The Influence Of Excursion And Field Trips On Student Academic Performance In History As A Subject In Secondary Schools In Ovia North LGA Of Edo

History Education Project and Seminar Material

The Influence Of Excursion And Field Trips On Student Academic Performance In History As A Subject In Secondary Schools In Ovia North LGA Of Edo (Charles)


Abstract


This study was carried out to examine the influence of peer group socialization on JSS3 students academic achievements in social studies education using some selected junior secondary schools in Owerri, Imo State as a case study. The study was specifically set to examine determine whether there is a significant relationship between peer socialization and students academic achievements in social studies education, determine if there exist significant difference between influence of peer socialization on male students academic achievements in social studies education and female students academic achievements in social studies education, and determine the influence of peer socialization on students’ achievement in social studies education. The survey design was adopted and the simple random sampling techniques were employed in this study. The population size comprise of students of some selected junior secondary schools in Owerri, Imo State. In determining the sample size, the researcher conveniently selected 200 respondents and 150 were validated. Self-constructed and validated questionnaire was used for data collection. The collected and validated questionnaires were analyzed using frequency tables and mean scores. While the hypotheses were tested using Chi-square statistical tool. The result of the findings reveals that there is a significant relationship between peer socialization and students academic. Furthermore the study also revealed that peer socialization influences students’ achievement in social studies education as it influences students study habit, influences student active participation in the classroom, influences students interest in education, influences students learning outcome. Therefore, the study recommends that school counsellors should provide usable and adequate information both to the students and their parents about forms of peer pressure in public secondary schools. To mention but a few.


Table of Content


  • Title Page
  • Certification
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Table of Content
  • List of Tables
  • Abstract

Chapter One:

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3 Objective of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Research Hypothesis
  • 1.6 Significance of the Study
  • 1.7 Scope of the Study
  • 1.8 Limitation of the Study
  • 1.9 Definition of Terms
  • 1.10 Organisations of the Study

Chapter Two:

Review of Literature

  • 2.1 Conceptual Framework
  • 2.2 Theoretical Framework
  • 2.3 Empirical Review

Chapter Three:

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Population of the Study
  • 3.3 Sample Size Determination
  • 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
  • 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
  • 3.6 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
  • 3.8 Validity of the Study
  • 3.9 Reliability of the Study
  • 3.10 Ethical Consideration

Chapter Four:

Data Presentation and Analysis

  • 4.1 Data Presentation
  • 4.2 Analysis of Data
  • 4.3 Answering Research Questions
  • 4.4 Test of Hypotheses

Chapter Five:

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • References
  • APPENDIX
  • QUESTIONNAIRE

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background to the Study

It is observed in school that the extent to which these objectives have been achieved, is determined by their level of Peer socialization, time management as students’ success are reflected in their academic performance. Peers play a large role in the social and emotional development of an adolescent(Allen, et al. 2005). Their influence begins at an early tender age and increases through the teenage years, it is natural, healthy and important for adolescent to have and rely on friends as they grow and mature. Thus, a peer could be any one you look up to in behaviour or someone who you would think is equal to your age or ability(Hardcastle, 2002). The term “pressure” implies the process that influence people to do something that they might not otherwise choose to do or not willing to do.

Adolescence in children is a time of transformation in many areas of an individual’s life. In the midst of these rapid physical, emotional, and social changes, children begin to question adult standards and the need for parental guidance. It is also a time for individuals to make crucial decisions about their commitment to academics and family. As adolescents make the transition to their primary schools to junior secondary schools or perhaps high school, peer networks increase, and peer crowd affiliation becomes an important aspect of peer relations(Silverman 2002). At the junior secondary classes, dating relationships emerge and take on increasing importance. By age ten (10) to sixteen (16), majority of adolescents report having had a romantic relationship(Carver et al. 2003). Thus, adolescence is characterized by changes in terms of physical, thinking, and problem – solving as well as emotional and sexual maturation(Santrock, 2007).

