Effect Of Inquiry Teaching Method On Students’ Achievement

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Effect Of Inquiry Teaching Method On Students’ Achievement


Abstract


This study was carried out to examine effect of inquiry teaching method on students’ achievement in selected secondary schools in Ewekoro Local Government, Ogun State. Specifically, the study examined effects of inquiry teaching method and traditional/conventional teaching method on the performance of students taught algebra in senior secondary schools in Ogun State. The study also, Determine the effects of inquiry teaching method on the performance of students in algebra in Ogun State; lastly, Determine the effects of inquiry teaching method on the performance of male and female students taught algebra in Ogun State in Ewekoro Local Government, Ogun State. The study employed the survey descriptive research design. A total of 141 responses were validated from the survey. From the responses obtained and analyzed, the findings revealed that There are effects of inquiry teaching method and traditional/conventional teaching method on the performance of students taught algebra in senior secondary schools in Ogun State. inquiry teaching method has an effect on the performance of students in algebra in Ogun State. Lastly, inquiry teaching method has an effect on the performance of male and female students taught algebra in Ogun State. The study recommend That Inquiry instructional strategy should be used to teach mathematics since it enhance students’ academic achievement. That, Since inquiry instructional strategy helps students to understand what they do, workshops and training should be organized for teachers on how they can incorporate it in their teaching methods. Finally, that teachers and curriculum developers introduce more innovative approaches to teaching.


Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

Mathematics is one of the important subjects and this is why it is made compulsory at the primary and secondary levels. Mathematics is one of the most powerful and adaptable mental tools which the intelligence of a man has made for its own use collectively over the centuries. The subject has continued to play a significant role in national development of any country (USMAN 2002). Hence, it is necessary that the teaching and learning process of mathematics be as clear as possible to avoid confusion and lack of understanding since mathematics deal with quantitative functions and relations as well as problems relating to scope and forms. Therefore, it said to be a language of orderliness and creative thinking (USMAN 2002). Mathematics can be described as the backbone of other branches of science like Engineering, Applied and social science, Agricultural science, Medicine and other branches. Mathematics is a basic tool in the development of any science-based knowledge such as graphic, industry, technology, astronomy and sound analytical reasoning in daily living in a modern society. One of the objectives of science education is to develop students’ interest towards science and technology. The development of any nation today depends on its technological and scientific advancement. Teachers are expected to device ways of motivating their students to develop positive attitudes towards mathematics and science related disciplines (Sola &Ojo, 2007).There are many areas of study in secondary school mathematics such as Algebra, trigonometry, menstruation, numbers and numeration, statistic, set theory etc. Algebra is a branch of mathematics that deals with the properties of operation and the structures this operation are define on.

According to Rusell (2003), algebra is the aspect of mathematics which involves the use of letters and numbers. These letters combined with the numbers bring a lot of confusion to the students and with the letters changing values or one letter replacing another at interval. Thus this makes some students to wonder whether they are learning mathematics or English language. Inquiry teaching Method is a style or method of teaching where the learner is seeking to discover and create answers to recognized problems through procedure of making a diligent search, some time with minimum guidance from the teacher (Callahan, Clark &Kelloough, 1995). Inquiry teaching method is also a term used in science teaching that refers to a way of questioning, seeking knowledge or information or finding out about phenomena, it involves investigating data and arriving at a conclusion (Sola &Ojo 2007). In inquiry situation students learn not only concept but also self-direction, responsibility and social communication. It also permits students to assimilate and accommodate information. According to Sola and Ojo (2007), inquiry is a way people learn when they are left alone. Cheval and Hart (2005) classify inquiry teaching method in to three classes, namely: structured inquiry, guided inquiry and open inquiry, as illustrated in Table 1. There is a debate as to which type of inquiry is best.

