Effect Of Increased Class Size Of Pupils On Teaching And Learning Method

Project and Seminar Material for Education

Project and Seminar Material for Education


Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background to the Study

In many countries over the world there has been a widely reported debate over the educational consequences of class size differences. Opinions vary from those academics and policy makers who argue that class size reduction is not cost effective to those who argue that it should be a main feature of educational policy. In some countries policy has changed in favor of small classes. In the U.S.A, over 30 states have enacted legislation for class size reduction (CSR) programs. Current Government policy in England and Wales is for a maximum class size of 30 for pupils aged 4 to 7 years, and larger cuts are planned in Scotland.

Class size refers to the number of students in a given course or classroom, specifically either the number of students being taught by individual teachers in a course or classroom or the average number of students being taught by teachers in a school or educational system. The term may also be the number of students participating in learning experience. Class size is almost an administrative decision over which teachers have little or no control. Class size refers to an educational tool that can be used to describe the average number of students per class in a school (Adeyemi, 2008). There are large and small sizes in school. The smaller the class, the greater the likelihood is that a teacher will spend more time with individual pupils. Large classes present more challenges for classroom management, pupil control, and marking, planning, and assessment

. Teachers are put under more strain when faced with large classes. In smaller classes, it can be easier for teachers to spot problems and give feedback, identify specific needs and gear teaching to meet them, and set individual targets for pupils. Teachers also experience better relationships with, and have more knowledge of individual pupils. Ajayi and Adeosun (2004) opined that in order to control rising capital cost of education, the average class-size could be increased. These points were also supported by Toth and Montagna (2002) who reported that the increase in enrollment in many institutions which has become major concerns of students could definitely lead to an increase in class size. Commeyras (2000) however, disagreed with these arguments and reported that effective teaching seems impracticable for teacher educators having large class sizes of 50, 75, 100 or more.

According to Dror (1995), class size has become a phenomenon often mentioned in the educational literature as an influence on pupil’s feelings and achievement, on administration, quality and school budgets. In his words he noted, that class size is almost an administrative decision over which teachers have little or no control. Most researchers start from the assumption that size of the class would prove a significant determinant of the degree of success of students. In fact, with the exception of a few, many studies have reported that under ideal situation, class size in itself appears to be an important factor. The first issue that calls for immediate clarification is what number of students should constitute a large group and what should be described as a small group? In describing a small group, Bray (1990) observed that they have few teachers with small pools of talent; offer limited range of subjects and characteristically finding it hard to justify costly investment on libraries… their pupils lack competition and interest with relatively few peers as they get stocked with same teacher for an entire school career.

Evidence has shown that the population of students in urban schools is on the increase. The steady areas to enjoy recreational facilities, which keeps them busy after studying is one of the factors that contributes to overpopulation of secondary schools in urban areas. Under population of secondary school in Nigeria has had a negative impact in the Nigeria educational sector, and the output is devastating in terms of loss of standard and its attendant results.

This situation of over population could be speculated to be speculated to be responsible for the untold hardship, corruption, social disorder, poor standard of living, crime etcetera. In this, there will be lower standard of education, inadequate

This research will however examine the influence and effect of class size on student academic achievement in secondary schools.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

According to the Federal Ministry of Education, as at 2004, the population of Nigeria secondary schools stood at one hundred and eighteen thousand, two hundred (118200) secondary schools This figure when compared with that of 1999 which was inclusive according to Federal Ministry of Education was very high because during that period, it was so in order to attract Federal Government attention.

The present Nigerian population of secondary schools going by the above number is almost twenty one thousand, eight hundred and twenty eight (21828) secondary schools. Over the years, there has been an increase in the population of students in urban secondary schools. This has been consistent, without the attendant increase in facilities, teachers and infrastructure, etcetera. With the decline in the quality of education and output, it therefore becomes imperative to find out whether the increase in of students’ directly affect their academic performance and identify the causes of increase in population of students in public primary schools in Ayedade LGA, Osun state and what could be done to remedy the situation.


1.3 Objectives of the Study

The main objective of this study is to find out the effects of increased class size on teaching and learning methods in public primary schools Ayedade LGA, specifically the study intends to:

  1. To find out the effects of overpopulation on student’s academic achievement
  2. To analyze the effects of increased class on students’ academic achievement
  3. To find the effects of increased class size on teaching and learning methods in public primary schools
  4. To Identify the causes of increase in students’ population in government secondary schools in Ayadade LGA

1.4 Research Question

  1. Is there any effects of overpopulation on student’s academic achievement
  2. Is there any effects of increased class size on teaching and learning methods in public primary schools
  3. What is the effects of under population on students’ academic achievement
  4. To Identify the causes of increase in students’ population in government secondary schools in Ayadade LGA

1.5 Research Hypothesis

Ho: there is no effects of the effects of increased class size on teaching and learning on pupil’s academic achievement

Hi: there is no effects of the effects of increased class size on teaching and learning on pupil’s academic achievement


1.6 Significance of the Study

This study will be of great benefit to the students, teachers, educational planners, government and society at large. For the students, it will motivate and increase their willingness to attend school and help improve their performance in school. To the teachers, it will help improve abilities of the teacher to manage the classroom efficiently because reduction in the number of students encourages teacher – students’ relationship and leads to effective and efficient academic performance.

To the education planners, it will be a guiding material to enable them check the population of students in relation to the available schools to accommodate them. To the government, it will serve as a guide to identify the need to improve the infrastructure available for teaching and learning. The study will be of great significance to the society at large as it will help produce qualified citizens that will contribute positively to the growth of the society and it will also serve as a resource and reference material to future students.


1.7 Scope of the Study

This research will vividly examine the effect of increased class size (overpopulation) on the academic performance of students in Aiyedaade LGA, osun state. Since it will be difficult to use all the public primary schools in Aiyedaade LGA will be used as a case study.


1.8 Delimitation of the Study

Finance for the general research work will be a challenge during the course of study. Correspondents also might not be able to complete or willing to submit the questionnaires given to them.

However, it is believed that these constraints will be worked on by making the best use of the available materials and spending more than the necessary time in the research work. Therefore, it is strongly believed that despite these constraint, its effect on this research report will be minimal, thus, making the objective and significance of the study achievable.


1.9 Definition of Terms

Class Size:

Refers to the number of students in a given course or classroom

Academic Achievement:

Academic achievement or performance is the extent to which a student, teacher or institution has achieved their short or long-term educational goals.


Effect Of Increased Class Size Of Pupils On Teaching And Learning Method


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Frequently Asked Questions


Does class size affect teaching and learning in primary schools?

Evidence on class size effects. throughout the primary school years. students in the class and larger numbers of students within the groups. This had negative effects on teaching, learning and students’ concentration. 

What are the effects of large classes on students?

Students in the class and larger numbers of students within the groups. This had negative effects on teaching, learning and students’ concentration. In smaller classes, teachers were which larger classes would appear to seriously threaten. The Ministry of Education also wants our ‘world – class’ revised curriculum implemented.

Do class sizes and teacher ratios affect child achievement?

Children who start behind their peers benefit most. There is also a positive effect on smaller in the lower secondary school. This suggests that the achievement of weaker students poorer families) may be put at risk if teacher student ratios and class sizes are increased.

What is the average effect size of teacher ratings on learning?

The average effect size of ‘quality of teaching’ is 0.44, considerably smaller (average effect size 0.57, rank 37). Mo re seriously, perhaps, in terms of the relevance of his learning come from student ratings of teachers by college and university students’ (p. 115). 

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