching methodology particularly for the sciences and technology courses is important in teacher training programmes. This is very necessary because skill based education has become more needed than ever to sustain the effort of translating theory to practice.
  4. The school administrators: The PTA and the Government should go into counterpart funding for the provision of instructional materials to the schools. Science teachers can always hire some local experts to help them to teach some of the science concepts which the local people know very will in their environment. Their good relationship with the community would help them to tap the wealth of knowledge of these local experts to their own advantage.
  5. The science teachers should take the students to places of interest to enable them see things in their natural ways.
  6. Donor agencies like the Universal Basic Education (UBE), World Bank, UNESCO, UNICEF and Education for All (EFA) can be approached for assistance in providing instructional materials for the schools.
  7. Government should provide instructional materials in secondary schools to enhance effective teaching and learning.

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