The Effect Of Information Technology On The Operation Of Banking System In Nigeria (A Case Study Of Fidelity Bank Plc And First Bank Nigeria Plc)
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All that I needed your hands has provided great is thy faithfulness. My dedication of this research work goes to God Almighty from who flows ceaseless love, unlimited inspiration and wisdom.
I also dedicate this work to the entire Onwere’s family, my parents Mr. & Mrs. R. O. Onwere, Joseph and Oluchi, my siblings Also to my lovely and cherished friends, Ogu, Cynthia, Chinwendu. May the almighty God be with you all in Jesus name Amen.
This project writing would not be complete without acknowledging some people that cannot afford not to mention. They include my amiable supervisor also the head of Department (HOD) Mr. Kanu N.O.N. Also my other lecturers. Chief A.A Ojiuko, Dr (Mrs.) F. A. Anyanwu, T.C. Ngwu, Mr. N. D. Uzoka etc.
I would not also not forgot to mention here, my good friends, brothers, uncle and well wishes especially .Mr. James Uzodimma Ufomba and family, Miss Cynthia Chiwendu Ogu, Obioma Ukagwu and Obioma Uwakwe for their immense Contributions to the achievement of this height. I am also grateful to my pastor Magnus Egesi and Ugochukwu Ekeocha for their prayers support. May God bless you all Amen.
As Information Technology is the modern trend in banking today, it is imperative for banks to access its impacts operational performance so as to justify if the huge capital invested on it is justifiable or not, analyze their problem and proffer solutions. The objective of this study is to examine how the adoption of information technology affects the operations of commercial banks in terms of effectiveness, efficiency, competitiveness, customer base, and globalization of the bank.
The main research instruments used are questionnaire and personal interview for staffs and customers of the bank. The simple frequency percentage was adopted as the statistical measure and hypothesis testing was analyzed using Chi – square. In conclusion, the study revealed that information Technology has tremendously improved growth and performance of the Nigerian commercial banks. Information Technology has lead to increase customers satisfaction, improved operational efficiency, reduced transaction time, gives the bank a competitive edge, reduced the running cost and ushered in swift response in service delivery.
The research recommended that Government should improve the electricity supply in the country, they should support and loan money to local IT firms to foster Importation, lower tariff on importation of information technology related equipment and their agencies and regulatory bodies should upgrade their equipments as well. The private sector should invest into improving electricity and the banks should continuously implement customer centered IT products and services of international standard.
Table Of Content
- Title page i
- Certification page ii
- Dedication iii
- Acknowledgment iv
- Abstract v
- List of tables vi
- Table of contents vii
- 1.0 Introduction
- 1.1 Background of the Study 1-4
- 1.2 Statement of the Study 4-5
- 1.3 Objective of the study 5-6
- 1.4 Research Questions 6-7
- 1.5 Statement of hypothesis 7
- 1.6 Significance of the Study 7-9
- 1.7 Scope of study 9
- 1.8 Limitation of the study 9-10
- 1.9 Definition of Terms 10-11
- 2.0 Literature Review
- 2.1 Introduction 12
- 2.2 Information Technology Concept 12
- 2.3 Evolution of Information Technology 12-21
- 2.4 Types of Information Technology 21-26
- 2.5 Development of Information Technology in Banking Industry 26-31
- 2.6 Computer Technology Banking Industry 31-32
- 2.7 Information Technology in GROWING NIGERIA Financial Market 32-36
- 2.8 Globalization Information Technology and Nigerian commercial bank 37-39
- 2.9 Benefit of Applying I.T 39-41
- 2.10 Challenges facing the Application of IT in Nigerian bank 41-46
- Research Methodology
- 3.0 Research Design 51
- 3.1 Population and Sample Size 51-52
- 3.2 Historical Background of Fidelity and First Bank 52
- 3.3 Hypothesis of Study 53-59
- 3.4 Method of Collection 59
- 3.5 Method of Data Analysis 60-64
- 4.0 Data Presentation And Analysis 64
- 4.1 Introduction 64-65
- 4.2 Classification and analysis of responses party 6. ) Fidelity and First Bank and First Customer’s questionnaire) 65 -85
- 4.3 Test of Hypothesis 85-87
- 4.4 Discussion of Finding 88
- 5.0 Summary, Conclusion And Recommendation
- 5.1 Summary 89-90
- 5.2 Conclusion 90-92
1.1 Background Of Study
Development in a country can be measured in relation to its overall social, economic and political development. But no matter how developed the country is, it cannot be self sufficient, there is always an urge to improve in the social relationship, economic development and in polities.
