Effect Of Insecticide On Mango And Its Control
Mangoes are an important smallholder and commercial crop in Nigeria, and one of the most important commercial crops in Nigeria. To achieve good yields with top quality fruits, mango growers currently rely on regular insecticide applications. This leads to increased costs, the reduction of natural predators and parasitoids that help control the insect pests, increased pest resistance to insecticides residues in the fruits and environmental pollution.
Green ants are efficient predators of a wide range of insect pests in many tropical fruit crops and they are abundant and widely distributed in Nigeria. Previous work in conducted and preliminary results from cashew crops in Nigeria indicate that green ants can control some of the main pests of mangoes.
This study has been conducted to assess the present scenario of spraying insecticides/fungicides during the whole cultivation period of mango in the four selected local government of benue state of Nigeria. A total number of 250 mango growers were randomly selected and interviewed by structured questionnaires from December, 2014 to June, 2015. The data were collected with respect to their educational level, cultivating land, times and types of insecticides/fungicides spray, and farmer’s consciousness about the excessive use of insecticides/fungicides. Out of the 250 mango growers, 184 were illiterate which accounts almost 74% followed by under HSC, 51 (20%) and higher educated, 15 (6%). Around 1-3 acre of land was used by 145 (58%) mango growers for cultivation followed by 3-7 acre by 85 (34%) and more than 7 acres by 20 (8%). Eight insecticides and seven fungicides under different trade names were most commonly sprayed at 2, 3, 4, and even more than 7 times in the stage of mango flowering, green mango, and finally, in mature stages.
Most importantly, 151 (60%) growers do not have any, while 99 (40%) have very little knowledge about the negative effects of using excessive amounts of insecticides/fungicides. The mango growers are randomly using same pesticides under different brand name. Additionally, they frequently use fungicides instead of insecticides that cause no death of mango pest. As a result, they could not protect early dropping of mangoes. Furthermore, 103 (41%) and 147 (59%) growers have little and no knowledge regarding the side effects of spraying of formalin and calcium carbide that are used for preservation and early ripening of mango, respectively. Therefore, necessary actions should be taken immediately keeping in mind not only to reduce the early fall out of mangoes but also to produce safe mangoes for consumption.
1.1 Background of the Study
Mango (Mangifera indica L.), a member of family Anacardiaceae (Singh, 1968; Litz, 1997), is known as “king of fruits”. It is one of the most significant trees on earth and is now eaten worldwide.
The mango crop is attacked by a number of insect pests that deprive the trees of its nutrients. Mango mealybug (Drosicha mangiferae Green) is the most destructive pest in Indo-Pakistan (Prassad & Singh, 1976; Yousuf, 1993). It is a polyphagous insect, which has been recorded to feed on numerous plant species. Insecticides should only be used when all other methods of control become ineffective for the control of insect pests.
Chemicals are also an important part of integrated pest management (IPM) program and have a number of advantages over alternative methods for insect control. For example, insecticides are always in ready form, easily accessible and a wide range of insecticides are available in the market for the control of insect pest. Intensive, high agricultural production systems have traditionally used synthetic pesticides to eliminate pests as the main tool and sustain the lowest amount of economic damage to the crop.
Insecticides are considered to be the rapid method for the control of insect pests to overcome losses caused by insect pest to crop. Despite various environmental problems caused by the use of pesticides, it is still single most widely used method of insect pest control.
An insecticide is a substance used to kill insects. They include ovicides and larvicides used against insect eggs and larvae, respectively. Insecticides are used in agriculture, medicine, industry and by consumers. Insecticides are claimed to be a major factor behind the increase in agricultural 20th century’s productivity. Nearly all insecticides have the potential to significantly alter ecosystems; many are toxic to humans; some concentrate along the food chain.
Insecticides can be classified in two major groups as systemic insecticide which have residual or long term activity and contact insecticides, which have no residual activity.
Furthermore one can distinguish natural insecticides, such as nicotine, pyrethrum and neem extracts, made by plants as defenses against insects, inorganic insecticides, which are metals, versus organic insecticides, which are organic chemical compounds mostly working by contact.
The mode of action describes how the pesticide kills or inactivates a pest. It provides another way of classifying insecticides. Mode of action is important in understanding whether an insecticide will be toxic to unrelated species, such as fish, birds and mammals.
1.2 Problem Statement
Mango fruit, flowers and leaves is always attack by insect and fungus which affects the production of mango, affect farmer’s economy as well as the economy of the country. This research work provides significant information to protect the mango fruits, flower and leaves from the attack of the pest and thereby will increase the yields which ultimately increase the farmer’s economy as well as the economy of the country.
1.3 Aim and Objective of the Study
Insecticides are considered to be the rapid method for the control of insect pests to overcome losses caused by insect pest to mango. Despite various environmental problems caused by the use of pesticides, it is still single most widely used method of insect pest control.
The specific aim of present study was to identify the impact of insecticide on mango and how it can be controlled.
This experiment was conducted to fulfill the following objectives:
- To investigate the susceptibility of mango to the selected chemical and botanical insecticides;
- To find out the efficacy of different concentrations of selected insecticides in controlling the mango hopper in the laboratory test.
1.4 Significance of the Study
Insect attack and fungal diseases control are the emerging issues to protect premature mango fall out in all over the country. The insect and fugal attacks play a negative role for the low yield and poor quality mango production. This study exposes the student involved to the need for insecticide on mango and how it can be used to control pests on mongo.
1.5 Purpose of the Study
Mango is a very vulnerable fruit to be attacked by various insects and fungus. Therefore, recommended insecticides and fungicides spray is necessary to control insect and fungus to get better production of mango. The purpose of this work is to control the attack of insect and fungal diseases on mango.
1.6 Research Question
- How does insecticide protect mango trees from pests?
- Why do mango flowers turn black?
- What type of insecticide is best for pest control?
- What part of mango do pests attack?
1.7 Project Organisation
The work is organized as follows: chapter one discuses the introductory part of the work, chapter two presents the literature review of the study, chapter three describes the methods applied, chapter four discusses the results of the work, chapter five summarizes the research outcomes and the recommendations.
The Middle belt (Benue State) of Nigeria with its diverse agro-ecology is very suitable for the production of high quality mango both for domestic and foreign markets. However, the regional average mango productivity is below the national average need. To improve this situation high yielding, better quality, disease resistant and pest control is necessary. In the study area, the mango growers abnormally using many pesticides and very high quantity without getting successful pest control result due to the ignorance of pesticide rules and knowledge gap for pesticides spray. They select wrong pesticide and it is continually happening by provoking locally untrained person. They are not aware about the importance of different agronomic and pest management practices. Thus, attempt should be taken immediately not only to reduce the early fall out of mangoes but also to produce safe mangoes for consumption and building awareness on mango pest management.
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