The Effect Of Inadequate Infrastructural Facilities On The Academic Performance Of Pupils In Public Primary Schools

Primary Education Project and Semina Material

The Effect Of Inadequate Infrastructural Facilities On The Academic Performance Of Pupils In Public Primary Schools


Abstract


This research is based on the effect of inadequate infrastructural facilities on the academic performance of pupils in public primary schools in Abeokuta north local government area. Simple random sampling techniques was used in selecting the schools and respondent for the study.

The participation consisted of 20 pupils in each school and it is made up of 100 pupils in each school. A descriptive research design was adopted for the study. A questionnaire titled “Effect of inadequate infrastructural facilities on the academic performance of pupils in public primary schools” was prepared and used to collect data for the study. The data so collected through the questionnaire were analysed using simple random method analysis. It was suggested among others that a specific percentage of educational budget should be made available for provision and maintenance of the school infrastructure in order to reverse the trend of lack of facilities in the educational sector.


Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

In recent time, Educational practitioners and stakeholders have been lamenting the fall in the standard of education in the country. These calls, gave impetus to the current educational reforms of the federal government. The primary school is the foundation of the formal education systems anywhere in the world.

However, this very important level of the educational system has been neglected for too long. There are several blind sports at the primary schools that if addressed would improve the delivery systems and the quality of teaching and learning. Both students and teachers need facilities such as libraries, science resource rooms, good drinking water, toilets, laboratories, good roads linking the schools and security for teaching and learning. Although the host communities where primary schools are located benefit from rural electrification, but the primary schools do not. Most of the school building are in terrible state of despair because of poor maintenance, our public structures and facilities have completely collapsed and in ruins. This scenario is however not peculiar to primary school buildings and infrastructure but also applicable to Nigerian roads, government vehicles, public buildings and government industries. These are obvious non maintenance and careless use of public utilities.

The future of any society very mostly depend upon the quality of its youths. As such, many writers have emphasized the needs for proper child upbringing. Muklerjee (1978) opined that “proper home, care in rearing children during early days (primary school age) after birth may lead to the desired behaviour in their personality. The home is a dwelling place where children are brought up by the family. It is also a place where the child’s earliest education or socialization usually beings and hence, served as the first instructional point. For the child education on the other hand to many educators is a process by which people’s abilities and talents are developed.

The above present a commenting position of most of the nations’ primary schools. In some schools roofs are blown off, wall are dilapidated and furniture items are damaged and grossly inadequate. Some school buildings have been built about four (4) decade ago. Whereas, the depreciation of school physical structure and infrastructures depend on various factors as the quality of the initial construction and materials, and the quality of maintenance to accommodate effective teaching and learning for academic performance of pupils in public primary schools. Some building have life spam of about fifty (50) years whereas, some can function effectively for not more than ten (10) years.

Also overcrowded schools are a serious problem in many school systems, particularly in the cities due to inadequate building to accommodate students. Crowded classroom conditions not only make it difficult for students to concentrate on their lessons, but inevitably limit the amount of time teachers can spend on innovative teaching methods such as co-operative learning and group worker or, indeed on teaching anything beyond the barest minimum of required material.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

This project is interested in finding solutions to this problem of “The effect of inadequate infrastructural facilities on the academic performance of pupils in public primary schools”.

More specifically, this project wants to find answers to the following questions

  1. Why available infrastructural facilities are not properly maintenance?
  2. How can we make infrastructural facilities adequately provided by those whom concern?
  3. What are the factors needed to put into consideration before provision to be made?
  4. What are the effect of procurement of these infrastructural facilities have on academic performance of pupils (learners)?

1.3 Purpose of the Study

This research work is an attempt to;

  1. Analyse the effects of inadequate infrastructural facilities on the academic performance of pupils in public primary schools.
  2. Examine functional of infrastructural facilities on the academic performance of pupils in public primary schools.
  3. To fulfil the desired vision for the maintenance of school infrastructural facilities on the academic performance of pupils in public primary schools by the school administrators.
  4. To make recommendations of various ways these infrastructural facilities can be provide and use effectively by teacher to enhancing effective teaching and learning.