In Nigeria, during the pre-colonial era, there is always an interaction which begins mostly from trading activities which makes the country to exchange what it has for what it requires. Trading were carried out among the various tribes that made up the present Nigeria nation through the old methods of trade (barter) system which is the exchange of goods for goods[services] objects like shells, cowries, beads etc were recognized as a means of exchange.
However as society enlarges more complex, the crude means of exchange became imperative. Coins and paper notes were introduced, which made it easy for more goods and services to be acquired at the exchange of such coins and paper notes. Thus as the nature of businesses becomes more sophisticated and complex, it become necessary for all sectors to be connected with a modern means that would be simpler, faster and convenient.
For this reason, the birth of the modern day banking system using information technology [IT]. The banking industries are now been connected with the information technology facilities which make the operations, services and activities of banking to be more efficient and effective for both organization and individuals for business transactions.
The impacts of IT has become far reaching to the extent that organization jostling for relevance in a competitive environment cannot help but embraces the potentials of the E-revolutions.
Information technology is a manmade resource, embracing principally the electronic technologies of computers and telecommunications [voice, data and video] and comprising both electronic hardware and software. The significant of IT in today’s successful organization cannot be under estimated. It plays a major role in the success of the organization in a highly competitive world by providing easy and reliable means of collection, storing, and retrieving, processing, transmitting and distributing information. There can be various other factors that determine the success of a firm, and a firm may use various strategies to pursue the path of success.
However, fast and easy access of information through the use of IT is very important to the firm because it influences all the other success factors and the competitive strategies cannot be practically implemented without its support. Information technology (IT) is the automation of processes, controls and information production using computers, telecommunications, software and ancillary equipment such as automation teller machine and debit cards, it is a term that generally covers the harassing of electronic technology for the information needs of a business at all levels. Banking services that have been revolutionized through the use of ICT as including account opening, customer account mandate and transaction processing and recording.
Information and communication technology (ICT) has provided self service facilities (Automated Customer Service Machines) from where prospective customers can complete their accounting opening documents directly online it assists customers to validate their account numbers and receive instructions or when and how to receive their cheque books credit and debit cards. ICT products in use in the banking industry include ATM, smart cards, telephone banking, MICR, electronic funds transfer, Electronic data interchange, electronic home and office banking
1.2 Statement Of The Problem
The advent of information technology in the operations of the commercial banks in Nigeria amongst other sectors has brought about several noticeable developments but at the same time its attendant problems. The achievement of IT has been applauded by users of these techniques.
The most significant problem of IT is that banks capitalized on it as an instrument for an efficient and competitiveness.
1.3 Objective Of The Study
The objective of the study is to examine how the adoption information technology affects the operation of commercial banks in Nigeria such as :
- How the introduction of information technology has influence banks performances as well as assessing logically whether the adoption of information system has influence the banking sector.
- Also to find out the reason why banks have to left their old method of operation to modern banking such as E- banking and identify the problems arising from the operational style of the commercial banks in Nigeria.
- To investigate into the extent of effectiveness and efficiency for banking sectors after the introduction of information technology.
- To examine the modes by which commercial banks can improve on their service delivery in order to attract depositors funds.
- To access how information technology was assisted in the enhancement of globalization of Nigeria commercial banks.
- To also access how information technology has affected the customer base of the banks.
- To access how I.T helps in the reduction of cost and benefit in increasing revenue base of the bank and finally, make recommendations based on findings.
1.4 Research Question
The question this research work tends to ask are as follows:
- Why high incident of fraud in the banks is is attributed to the development of information technology?
- How has the information technology aided the banking operations?
- Why is it that the corporate mission/mission statement is not been adhered strictly by banks?
- Does huge investment into information technology in banks have a proportionate profit returns?
1.5 Statement Of Hypothesis
- H1: The use of information technology leads to improvement in banking services.
- H2:The use of IT has contributed to the high profitability of Banks.
1.6 Significance Of Study
Banking system is required as a catalyst for rapid microeconomic development of other sectors of the economy. Hence its stability should be the priority of the government most especially during the democratic dispensation.
Going by the recent distress in banking industry in Nigeria, the level of public confidence in the sector was drastically reduces and thus led to the instability problem in the sector and as such the public assurance and confidence on efficiency in the private sector is decaying.
The major cause of this syndrome can be attributed to the problems inherited in the banks operational system. The quest for globalization and commercialization has brought about innovations in technology. The digital age and the potential threat posed by non-traditional competition which necessitated innovation has made it inevitable for Nigeria commercial banks to improve upon their operation as they face evolving revolution are being confronted with increasingly sophisticated customer base compelling them to offer today what their customers would be expecting tomorrow. Banks have to deviate from just being a profit making bank to a more conscious customer centered institution.
