The Effect Of Information And Communication On Technology In Broadcast Media
This research was an attempt to find out the impact of new communication technologies in Nigeria Broadcast media, using Nigeria Television Authority of Enugu state, AIT and Enugu television Authority as a case study. To do this we distributed This research work was carried out as a field survey using three broadcast stations in Enugu as its population, with a sample size of 90 respondents. Thus, this work made use of the survey research method to investigate the impact of the new communication technologies on the Nigeria broadcasting media. To integrate our finding into a theoretical framework of analysis we made use of the globalization theory. Statistically table, figures and percentages was used and structured in a tabular form, together with responses. Using the framework of analysis we found out that the positive impact of the new communication technologies in Nigeria broadcast media far out weigh its negative impact. Hence, we conclude that given the myriads of advantages the new communication technologies we have in Nigeria broadcast media, the media houses should map out good plans on how to maintain these new communication technologies to enhance their performance in the dissemination of information.
1.1 Background to the Study
The past fifteen years or more, the world has played host to a lot of technological innovations of functional value to the mass media. With these innovations came so alternations or change in the world.
Electronic communications involve the process by which message is sent across the globe through the use of computer, telephone. Unlike the fax system which allows one page of text to be transmit at a time, electronic communication facility allows several pages to be processed off line and through a single dialing, it allows these several pages of messages to be transmit to a gateway where they can be distributed to their various distributions.
Furthermore, electronic communication involves any of several forms of information exchange between two or more computers through any of several methods of interconnection such as telephone line, satellite etc. This communication mode is rapidly spreading throughout the world as a fast, reliable and in most application, an in expensive form of communication. It is fast and inexpensive because it can use existing public telephone lines.
The history of communication and information technology dates back the Shakespearian “ACTA Diura,” that is the first hallmark of readable and perusable information invention successfully and very glaring society is dynamic and so is the communication world.
As society continue to grow, more and more horizons were explored and the opportunity to create something new. The present after that of the British with the primary aim of being a masters to pass out information and command to their subjects. Over the years, the broadcasting industry metamorphosed with charging western technology. The world is fast becoming a global village through the new communication, culture has been reduced into a more minute particles capable being held by our hands.
According to Uche (1989: 101) “Nigeria posses one of the world most exciting press system”. It is really the birth of information super-highways.
However, the Nigeria electronic media are under a hectic and trying situation where the simplistic perception of the mass media as facilitators of mass communication and their sophisticate function as social actors are seen as exercising great influence in the life of any society or nation.
Importantly, technology plays a vital role in the broadcast media or any mass media in Nigeria. In the light of this fact, the Nigeria broadcast media employs the use of these new communication technologies which include computer internet, satellite/cable system, electronic mail (E-mail) and fax system among others.
New communication technology, including accessible online publishing software and evolving mobile device technology means that citizens have the potential to observe and report more immediate than traditional media out lets do.
Swarms of amateur online journalists are putting this technology to use, on open publishing sites such as indymedia and on countless weblogs, adding a grassroots dimension to the media landscape. Bloggers and other amateur journalists are scoping mainstream news out lets as well as pointing out errors in mainstream articles, while people who have been made subjects of news articles are responding online, posting supplementary information to provide context and counter-points. Increasingly the public is turning to online sources for news, reflecting growing trust in alternative media.
The computer among all the other multimedia technology plays an important role of educating the audience. According to the Aibsons (1975: 215) “New methods of educating everyone to his highest ability will require increase accounts of time, date, money and skill. Only computer assistance can many of these factors be developed to better levels of time”.
The computer communication are both progressing towards a compatible and useful co-existence, perhaps that is why Oeffinger (1989) called it” computer and communication.
The broadcast media can be a source of education or information or even to all those linked to the computer network thereby employing traditional roles of impacting knowledge, informing and externalizing the audience.
Thus, the computer technology as an interactive mass medium is always available matter providing the station with new vistas and opportunity of sharing information with recovers or reaching the mass audience.
The scopes of the computer an educative medium has grown wider with the introduction of the internet. They can no longer be retracted strictly to education on the internets, website is a form of learning which broadcaster cannot fail to capitalize on the web is sonly one part of the u/internet which contains, a global facilities to document which are stored on computers connected to the internet. The web provides facilities to enable people learn,shop, conduct research, listen to news or music and also participate in live events from their computer screen.
Another resources of the internet is the electronic mail (E-mail). It is the most popular resources provided by the telecommunication equivalent of the postal services that deliver letter to the home and office through the computer. More than 80 percent of print journalists use the internet to help them do research and add depth and breath to the news stories they write, while third of all broadcast journalists download audio and video files from websites. E-mail is another technology that aids mass communication. It simple allows anyone with the type if terminal equipment used for on-line services to compose, edit, send, store, rely to, receive and file electronic messages.