1.4 Research Questions

The study attempts to provide answer to the following research questions:

  1. What are the most valuable assets a school requires for the effect teaching of pupils?
  2. What are the causes of inadequate infrastructural facilities on the academic performance of pupils in public primary schools?
  3. What measures can be take to ensure adequate equipping of infrastructure in public primary schools?
  4. What are the effects of inadequate infrastructure on teaching and learning?

1.5 Significance of the Study

The study will help give an understanding of what really causes damages to available infrastructure and how to provide more facilities to make it adequate in public primary school. The main significance of this study is to examine how pupils should be prevented from sitting on the floor to receive lectures and how this can be eradicated. Efforts would be made to map out the legitimate strategies from adequate infrastructure facilities to enhance teaching and learning which will enhance good academic performance for pupils.


1.6 Scope of the Study

This project is limited to effect of inadequate infrastructural facilities on the academic performance of pupils in primary schools. It is meant to highlight difficulties faced by pupils, the method, infrastructural facilities, materials and attitude of maintenance involved in the teaching effectively which we reflect in good academic performance of pupils.

This study is limited to five public primary schools in Abeokuta north local government area of Ogun State.


1.7 Definition of Terms

Effect:

According to Oxford advanced learner’s dictionary (sixth edition) defines effect as a change that somebody or something causes in somebody or something else, a result.

Inadequate:

Means not enough or not good enough.

Infrastructural:

This can be says as the basic physical and organizational structures needed for an economy to function it can also be refers as the physical components of interrelated systems providing commodities and services essential to enable sustain or enhance society living conditions.

Facilities:

This word means space or equipment necessary for doing something.

Academic performance:

This refers to how learners or students deal with their studies and how they cope with or accomplish different tasks given to them by their teachers. It also ability to study and remember facts and being able to communicate your knowledge verbally or down on paper.

School:

Is an administrative unit dedicated and designed to impart knowledge and skills to learners.


Chapter Five


Summary of Findings, Discussion, Conclusion and Recommendations

5.1 Introduction

This chapter focuses on the summary of findings of the study which formed the foundation for discussions. The discussions provided a firm basis upon which conclusions and recommendations were advanced to address the influence of inadequate infrastructure on academic performance in public primary schools in Abeokuta north local government area of Ogun State. It also includes suggested areas for further research.


5.2 Summary of Findings

The following are the key findings presented under the three objectives of the study as follows
Library, Librarian, Conducive learning environment, Qualified teachers, Adequate chairs in the classroom, etc are among the most valuable assets a school requires for the effect teaching of pupils.

on the academic performance of pupils in public primary schools? Inadequate fund, Overcrowded classroom, Poor learning environment, Epileptic power supply, Government policy on education, etc are among the causes of inadequate infrastructural facilities on public primary schools in Abeokuta north local government area, Ogun State.

Donation by government to finance public schools, Donation from parents, Equipping of schools with necessary infrastructure by the Ministry of Education are among the measures that can be taken to ensure adequate equipping of infrastructure in public primary schools.

The effects of inadequate infrastructure on teaching and learning is that it: Makes learning and teaching difficult for the students and teachers; Makes learning uninteresting; Makes teachers work difficult; Impacts negatively on the performance of students; Causes truancy in school, etc


5.4 Conclusion of the Study

The study concluded that, in general, infrastructure in public primary schools in Abeokuta north local government area is poor. There was only one primary school that had a library and even this one had inadequate study materials. Also most classrooms in all the schools were overcrowded with nearly all learners sharing desks in classrooms that called for painting of the walls as well as plastering and cementing the floors. While accepting that infrastructure is just one determinant factor, it would not be far-fetched to conclude that infrastructure has been a key factor in the below average performance of the pupils in national examinations over the years.


5.5 Recommendations

The following policy recommendations were made from the findings of this study.

  1. The Ministry of Education should ensure that schools infrastructure, including spacious and well-tendered classrooms with adequate number of desks should be availed to every public primary school.
  2. In addition, the Ministry of Education should ensure that every primary school has a spacious library that has an adequate amount of relevant books.
  3. In this effort, the Ministry should seek cooperation of donors that included concerned parents.

The Effect Of Inadequate Infrastructural Facilities On The Academic Performance Of Pupils In Public Primary Schools


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