Effect Of Improper Waste Disposal

Project and Seminar Material for Environmental Science

Effect Of Improper Waste Disposal


Abstract


This study was carried out to examine the effect of improper waste disposal using Aba North Local Government, Abia State as a case study. The study was specifically set to determine the extent of improper solid waste disposal in Aba North Local Government in Abia State, find out the factors contributing to poor waste disposal in Aba North Local Government in Abia State, ascertain whether waste disposal result to environmental air pollution, and ascertain whether improper waste disposal contribute to the outbreak and prevalence of infections. The survey design was adopted and the simple random sampling techniques were employed in this study. The population size comprised of residents of Aba North Local Government, Abia State. In determining the sample size, the researcher conveniently selected 147 respondents and 141 were validated. Self-constructed and validated questionnaire was used for data collection. The collected and validated questionnaires were analyzed using frequency tables, and mean scores. While the hypotheses was tested Chi-square statistical tool. The result of the findings reveals that the extent of improper solid waste disposal in Aba North Local Government in Abia State is high. Furthermore, the study revealed that improper waste disposal contribute to the outbreak and prevalence of infections. Therefore, it is recommended that the government must establish community health education centers where members of the community can access information regarding proper solid waste disposal and diseases outbreak. To mention but a few.


Table of Content


  • Title Page
  • Certification
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Table of Content
  • List of Tables
  • Abstract

Chapter One:

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3 Objective of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Research Hypothesis
  • 1.6 Significance of the Study
  • 1.7 Scope of the Study
  • 1.8 Limitation of the Study
  • 1.9 Definition of Terms
  • 1.10 Organisations of the Study

Chapter Two:

Review of Literature

  • 2.1 Conceptual Framework
  • 2.2 Theoretical Framework
  • 2.3 Empirical Review

Chapter Three:

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Population of the Study
  • 3.3 Sample Size Determination
  • 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
  • 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
  • 3.6 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
  • 3.8 Validity of the Study
  • 3.9 Reliability of the Study
  • 3.10 Ethical Consideration

Chapter Four:

Data Presentation and Analysis

  • 4.1 Data Presentation
  • 4.2 Analysis of Data
  • 4.3 Answering Research Questions
  • 4.4 Test of Hypotheses

Chapter Five:

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • References
  • APPENDIX
  • QUESTIONNAIRE

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

Open dumpsite approach as waste disposal method is a primitive stage of waste management in many parts of the world. It is one of the most poorly rendered services by municipal authorities in developing countries as the systems applied are unscientific, outdated and in-efficient. Waste disposal sites are found both within and on the outskirts of developing urban cities. With increase in the global population and the rising demand for food and other essentials, there has been a rise in the amount of waste being generated daily by each household (Foday et al., 2013). This waste is ultimately thrown into municipal disposal sites and due to poor and ineffective management, the dumpsites turn to sources of environmental and health hazards to people living in the vicinity of such dumps. One of the main aspects of concern is the pollution caused to the earth; be it land, air and water. According to Nguyen et al. (2011) many cities in developing countries face serious environmental degradation and health risks due to the weakly developed municipal solid waste management system. Several studies have been conducted in order to examine the health and environmental effects arising from waste dumps. Such studies showed that a link exists between the two (Aatamila et al., 2010; Giusti, 2009; Nwanta and Ezenduka, 2010; Xiao et al., 2007; Yongsi et al., 2008). The conclusion from this and other studies has led to an increasing interest of researchers in the study relating to environmental pollution as well as its effects on plants and animals. Few of these studies examined the environmental and health implications of poor waste disposal to people living in close proximity of wastes dumpsites (Boardi and Kuitunen, 2005; Forastiera et al., 2011; Gouveia and do Prado, 2009;Nabegu, 2010). The ever increasing consumption of resources results in huge amounts of wastes from industrial and domestic activities, which pose significant threats to human health (Foday et al., 2013; Frosch, 1996). However, the ills of inappropriately disposed municipal solid wastes are quite numerous to be mentioned. Health deterioration, accidents, flood occurrences, and environmental pressures are just a few of the negative effects. In many developing countries, waste disposal sites are found on the outskirts of urban areas. These areas become children’s sources of contamination due to the incubation and proliferation of flies, mosquitoes, and rodents. They, in turn, are disease transmitters that affect population’s health, which has its organic defenses in a formative and creative state. The said situation produces gastrointestinal, dermatological, respiratory, genetic, and several other kind of infectious diseases (Foday et al., 2013; Salam, 2010). Open dumpsites in developing urban cities involve in- discriminate disposal of waste. They are uncontrolled and therefore pose major health threats which affect the landscape of urban cities (Sood, 2004). The UNEPA (2006) stated that wastes that are not managed properly, especially solid waste from households and the community, are a serious health hazard and lead to the spread of infectious diseases.