Another new communication technology used to the broadcast media is the satellite. The satellite has brought to our homes, the world out there. The role of the satellite is never more evidence as the audience sit in their homes viewing events even as they unfold live. Agba (2001: 40) maintains that “For the time direct from the theater city of operation and also from the city of Baghalad (Gulf war).
The 2002 Africa nations cup which the Nigerian audience were able to view and listen to at their home at the same time matches which took place shows the tremendous impact of the satellite. Also the result concluded Olympic games held in AternsGrecce was also another powerful impact of the satellite.
Indeed, the importance of information and communication technology as a tool for news processing cannot be overemphasized. The use of ICTs in broadcast industry has revolutionized and enhanced news processing. Access to information is fundamental to empowerment, recognizing the impact of increasing digital convergence on media has created an enabling environment to ensuring people’s access to information through the adoption of this technology.
1.2 Statement of Problem
Going by global trends, which foretell an increase in the employment and the deployment of ICTs in news processing, in order to achieve better efficiency, accuracy, and speed up operations of news processing. Arguably the employment of ICTs in the newsroom and in news processing activities will increase cost, as money would have to be invested into acquiring both hardware and software However, when Information and Communication Technology is discussed, it puts people out of jobs. The reverse is often the case. This technology takes over mechanical assignment and frees individuals for more intellectual productive work. Similarly, if this technology will achieve its overall objective, there is need for faster and more accurate means of solving manual operations of data processing and better storage devices for information and data as provided by ICTs, the complexities of modern technology have produced great mathematical, scientific, and engineering problem and hence, enhanced news processing and reporting. The Nigerian broadcast and print media like other facet of life and human endeavour in the country have embraced Information and Communication Technology to some extent. In this vein, this study tends to investigate the challenges facing media organization with a view to finding out the effect of the use of Information and Communication Technology in news processing and reporting. Also, this study will identify the constraints to the use of ICTs in news processing.
1.3 Objectives of the Study
- To ascertain the impact of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in news processing in Nigeria.
- To examine Communication Technology in news processing in Nigeria.
- To identify the various ways ICT enhances news processing in Nigeria.
1.4 Research Questions
- What is the impact of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in news processing in Nigeria?
- What are the constraints to the use of Information and Communication Technology in news processing in Nigeria?
- In what ways can ICT enhance news processing in Nigeria?
1.5 Significance of Study
This study will be beneficial in the following ways:
- The findings will help to reposition the thought pattern and help media professionals to get acquainted with the new technologies to help produce quality programmes.
- The findings of this research will add to the existing literatures and act as a handy material for students who might have interest in researching further on the topic.
- The study shows the extent to which broadcast media have incorporated the use of modern technologies in their operations.
- The findings from this research ascertained how favourable or unfavourable these new technologies are to the broadcast media.
1.6 Scope of Study
This study focuses mainly on broadcast stations in Enugu, Nigeria. One federal, one State-owned and one Private broadcast station were adopted to investigate the impact of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in news processing and news reporting. Since there is only one Federal broadcast station, Nigeria television Authority, (NTA), the largest television network in Africa, also one state-owned broadcast station, Enugu television (ETV) and Africa Independent Television (AIT) which has a high influx of ICTs in its news operations. More so, the computer and the internet, email, mobile phones would be the major concern of the use of ICTs in news processing and reporting.
1.7 Limitation of the Study.
This research is subjected to a number of known limitations. One of the limitations is the fact that this study will deal with some ICTs, but not all ICTs. Another known limitation was that more stations would have been preferred to investigate the impact of ICT on news processing, thus limiting the applications of the results to other stations.
1.8 Organization of Study
The study is divided into five chapters. Chapter one deals with the study’s introduction and gives a background to the study. Chapter two reviews related and relevant literature. The chapter three gives the research methodology while the chapter four gives the study’s analysis and interpretation of data. The study concludes with chapter five which deals on the summary, conclusion and recommendation.
Conclusion and Recommendation
This study uncovered some of the numerous benefits and challenges associated with the use of ICT in news processing in broadcast industry. This study concludes that ICT has created opportunities for widespread electronic and timely delivery of news. Furthermore, not only are there technology barriers that news organizations need to overcome to deliver news electronically, but there are also problems of employee attitudes toward new technologies and resistance to change. The implication of the use of ICTs in broadcast stations might lead to an overall shrink in the need for human correspondents. Before ICT could be more effective in enhancing news processes in Nigeria, the constraints to news processing should not be neglected if broadcast industry must thrive or perhaps compete with its international counterpart.
Before ICT could be more effective in enhancing news processes in Nigeria, I therefore make the following recommendations:
- The constraints as highlighted in this study to news processing should not be neglected if broadcast industry must thrive or perhaps compete with its international counterpart.
- Broadcast industry should help train their IT personnel in order to compete, and catch up with the rapidly and swiftly changes in new technologies and resistance to change.
- Nigerian government need to help stabilize power because it is a key factor in actualizing the impact of ICT in news processing in Nigeria AIT, ETV and NTA in particular.
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