The Effect Of Infrastructural Development On Provision Of Housing

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The Effect Of Infrastructural Development On Provision Of Housing


Abstract


The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of infrastructural development on provision of housing in Nigeria with a view to provide policy makers and other stake holders with the required information needed to evaluate and review the effectiveness of policies and delivery strategies and also provide a framework for enforcing enacted guidelines in view of achieving sustainable developments in the housing sector. A descriptive survey design was adopted for this study. A total of 133 respondents made up of directors of administration, secretaries, senior staff and junior staff were used for the study. The results showed that the level of government and policy makers in Nigeria is in a state of decline. This study will be a contribution to the body of literature in the area of the effects of personality trait on student’s academic performance, thereby constituting the empirical literature for future research in the subject area.


Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background to the Study

Infrastructure refers to the fundamental facilities and systems serving a country, city, or area, including the services and facilities necessary for its economy to function (Frank, 2003). It typically characterizes technical structures such as housing, roads, bridges, tunnels, water supply, sewers, electrical grids, telecommunications, and so forth, and can be defined as “the physical components of interrelated systems providing commodities and services essential to enable, sustain, or enhance societal living conditions. However, all these coupled together can bring about the provision of good and affordable housing (Nubi, 2003).

Housing infrastructural provision refers to the bringing into existence of the basic amenities and services which must be in place for a particular activity or pursuit. However, no nation can boast of significant development or an enhanced economy without providing the basic infrastructures for the citizens’ well-being (Otegbulu & Adewunmi, 2008).

Provision of adequate infrastructural facilities is not taken for granted in developed countries; however, it remains a major challenge in developing countries, especially in Nigeria (Ajanlekoko, 2001). According to Yomi (2003), the problem of housing provision has become an everyday discussion in all quarters of the public and private services of the developing countries of Africa including Nigeria. It has become increasingly glaring that most of the urban population live in dehumanizing housing environment while those that have access to average housing do so at abnormal and outrageous cost. Different definitions have been ascribed by several authors to the word infrastructure. Infrastructural development is the provision of basic physical and organizational structures needed for the operation of a society like industries, buildings, roads, bridges, health services, governance and so on (Amis & Kumar, 2000). It is the development of enterprise or the products, services and facilities necessary for an economy to function (Sulivan and Sheffrin, 2003).

Infrastructures can be described generally as the set of interconnected structural elements that provide framework supporting an entire structure of development (Donald, 1974). It is an important term for judging a country, region or state’s and individual’s developments/status. Infrastructural development typically refers to the provision by government or other authorities the technical structures that support a society, such as roads, water supply, sewers, electrical national grids, telecommunications, and so forth (Fulmer, 2009). Amis and Kumar (2000) argued that infrastructure helps individuals cope with the different dimensions of poverty. It follows therefore, that whenever people are deprived of basic infrastructures, the result is impoverishment. It also follows that cities with the greatest number of poor people are those whose citizens lack infrastructure the most (Fox, 1994). Infrastructure development and housing provision are interwoven. Without infrastructures, housing cannot be provided and hence should be treated integrally (Otegbulu and Adewumi, 2008). An ideal neighbourhood should be provided with good roads, drainage networks, electricity and portable water supply, good waste management system and security which are all aimed to ensure conducive housing unit.

The condition of these services in Nigeria towns and cities contradicts the principle of sustainability in housing provision. A sustainable housing development would not only have environment friendly and energy efficient buildings, it would also have access to employment, schools, shops, places of entertainment, primary health care, and it would be accessible by public transport.

Adequate supply of housing has remained a mirage to all cadres of the society in Nigeria. Rapid growth in population creates demand pressure towards shelter and efficient supply and distribution of basic utilities and services for city dwellers. In most cities, the problem of housing is not only restricted to quantity but to the poor quality of available housing units. Hence, Infrastructural development play an invaluable role in housing; however things have gone from bad to worse especially in developing countries like Nigeria. Their arises a need thus for a research into the state of infrastructural provisions in housing provision, unraveling the present state of decline, its causalities and, the enactment of probable and sustainable solutions in the light of new technologies.

One major aspect of Nigeria’s problem with respect to housing is the poor state of the infrastructures (Ajanlekoko, 2001). A major challenge to providing adequate housing is the lack of primary infrastructure, as roads, water, electricity, social amenities etc, which accounts for about 30 percent of housing costs. In most cases developers have to provide the infrastructures which in most cases falls short of the standards in terms of quality and quantity — as a means of cutting costs.

Current finance for housing provision and infrastructural development is inadequate both in terms of capital resources and of lending policies and conditions compared with the types of income and borrowing capacity of the large majority of States in Nigeria.

