Effect Of Increased Class Size Of Pupils On Teaching And Learning Method

Project and Seminar Material for Education

Project and Seminar Material for Education


Abstract


This study was carried out to examine the effect of increased class size of pupils on teaching and learning method using some selected public primary schools in Ayedade Local Government Area of Osun state as a case study. The study was carried out to identify the causes of increase in students’ population in government secondary schools in Ayadade, determine whether there is a significant relationship between increased class size and effective teaching/learning in primary schools, and find the effects of increased class size on teaching and learning methods in public primary schools. The survey design was adopted and the simple random sampling techniques were employed in this study. The population size comprised of teachers and head teachers in the selected primary schools in Ayadade Local Government Area of Osun State. In determining the sample size, the researcher conveniently selected 180 respondents and all were validated. Self-constructed and validated questionnaire was used for data collection. The collected and validated questionnaires were analyzed using frequency tables, and mean scores. While the hypotheses was tested Pearson correlation statistical tool, SPSS v23. The result of the findings reveals that there is a significant relationship between increased class size and effective teaching/learning in primary schools. Furthermore the study revealed that increased class size significant affects the effective teaching and learning in public primary schools as it has negative impact on pupils’ interest in learning, negatively affect the delivery of instruction, affects pupils active participation in the classroom and even teachers find it difficult to measure pupils’ level of achievement in increased class size. Therefore, it is recommended that Federal and State government should provide more school facilities in public primary schools to enhance pupils’ academic achievement. To mention but a few.


Table of Content


  • Title Page
  • Certification
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Table of Content
  • List of Tables
  • Abstract

Chapter One:

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3 Objective of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Research Hypothesis
  • 1.6 Significance of the Study
  • 1.7 Scope of the Study
  • 1.8 Limitation of the Study
  • 1.9 Definition of Terms
  • 1.10 Organisations of the Study

Chapter Two:

Review of Literature

  • 2.1 Conceptual Framework
  • 2.2 Theoretical Framework
  • 2.3 Empirical Review

Chapter Three:

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Population of the Study
  • 3.3 Sample Size Determination
  • 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
  • 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
  • 3.6 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
  • 3.8 Validity of the Study
  • 3.9 Reliability of the Study
  • 3.10 Ethical Consideration

Chapter Four:

Data Presentation and Analysis

  • 4.1 Data Presentation
  • 4.2 Analysis of Data
  • 4.3 Answering Research Questions
  • 4.4 Test of Hypotheses

Chapter Five:

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • References
  • APPENDIX
  • QUESTIONNAIRE

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background to the Study

In many countries over the world there has been a widely reported debate over the educational consequences of class size differences. Opinions vary from those academics and policy makers who argue that class size reduction is not cost effective to those who argue that it should be a main feature of educational policy. In some countries policy has changed in favor of small classes. In the U.S.A, over 30 states have enacted legislation for class size reduction (CSR) programs. Current Government policy in England and Wales is for a maximum class size of 30 for pupils aged 4 to 7 years, and larger cuts are planned in Scotland.

Class size refers to the number of students in a given course or classroom, specifically either the number of students being taught by individual teachers in a course or classroom or the average number of students being taught by teachers in a school or educational system. The term may also be the number of students participating in learning experience. Class size is almost an administrative decision over which teachers have little or no control. Class size refers to an educational tool that can be used to describe the average number of students per class in a school (Adeyemi, 2008). There are large and small sizes in school. The smaller the class, the greater the likelihood is that a teacher will spend more time with individual pupils. Large classes present more challenges for classroom management, pupil control, and marking, planning, and assessment. Teachers are put under more strain when faced with large classes. In smaller classes, it can be easier for teachers to spot problems and give feedback, identify specific needs and gear teaching to meet them, and set individual targets for pupils. Teachers also experience better relationships with, and have more knowledge of individual pupils. Ajayi and Adeosun (2004) opined that in order to control rising capital cost of education, the average class-size could be increased. These points were also supported by Toth and Montagna (2002) who reported that the increase in enrollment in many institutions which has become major concerns of students could definitely lead to an increase in class size. Commeyras (2000) however, disagreed with these arguments and reported that effective teaching seems impracticable for teacher educators having large class sizes of 50, 75, 100 or more.

According to Dror (1995), class size has become a phenomenon often mentioned in the educational literature as an influence on pupil’s feelings and achievement, on administration, quality and school budgets. In his words he noted, that class size is almost an administrative decision over which teachers have little or no control. Most researchers start from the assumption that size of the class would prove a significant determinant of the degree of success of students. In fact, with the exception of a few, many studies have reported that under ideal situation, class size in itself appears to be an important factor. The first issue that calls for immediate clarification is what number of students should constitute a large group and what should be described as a small group? In describing a small group, Bray (1990) observed that they have few teachers with small pools of talent; offer limited range of subjects and characteristically finding it hard to justify costly investment on libraries… their pupils lack competition and interest with relatively few peers as they get stocked with same teacher for an entire school career.

Evidence has shown that the population of students in urban schools is on the increase. The steady areas to enjoy recreational facilities, which keeps them busy after studying is one of the factors that contributes to overpopulation of secondary schools in urban areas. Under population of secondary school in Nigeria has had a negative impact in the Nigeria educational sector, and the output is devastating in terms of loss of standard and its attendant results.