This research will enable banks to identify ways of remaining competitive in the global and domestic financial industry. It also helps prepare banks repositioning towards meeting the challenges imposed by global banking. Also it is expected that the work will contribute to the banks future projections on strategies to be used in attracting depositor’s funds, reduce queues in the banking hall, the bank’s management policies.
Finally, the research work will also contribute to knowledge to academic field and serve as a source of reference to researchers who would carry out research on similar study in the future,
1.7 Scope Of The Study
The research work covers the role of information technology on the operations of commercial banks in the country, Nigeria.
1.8 Limitations Of The Study
Specifically, the information in this research work is limited to the happening in the Fidelity Bank PLC and First Bank of Nigeria PLC. Emphases are laid on activities of both banks situated at bank road via government house Umuahia branch.
1.9 Definitions Of Terms
1. Barter System:
This can be define as a system of trade which involves the exchange of goods for services, using objects like shells, cowries, beads etc barter system does not recognized the used of money or currencies as a medium of exchange.
2. Information Technology:
This can be define as a man-made resource, embracing principally the electronic technology of computers and telecommunications.
A computer is an electronic device that is capable of solving problems by accepting data, performing prescribed operational on the date accepted and supplying the results of those operations.
This is an electronic technology which uses the voice, data and video in disseminating information.
5. ATM Card:
Automated Teller Machine (ATM) is a machine which enables a customer of a bank to operate on its account, with a card which is encoded with a personal identification number (PIN).
6. Electronic Funds Transfer:
this is a process of transferring fund through an electronic device.
7. Micr Cheque:
This means magnetic ink character Recognition cheque used in processing volumes of cheque received by banks. It uses special ink and it’s limited to 14 characters only.
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How to nail it on the head during your project defence
You are through with writing that project. Now what?
You have found yourself at that point where you have to defend what you have written. Of course you have to stand in front of your supervisor and other literary personalities to prove that you know what you wrote in your project paper. Unfortunately, the more you think about it, the more it looks like you are about to face a legion. It is not a war. But the emotion of dread welling up inside of you makes it look like one. So now you are asking yourself questions.
- How am I going to start?
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You really want to nail it, but you need to come to terms with exactly how to get everything in perfect control. Especially your emotions of fear that seem to make a wreck of you every time you think about public speaking.
So here is the deal. I want to help you avoid that feeling that would ruin your precious moment if you dare to let it. And we are going to do it together.
I am going to highlight some very important tips to help you get in control for you to be comfortable enough to move from that feeling of DREAD to CONFIDENT; and making an awesome Impression for that great rating your supervisors should be giving to you so freely.
Consider these tips as you prepare for your defence. We will be taking them one after the other so here we go.
Watch Your Body Language And Keep It Confident:
Can you tell that a person is falling apart if they look confident? … If I can second guess you rightly, am sure you answered no to that question. Remind yourself that you need to come out that way. Now this might seem like a huge big deal when you are dealing with the foreboding. Maintaining a poise of confidence is very important. So find your most comfortable position, sitting or standing and draw up your body. You must exude confidence. It is something you need to do for yourself. People can only see what you allow your body language to show. So you must endeavour to put that out. Remember the story of David and Goliath? … At the end of your defence day, you want to be David.
Dress In Your Most Comfortable And Impressive:
Am sure this one is a no brainer. However I must highlight that you choose comfortable pieces. You don’t want to look so good and yet look like you were forced to wear something that does not belong to you. It’s great to ensure that as impressive as your clothes are on you, that they are also very comfortable.
Speak With Authority:
Going hand to hand with that aura of confidence is your most powerful asset:your words. If you look that confident, your words must not come out like whimpers. To be able to pull this off, you definitely need to speak as deliberately as possible in expressing yourself. Let them also hear what they see.
Use, Your Gestures:
I have often found this to come to my rescue in dealing with shyness and conveying my confidence. Usually it gives you an edge to also drive home your point. You must, however, ensure that you do not over use it. It doesn’t mean that your hands should be flying all over the place. That would be absolutely unnecessary. If you do this well, after a while you will realize that you are not as self-conscious as you used to be at the very start. For most situations, it would have completely disappeared altogether; leaving a really confident you talking.
Have A Good Opening And Closing Line:
Make sure you have perfected a good opening line. You should also be armed with a good closing line too. Try and rehearse it to a friend. If for the first time you presented it, your friend does not say “wow, that’s beautiful” or something like that; just know you need to keep refining it until you get the perfect line. Both opening and closing lines will go a long way in how impressed your panel gets to rate you high.
Make Sure You Know Your Work:
Certainly you should understand how important it is to know your own work from start to finish. Not having in-depth knowledge of your own work is tantamount to a suicide mission. Why should you kill yourself?
When all is said and done, this is what you came to defend in the first place. You should know your work from A to Z.