The general consensus is that, any form of inquiry (structured, guided, or open) can be useful to students when taught appropriately well. Structured inquiry is the most teacher-centered of the three types of inquiry. This type of inquiry is commonly seen in science classrooms in the form of laboratory exercises. The teacher provides fairly structured procedures for the inquiry activity, and students carry out the investigations. Structured inquiry could be described as the most traditional approach to inquiry (Cheval & Hart, 2007). On the far side of the spectrum is an open inquiry. This type of inquiry requires the least amount of teacher intervention and is student centered. Students often work in groups and plan all phases of their investigations. This is the purest form of inquiry conducted in science classrooms (Cheval & Hart, 2005). Guided inquiry falls in the middle of the inquiry instructional spectrum. This approach is commonly used when students are asked to make tools or develop a process that results in a desired outcome. For example, a science teacher gives his seventh grade middle school students materials to create a rocket but no instructions for designing the rocket. The students must use their own knowledge and creativity to design the rocket so that it will launch properly, fly a certain distance, and land without becoming disassembled. The teacher provides the problem and materials and the students develop the rocket using their own scientific process or Procedure .Cheval and Hart, (2005) summarized these inquiry types as shown in Table 1

Table 1: Summary of Inquiry Types*

  • Types of inquiry
  • Description
  • Example
  • Structure inquiry

Teacher gives students problems to investigate during hands on activities as well as the Procedures and materials. Students must determine the out Come Laboratory activities with procedures materials and question specified Guided inquiry Teachers give students the problem or question and Materials. Students have to determine the process and out Come Students are given problems or questions what are the properties of an acid what are the properties of a base etc. Open inquiry The students determine the problems procedures and out come Students took a field trip to investigate garden working with a partner must identify research problems and conduct an investigate investigation based on the observation In this study every type of inquiry was used and students were given topics and materials. Students were to develop a method to find answers to the problem given to them. Lecture method is used primarily to introduce students to a new subject but it is also a valuable method for summarizing ideas, showing relationship between theory and practice and re-emphasizing main points (Sola &Ojo, 2007). Lecture-demonstration method is a teaching technique that combines oral presentation with doing to communicate process, concepts ideas and facts, observation. It is particularly effective in teaching a skill that can be observed (Sola &Ojo, 2007). According to Garba (1996), lecture method is a traditional/conventional method of transmission of knowledge; it is characterized by a one-way flow of information from the teacher who is always active to the learners who are always passive.

According to him, conventional method has the following characteristics:

  1. Students are absolutely passive listeners and passively assimilating information/fact being given to them.
  2. Students are responsible for making their own notes.
  3. Teachers or lecturers does the major activities i.e. talking, illustration or presentation of the film or other aid.

Conventional method is noted for the following merits:

  1. Knowledge, facts or information are transmitted to students who gain some understanding of a subject.
  2. It is less expensive compared to the inquiry methods.

However, conventional method has its own short comings, which include the following:

  1. Passive learning on the part of the students and this makes them weak and disinterested.
  2. No immediate evaluation is made of what has been learned.
  3. Soft-spoken teacher/ instructor could create a breakdown in the communication this is because some students may lose interest in his lecture.

Inquiry teaching method was chosen in this study due to its scientific nature and it is student- centered and it involved all scientific process (Sola &Ojo 2007).


1.2 Statement of the Problem

Since there are numerous factors that aided the poor academic performance of the students’ in mathematics both at the junior and secondary school levels in internal and external examinations year by year. Table 2 below gives the performance of the student below 50% as given by the WAEC chief examiner reports of 2007-2014. Apart from the fact that secondary school students exhibit non-challant attitude toward mathematics, this problem of mass failure could be due to abstract symbolism of the subjects. The researcher also observes that students have problem with using numbers for alphabets. A mathematics teacher should therefore learn to put in place strategies and activities that would arose and sustain the interest of students in mathematics.

Table 2: Students Performance in Mathematics from 2007-2014 in May/June SSCE

Year%A1-C6%bellow
200746.9053.10
200856.9043.10
200945.3354.67
201041.5158.49
201138.9061.10
201249.9051.10
201336.0064.00
201431.3068.70

1.3 Purpose of the Study

The objectives of this study are to:

  1. Determine the effects of inquiry teaching method and traditional/conventional teaching method on the performance of students taught algebra in senior secondary schools in Ogun State
  2. Determine the effects of inquiry teaching method on the performance of students in algebra in Ogun State;
  3. Determine the effects of inquiry teaching method on the performance of male and female students taught algebra in Ogun State.