This situation of over population could be speculated to be speculated to be responsible for the untold hardship, corruption, social disorder, poor standard of living, crime etcetera. In this, there will be lower standard of education, inadequate
This research will however examine the influence and effect of class size on student   academic achievement in secondary schools.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

According to the Federal Ministry of Education, as at 2004, the population of Nigeria secondary schools stood at one hundred and eighteen thousand, two hundred (118200) secondary schools This figure when compared with that of 1999 which was inclusive according to Federal Ministry of Education was very high because during that period, it was so in order to attract Federal Government attention. The present Nigerian population of secondary schools going by the above number is almost twenty one thousand, eight hundred and twenty eight (21828) secondary schools. Over the years, there has been an increase in the population of students in urban secondary schools. This has been consistent, without the attendant increase in facilities, teachers and infrastructure, etcetera. With the decline in the quality of education and output, it therefore becomes imperative to find out whether the increase in of students’ directly affect their academic performance and identify the causes of increase in population of students in public primary schools in Ayedade LGA, Osun state and what could be done to remedy the situation.


1.3 Objectives of the Study

The main objective of this study is to find out the effects of increased class size on teaching and learning methods in public primary schools Ayedade LGA, specifically the study intends to:

  1. To Identify the causes of increase in students’ population in government secondary schools in Ayadade.
  2. To determine whether there is a significant relationship between increased class size and effective teaching/learning in primary schools.
  3. To find the effects of increased class size on teaching and learning methods in public primary schools.

1.4 Research Question

The study will be guided by the following questions;

  1. What are the causes of increase in students’ population in government primary schools in Ayadade.
  2. Is there a significant relationship between increased class size and effective teaching/learning in primary schools?
  3. What is the effect of increased class size on teaching and learning methods in public primary schools?

1.5 Research Hypothesis

  • Ho: There is no significant relationship between increased class size and effective teaching/learning in primary schools.
  • Ha: There is a significant relationship between increased class size and effective teaching/learning in primary schools.

1.6 Significance of the Study

This study will be of great benefit to the students, teachers, educational planners, government and society at large. For the students, it will motivate and increase their willingness to attend school and help improve their performance in school. To the teachers, it will help improve abilities of the teacher to manage the classroom efficiently because reduction in the number of students encourages teacher – students’ relationship and leads to effective and efficient academic performance. To the education planners, it will be a guiding material to enable them check the population of students in relation to the available schools to accommodate them. To the government, it will serve as a guide to identify the need to improve the infrastructure available for teaching and learning. The study will be of great significance to the society at large as it will help produce qualified citizens that will contribute positively to the growth of the society and it will also serve as a resource and reference material to future students.


1.7 Scope of the Study

This research will vividly examine the effect of increased class size (overpopulation) on the academic performance of students in Aiyedaade LGA, Osun state. Since it will be difficult to use all the public primary schools in Aiyedaade LGA will be used as a case study.


1.8 Limitation of the Study

Finance for the general research work will be a challenge during the course of study. Correspondents also might not be able to complete or willing to submit the questionnaires given to them.

However, it is believed that these constraints will be worked on by making the best use of the available materials and spending more than the necessary time in the research work. Therefore, it is strongly believed that despite these constraint, its effect on this research report will be minimal, thus, making the objective and significance of the study achievable.


1.9 Definition of Terms

Class Size:

Refers to the number of students in a given course or classroom

Academic Achievement:

Academic achievement or performance is the extent to which a student, teacher or institution has achieved their short or long-term educational goals.


1.10 Organization of the Study

This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows.

  • Chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the (overview, of the study), historical background, statement of problem, objectives of the study, research hypotheses, significance of the study, scope and limitation of the study, definition of terms and historical background of the study.
  • Chapter two highlights the theoretical framework on which the study is based, thus the review of related literature.
  • Chapter three deals on the research design and methodology adopted in the study.
  • Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding.
  • Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study.

Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations:

5.1 Introduction

This chapter summarizes the findings on the effect of increased class size of pupils on teaching and learning method using some selected public primary schools in Ayedade Local Government Area of Osun state as a case study. The chapter consists of summary of the study, conclusions, and recommendations.


5.2 Summary of the Study

In this study, our focus was to examine the effect of increased class size of pupils on teaching and learning method using some selected public primary schools in Ayedade Local Government Area of Osun state as a case study. The study specifically was aimed to identify the causes of increase in students’ population in government secondary schools in Ayadade, determine whether there is a significant relationship between increased class size and effective teaching/learning in primary schools, and find the effects of increased class size on teaching and learning methods in public primary schools.

The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 180 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondent are teachers and head teachers in the selected primary schools in Ayadade Local Government Area of Osun State.


5.3 Conclusions

Based on the findings of this study, the researcher made the following conclusion.

  1. The causes of increase in students’ population in government secondary schools in Ayadade includes; population explosion, introduction of free, introduction of compulsory education, inadequacy of school infrastructural facilities, and neglect of birth control measures.
  2. There is a significant relationship between increased class size and effective teaching/learning in primary schools.
  3. Increased class size significant affects the effective teaching and learning in public primary schools as it has negative impact on pupils’ interest in learning, negatively affect the delivery of instruction, affects pupils active participation in the classroom and even teachers find it difficult to measure pupils’ level of achievement in increased class size.

5.4 Recommendations

To achieve the national goals and objectives of Nigerian Education and improve academic achievement of primary school pupils this paper recommended:

  1. The head teachers and teachers should adhere strictly to the recommended pupils- teachers ratio to avoid overcrowded classes with their impending consequences.
  2. The school management should employ more teachers as well create more classes out of large ones to help reduce overcrowding in public primary schools.
  3. Federal and State government should provide more school facilities in public primary schools to enhance pupils’ academic achievement.
  4. Non-governmental organizations, private philanthropists and other stakeholders should support primary education financially so as to ensure the recruitment of more teachers; prompt payment of serving teachers; provision of infrastructures such as buildings, furniture and fittings etc to reduce the problem of overcrowdedness in public primary schools.

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