Prepare For The Questions:
Now this part is truly essential. You must be sure you do not floor all the good work you did on your presentation by not answering correctly. You must pay attention to the questions you are asked to be sure you will give the right answer. Many people get it wrong at this stage and spoil their good presentation. When you do not understand any question do endeavour to ask the person to expatiate what they mean before you answer.
These tips are by no means exhaustive, but applying these tips will give you some necessary advantage you need for a great outcome. Of course that outcome would mean that you eventually earn all your points on this project.
The structure of a good project work
Undergraduate projects in Nigeria is a prerequisite for graduation amongst Nigerian tertiary students who will which to obtain bachelors degree in their respective courses of study such as accounting, banking and finance, business administration and a host of others. Writing an undergraduate project in Nigeria for final year students entails a lot both financially and otherwise. Being able to develop any final year project depends on getting a researchable topic whether it is Accounting Undergraduate project topics, Banking and Finance research topics or banking and finance project topics and materials and it all requires diligent hard work of students who are willing to develop best undergraduate projects in Nigeria and graduate in flying colors.
A typical Undergraduate project in Nigerian tertiary institutions can be said to be divided into five or six chapters depending on the format of the school and course of study which are
The introduction of an undergraduate project states the main research problem and research argument. What precisely the study is all about and why it is important. It looks at the originality of the research work and how it will fill the gap in other studies. Justification for a research undergraduate topic should not be lengthy before it has been explicitly stated.
Below are the contents in chapter one of an undergraduate research project which includes;
- Background of the study,
- Statement of the problem,
- Objectives or aims of the study,
- The research questions,
- Research hypothesis,
- Significance of the study,
- Scope of the study,
- Limitations of the study and
- Operational definition of terms.
2. Literature review
Literature review of any undergraduate research work, be it business administration project topics or Economics project topics just to mention a few is very critical to securing a high grade in one’s project work. The literature review of a research process uncovers what other writers have written about the student’s topic. A student’s undergraduate research work should include a discussion or review of what is known about the subject and how that knowledge was acquired. The review could conclude with a brief summary of the literature and its implications. The contents of the literature review are the theoretical review, conceptual framework, empirical review and summary of literature review.
3. Research Methodology
This section includes a description of the research methods used in the undergraduate research work such as the sample size, data collection methods, measurement instruments, research data analysis procedures and the population from which the sample was selected. This section also describes the method used in selecting the sample or samples, validation and reliability of the instruments used in the research work. There are different research statistical techniques used in undergraduate research work such as SPSS, e-views etc.
4. Results & Discussion
This section presents and discusses the data analysis results used in an undergraduate research work, the results of each analysis is being summarized, tabulated, and then discussed for each research question. Then for each research hypothesis, the statistical test of significance selected and applied to the data is briefly described, followed by a statement indicating whether the hypothesis was supported or not supported. In presenting the result analyses/summary in an undergraduate project tables and figures and or graph are used to add clarity to the presentation.
5. Summary, Conclusions And Recommendations
This section summarizes the findings of the study in an easy to understand manner. It also explains the practical implications of those findings, and points to recommended directions for future research in that area.
This is where every source cited in the undergraduate research work is being included. Every undergraduate research work must be properly referenced for its authenticity.
Choosing A Good Project / Research Topic
Students in Nigerian universities these days wish to choose a very simple project topic/material. There is no issue choosing a simple project topic; the only problem is your ability to choose a good project or research topic that your supervisor will easily approve for you.
Most project supervisors really want to see how good his or her project student understands his or her surrounding through the kind of topic he or she chooses for their project work.
There are some project topic that are not reject-able; for instance in Nigeria of today; what do you think is the major issue on ground now?
If a project student can choose or craft a topic on the effect of dollar increment on the economy of Nigeria. Such project topic will be very interesting to write on.
Now what are the qualities of a good project topic?
- The materials for the project topic must be easily assessable.
- The project topic itself must be meaningful.
- The variables must be able to give a clear aim of the project topic.
What do I mean by variable?
Well I am deriving my point from the area of ; the variables here are those main words in the project topic.
Like the above project topic; the effect of dollar increment on the economy of Nigeria. You can see the main variables that really define this project topic are:dollar, increment and economy.
Before you present your topic to your project supervisor, first of all understand your project topic, and then secondly try to do some research for your topic to see if at least you can get up to 60% of what you need to write the complete project.
I said that above because you might have a very nice topic that the materials are not available online and there are no books as regard the topic; in this case the project topic becomes difficult for you even though the topic is catchy.
What do I mean by your topic being assessable?
Well what I mean is very simple and easy to understand. Simply pick your project topic, type it on google and see if you will have at least a good background for the topic you are writing on.
If you can have a good background for your project topic and you can understand the problem associated with the project topic, then I believe the aim of the project is not far-fetched.