The report further stated that unattended wastes lying around attract flies, rats, and other creatures that, in turn, spread diseases. Normally, it is the wet waste that de- composes and releases a bad odor. The bad odor affects the people settled next to the dumpsite, which shows that the dumpsites have serious effects to people settled around or next to them. The group at risk from this un-scientific disposal of solid waste includes-the population in areas where there is no proper waste disposal method, especially the pre-school children, waste workers and workers in facilities producing toxic and infectious materials. Other high-risk group includes population living close to the waste dump (Aatamila et al., 2010; Foday et al., 2013). In particular, organic domestic waste poses a serious threat, since they ferment creating conditions favorable to the survival and growth of microbial pathogens. Direct handling of solid waste can result in various types of infectious and chronic diseases with the waste workers and rag pickers being the most vulnerable (Foday et al., 2013; Nwanta and Ezenduka, 2010). Studies conducted by Yongsi et al. (2008) show that exposure to hazardous waste in dumpsites can affect human health, children being the most vulnerable to these pollutants. Direct exposure can lead to diseases through chemical exposure as the release of chemical waste into the environment leads to chemical poisoning. Rushton (2003), in his studies to establish a connection between health and hazardous waste showed that waste from agriculture and industries can also cause serious health risks. Other than this, co-disposal of industrial waste with municipal waste can expose people to chemical and radioactive hazards. Health care waste and other medical waste disposed in dumpsites, mixed with domestic waste, increasing the risk of infection with Hepatitis B and HIV, and other related diseases (World Bank, 2005). Open dumpsites are a major problem to the environment especially to the air that we inhale. Dumpsites emit obnoxious odors and smoke that cause illness to people living in, around, or closer to them (Marshal, 1996).

According to Medina (2002), pollution, a major environmental effect of dumpsites, is not directly transferred from land to people, except in the case of dusts and direct contact with toxic materials. Pollutants deposited on land usually enter the human body through the medium of contaminated crops, animals, food products, or water. Also, the dumpsite has smelly and unsightly conditions. These conditions are worse in the summer because of extreme temperatures, which speed up the rate of bacterial action on biodegradable organic material. Disposal sites can also create health hazards for the neighborhood (Boardi and Kuitunen, 2005; Foday et al., 2013). Gouveia and Ruscitto (2009) highlighted that in a number of health surveys a wide range of health problems, including respiratory systems, irritation of the skin, eyes and nose, gastrointestinal problems, psychological disorders, and allergies, have been discovered. In addition, dumpsites closer to residential areas are always feeding places for dogs and cats. These pets, together with rodents, carry diseases with them to nearby homesteads.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

Compact waste control activities cover all actions that seek to reduce the negative impacts on health, environment and economy. Developing countries are seriously facing the associated problems in collection, transportation and disposal of communal solid waste. In Lagos State, due to unplanned communities and developments in major cities, ecological and sanitary conditions are becoming very complex (LBSG, 2010). Due to a lack of awareness and low income sources, dwellers are forced to live with unhealthy and unhygienic conditions. An improper solid waste management system may contribute to a worsening ecological degradation of the community. Illegal dumping of communal solid waste is responsible for a number of diseases in Lagos State.

Per-head statistics of solid waste generation in developing countries according to Ashley, Malak and Salah (2013) is increasing year after year due to unprecedented trend in the growth pattern of urban areas. The modelling and density of urban areas, the physical composition of waste, density of waste, temperature and precipitation, scavenger’s activity for recyclable separation, treatment capacity, insufficiency and limited resources are making tasks very tough for the administration authority in developing countries. Due to diverse life styles in communities, development authorities are not able to offer analogous type of solid waste management system for different communities, therefore in Lagos State a lot of illegal (unsupervised) solid waste management systems are working. Collection efficiency of the existing solid waste systems in Lagos State is very low due to a lack of storage bins and improper management system (Humphrey and Partnas, 2016).

Open dumping, open burning and un-engineered sanitary landfills are common practice throughout the cities and urban areas in Nigeria. Due to improper waste disposal and collection systems, urban residents are facing serious negative ecological impacts in developing countries (Henry and Zac, 2014). In Lagos State, according to the official gazette of the Ministry of the Environment and Mineral Resources (EMR) and Lagos State Ecological Protection Agency (LSEPA), about 54,850 tons of solid waste is being generated on daily basis in urban areas, less than 85 percent of this generated solid waste is being collected improperly.