1.4 Research Question

The following questions have been prepared for this study

  1. Are there effect of traditional/conventional teaching method on the performance of students taught algebra in senior secondary schools in Ogun State?
  2. Are there effects of inquiry teaching method on the performance of students in algebra in Ogun State?
  3. Are there effects of inquiry teaching method on the performance of male and female students taught algebra in Ogun State?

1.5 Significance of the Study

The findings of this study will help in the following ways:

It will help the mathematics teachers to utilize the findings of this study in their mathematics classrooms;


1.6 Scope of the Study

This study will examine effect of inquiry teaching method on students’ achievement and also, the effects of inquiry teaching method and traditional/conventional teaching method on the performance of students taught algebra in senior secondary schools in Ogun State , • Determine the effects of inquiry teaching method on the performance of students in algebra in Ogun State; Determine the effects of inquiry teaching method on the performance of male and female students taught algebra in Ogun State. Hence this study will be delimited to Ewekoro local government in Ogun state


1.7 Limitation of the Study

This study was constrained by a number of factors which are as follows:

Just like any other research, ranging from unavailability of needed accurate materials on the topic under study, inability to get data

Financial constraint , was faced by the researcher ,in getting relevant materials and in printing and collation of questionnaires

Time factor: time factor pose another constraint since having to shuttle between writing of the research and also engaging in other academic work making it uneasy for the researcher


1.8 Definition of Terms

Inquiry:

This is the process of engaging someone in other to know more about something.

Teaching Method:

This is a style teachers use in teaching a particular subject


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

5.1 Summary

In this study, our focus was to examine the effect of inquiry teaching method on students’ achievement using teachers and students as a case study. The study specifically was aimed at highlighting the effects of inquiry teaching method and traditional/conventional teaching method on the performance of students taught algebra in senior secondary schools in Ogun State. Also to ,Determine the effects of inquiry teaching method on the performance of students in algebra in Ogun State; and lastly, to Determine the effects of inquiry teaching method on the performance of male and female students taught algebra in Ogun State. . A total of 141 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondent are drawn from teachers and students of the selected secondary schools.


5.2 Conclusion

Based on the finding of this study, the following conclusions were made:

  1. There are effects of inquiry teaching method and traditional/conventional teaching method on the performance of students taught algebra in senior secondary schools in Ogun State
  2. Inquiry teaching method has an effect on the performance of students in algebra in Ogun State
  3. Inquiry teaching method has an effect on the performance of male and female students taught algebra in Ogun State.

5.3 Recommendation

Based on the responses obtained, the researcher proffers the following recommendations:

  1. That teachers and curriculum developers introduce more innovative approaches to teaching and also the topics in the syllabus be reduced to create a favorable condition for the inquiry-based teaching to be implemented by the teachers in the senior high schools.
  2. Inquiry instructional strategy should be used to teach physics since it enhance students’ academic achievement. It’s also students centred.
  3. Since inquiry instructional strategy helps students to understand what they do, workshops and training should be organized for teachers on how they can incorporate it in their teaching methods.

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Frequently Asked Questions


What are the effects of inquiry-based learning?

Effects of the Inquiry- Based Learning… process skills used in the studies reviewed. Table 3. Effectiveness of inquiry-based learning method according to random effects model classification developed by Cohen (1988). It is safe to argue that the students’ science better than in the groups where the traditional teaching method is employed.

Is inquiry-based method used in school science education?

Inquiry-based method used in the secondary school science education were reviewed. Aktamış, H., Hiğde, E. & Özden, B. (2016 ). Effects of the Inquiry- Based Learning… groups and 743 of whom were in the control groups. The following table shows the type of Table 1. Included Studies learning method on students’ attitudes towards science (Table 1).

Is inquiry-based learning method different from traditional learning?

However, inquiry-based learning method was not discussed and compared with traditional learning before in terms of students’ academic achievement, science process skills and attitudes towards science in a meta-analysis study.

Does inquiry-based science instruction improve science achievement in 9th grade?

Additionally, inquiry-based instruction does not have an adverse influence on science achievement in 9th grade. If the primary goal is science achievement, then an inquiry-based approach to instruction is effective. 

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