Lack of funds alone is not a root cause of poor infrastructural development and services. It is a symptom of more fundamental problems. These include instability, lack of confidence, distorted economic policies, and difficulties of governance. The mobilization of public and private funds of infrastructural development depends, in the long run, on the alleviation of these problems.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

Literature on housing provision have tend to focus more on issues of policy, finance, and economics of housing provision, issues such as infrastructures are treated en-passant. However as the demand for quality housing is on the increase researchers are on the outlook for ways to present housing from a comprehensive perspective. The role of infrastructural development in housing provision cannot be overemphasized and should not be treated as a last minute consideration.

The study aims at evaluating the effect of infrastructural development on provision of housing in Nigeria with a view to provide policy makers and other stake holders the required information needed to evaluate and review the effectiveness of policies and delivery strategies and also provide a framework for enforcing enacted guidelines in view of achieving sustainable developments in the housing sector thereby ascertaining the sustainability of the housing environment.


1.3 Objectives of the Study

The following are the objectives of this study:

  1. To examine the effect of infrastructural development on the provision of housing.
  2. To examine the level of Nigeria government’s commitment towards infrastructural development in the country.
  3. To examine the relationship between infrastructural development and provision of housing.

1.4 Hypothesis

  1. HO: There is no significant relationship between infrastructural development and provision of housing
    HA: There is significant relationship between infrastructural development and provision of housing
  2. H0: Infrastructural development has no significant effect on the provision of housing
    HA: Infrastructural development has a significant effect on the provision of housing

1.5 Significance of the Study

The following are the significance of this study:

  1. The outcome of this study will educate the government and policy makers in Nigeria on the level of infrastructural development and provision of housing with a view of formulating and implementing policies that will ensure good housing and infrastructural development.
  2. This research will be a contribution to the body of literature in the area of the effect of personality trait on student’s academic performance, thereby constituting the empirical literature for future research in the subject area.

1.7 Scope / Limitations of the Study

This study will cover the level of infrastructural development in Nigeria and its subsequent effect on the provision of affordable and conducive housing environment.

Financial Constraint

Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).

Time Constraint

The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work.


1.7 Organization of the Study

This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows

  • Chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the (overview, of the study), historical background, statement of problem, objectives of the study, research hypotheses, significance of the study, scope and limitation of the study, definition of terms and historical background of the study.
  • Chapter two highlights the theoretical framework on which the study is based, thus the review of related literature.
  • Chapter three deals on the research design and methodology adopted in the study.
  • Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding.
  • Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study.

Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

5.1 Introduction

It is important to ascertain that the objective of this study was to ascertain the effect of infrastructural development on provision of housing.

In the preceding chapter, the relevant data collected for this study were presented, critically analyzed and appropriate interpretation given. In this chapter, certain recommendations made which in the opinion of the researcher will be of benefits in addressing the challenges of infrastructural development on the provision of housing.


5.2 Summary

This study was on urban growth and housing problem. Four objectives were raised which included; to determine the causes of housing problem in Nigeria, to determine the causes of urban growth in Nigeria, to ascertain the relationship between urban growth and housing problem in Nigeria, to ascertain the solution to housing problem in urban area. In line with these objectives, two research hypotheses were formulated and two null hypotheses were posited. The total population for the study is 200 staff of ministry of lands, housing and urban development was selected randomly. The researcher used questionnaires as the instrument for the data collection. Descriptive Survey research design was adopted for this study. A total of 133 respondents made up of directors of administration, secretaries, senior staff and junior staff was used for the study. The data collected were presented in tables and analyzed using simple percentages and frequencies


5.2 Conclusion

Nigeria experiences rapid urbanization which has negatively impacted on her housing sector. The effect of this is the lack of adequate houses to accommodate the ever increasingurban population. Different policies and programs had been initiated and implemented inthe past by successive administrations in order to address the situation. Most of the past efforts and interventions, as laudable as they were, were characterized by huge failure due to poor implementation and negligence. For Nigeria to actualize the dream of providingadequate shelter for her urban populace there must be a renewed commitment by governmentto the formulation and proper implementation of housing policies.


5.3 Recommendations.

Based on the critical review of urbanization and housing problems in Nigeria, theresearcher made the following recommendations:

  1. Nigeria as a nation operates a three-tier system of government, made up of the federal,state and local. Rather than concentrating the mechanism of urban governance in terms of decision making and execution on only the center as it is the current practice, each tier should be saddled with clearly defined goals and specific responsibilities toward ensuring effective housing delivery.
  2. The government should adopt and vigorously pursue a housing delivery strategy that is „end-usersdriven‟ and through the use of cooperatives, development agents, and public private sector participation (PPP)
  3. There should be a deliberate effort of slum clearance and revitalization by governments at all levels which could improve housing and environmental conditions in the urban centers. This could lead to improvement of value of individual properties quality of housing.

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