1.3 Objectives of the Study

The general aim of this study is to examine the effect of improper waste disposal using Aba North Local Government, Abia State. Specifically, this study will;

  1. Determine the extent of improper solid waste disposal in Aba North Local Government in Abia State
  2. Find out the factors contributing to poor waste disposal in Aba North Local Government in Abia State
  3. Ascertain whether waste disposal result to environmental air pollution.
  4. Ascertain whether improper waste disposal contribute to the outbreak and prevalence of infections

1.4 Research Question

This study will be guided by the following questions derived from the objectives of the study;

  1. What is the extent of improper solid waste disposal in Aba North Local Government in Abia State?
  2. What are the factors contributing to poor waste disposal in Aba North Local Government in Abia State?
  3. Does improper waste disposal result to environmental air pollution?
  4. Does improper waste disposal contribute to the outbreak and prevalence of infections?

1.5 Research Hypotheses

  • Ho: Improper waste disposal has no significant effect on residents of Aba North Local Government in Abia State.
  • Ha: Improper waste disposal has a significant effect on residents of Aba North Local Government in Abia State.

1.6 Significance of the Study

The relevance of this study cannot be overstated. Fore-mostly the study will communicate the existing waste technologies in use in Nigeria and provide information on the current local factors that inhibit the successful collection of wastes generated by citizens, and give recommendation on how effective waste collection could be achieved. The outcome of this study will provide policymakers with necessary information to help make quality and cost effective decisions.

Additionally, subsequent researchers will use it as literature review. This means that, other students who may decide to conduct studies in this area will have the opportunity to use this study as available literature that can be subjected to critical review. Invariably, the result of the study contributes immensely to the body of academic knowledge with regards to the environmental consequences of improper solid waste disposal in Nigeria.


1.7 Scope of the Study

This study is structured to generally examine the effect of improper waste disposal using Aba North Local Government, Abia State as a case study. However, the participants for this study will be obtained from the residents of Aba North Local Government, Abia State.


1.8 Limitation of the Study

Like in every human endeavour, the researcher encountered slight constraints while carrying out the study. Insufficient funds tend to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature, or information and in the process of data collection, which is why the researcher resorted to a limited choice of sample size. More so, the researcher simultaneously engaged in this study with other academic work. As a result, the amount of time spent on research will be reduced.

Moreover, the case study method utilized in the study posed some challenges to the investigator including the possibility of biases and poor judgment of issues. However, the investigator relied on respect for the general principles of procedures, justice, fairness, objectivity in observation and recording, and weighing of evidence to overcome the challenges.


1.8 Definition of Terms

Solid waste: any garbage or refuse, sludge from a wastewater treatment plant, water supply treatment plant, or air.
Waste Management: Refers to the “collection, transportation, processing, recycling or disposal of waste materials”


1.10 Organization of the Study

This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows.

  • Chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the (overview, of the study), historical background, statement of problem, objectives of the study, research hypotheses, significance of the study, scope and limitation of the study, definition of terms and historical background of the study.
  • Chapter two highlights the theoretical framework on which the study is based, thus the review of related literature.
  • Chapter three deals on the research design and methodology adopted in the study.
  • Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding.
  • Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study.

Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations:

5.1 Introduction

This chapter summarizes the findings on the environmental consequences of improper solid waste disposal in Nigeria using Ikotun, Lagos State as a case study. The chapter consists of summary of the study, conclusions, and recommendations.


5.2 Summary of the Study

In this study, our focus was to examine the effect of improper waste disposal using Aba North Local Government, Abia State as a case study. The study was specifically set to determine the extent of improper solid waste disposal in Aba North Local Government in Abia State, find out the factors contributing to poor waste disposal in Aba North Local Government in Abia State, ascertain whether waste disposal result to environmental air pollution, and ascertain whether improper waste disposal contribute to the outbreak and prevalence of infections.

The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 141 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondents are residents of Aba North Local Government, Abia State.


5.3 Conclusions

In the light of the analysis carried out, the following conclusions were drawn.

  1. The extent of improper solid waste disposal in Aba North Local Government in Abia State is high.
  2. The factors contributing to poor waste disposal in Aba North Local Government in Abia State includes: poor attitude of residents towards waste management, low level of awareness, limited waste disposal infrastructures increasing waste generation due to population increases, and poor centralized waste collection container.
  3. Improper waste disposal result to environmental air pollution.
  4. Improper waste disposal contribute to the outbreak and prevalence of infections.

5.4 Recommendations

Based on the findings of the study, the following recommendations are proffered.

  1. Continuous community sensitization should be offered about proper solid waste disposal through a multi-disciplinary approach and conducting awareness campaigns.
  2. The authority could formulate byelaws requiring all community members at household, institution and business places to sort refuse by type before storage to reduce large volumes by segregating biodegradable and non-biodegradable and re- enforcement and compliance of law to regulate refuse disposal which is stipulated in the Environmental Act number 20 of year 2004.
  3. The government must establish community health education centers where members of the community can access information regarding proper solid waste disposal and diseases outbreak.
  4. Families must be assisted in determining what is going on in their household which can be led to disease outbreak and tremendous restructuring, rethinking, shift the culture in the community and the culture we have at approaching the problem.

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