In addition, adolescents have always been exposed to peer influence, but the kinds of peer influence that they encounter have changed tremendously in the recent years. Peers can influence everything from what an adolescent chooses to wear, drink or eat to whether or not an adolescent engages in drug – related or other delinquent behavior(Temitope, et al. 2015). This is an important issue to be studied because if society and education related professionals understand the issue surrounding negative peer influence, they can adequately prepare themselves to help teenagers facing negative aspects of Peer socialization. According to Jones(2010), defined Peer socialization as the ability of people from the same social rank or age to influence another of same age bracket; Peer socialization is usually associated with teens although its influence is not confined to teenagers alone(Hartney, 2011). Peer socialization refers to the influences that peers can have on each other. Peer socialization is emotional or mental forces from people belonging to the same social group (such as age, grade or status) to act or behave in a manner similar to themselves.

However, peers can also have a negative influence on one another such as encouraging each other to skip classes, steal, cheat, bully, use of drugs or alcohol, or become involve in other risky behaviours within or outside the learning palace. Negative peer socialization may influence in various ways like joining group who drink alcohol, smoke cigarette and Indian hemp among others. It may also lead to the decision to dating relationship such as having boyfriend or girlfriend. Peer socialization indulges students into loitering about in the streets, watching films, going to pools and attending parties during school hours, taping as alternative to stealing which may eventually graduate into a big criminal act(Arief, 2011). Peer socialization may be present in the workplace, at school or within the society. It can affect people of all ages and it may affect people in different ways but the main focus of this project is on Peer socialization as it influences academic performance of in school adolescents in junior secondary school.

The blame for poor academic performance among junior secondary school students could be attributable to a variety of factors such as student inability to manage their time, peers influence, family factors and the likes. Parents, teachers, curriculum experts and evaluators have expressed considerable concern over the deteriorating students’ performance in public examinations such as Basic Education Certificate Examination (BECE) and National Examination Council (NECO). Therefore, students within adolescent age should avoid negative pressure such loitering along the street during school hours, holding parties at the expense of their study claiming to be celebrating a birthday, skipping school and drug abuse. That will create room for poor academic performance. The adolescent should move with people that study their books in order to have good academic performance.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

Peer group being group of children of the same age sharing similar interest can affect the behavior of the individual child in school or environmental setting basically the achievement in mathematics. Thus, a good interaction process promotes mutual relations and achievement, while negative peer influence will have negative effect on student’s achievement in social studies. However it seems that the peer group students interact with either negatively or positively, motivate and influence them. It appears that when students get to school their minds tend to be like a “tabula rasa”, but experience shows that when students mix with their peers, they tend to be greatly influenced. Reports from mass media show that students caught for anti-variance behavior such as stealing, telling lies, examination mal-practices, sneaking out of school are those that seem to be influenced by their peers. Additionally, the blame for poor academic performance among junior secondary school students could be attributable to a variety of factors such as student inability to manage their time, peers influence, family factors and the likes. Parents, teachers, curriculum experts and evaluators have expressed considerable concern over the deteriorating students’ performance in social studies in junior secondary schools. With respect ot the above, this study seek to examine the influence of peer group socialization on JSS3 students academic achievements in social studies education.


1.3 Objective of the Study

Generally, this study seek examine the influence of peer group socialization on JSS3 students academic achievements in social studies education.

The specific aims of this research are to:

  1. Determine whether there is a significant relationship between peer socialization and students academic achievements in social studies education.
  2. Determine if there exist significant difference between influence of peer socialization on male students academic achievements in social studies education and female students academic achievements in social studies education.
  3. Determine the influence of peer socialization on students’ achievement in social studies education.

1.4 Research Questions

Base on the objectives, the following research questions are to be examined:

  1. Is there a significant relationship between peer socialization and students academic achievements in social studies education?
  2. Does a significant difference exist between the influence of peer socialization on male students academic achievements in social studies education and female students academic achievements in social studies education?
  3. How does peer socialization influences students’ achievement in social studies education?

1.5 Research Hypothesis

  • Ho: There is no significant influence of peer socialization and students’ achievement in social studies education.
  • Ha: There is a significant influence of peer socialization and students’ achievement in social studies education.

1.6 Significance of the Study

This study will be of great importance in such that the findings of the study would help students to develop new literature in the area of peer group influence on secondary school students’ achievement in Nigeria. It also helps teachers by providing relevance information, regarding the effects of peer group on secondary schools students’ achievement in sociall studies education. It will further serve as a reference to academics who may wishing to conduct similar research work. The study findings would also assist school administrators to eradicate negative peer group influence on students’ achievement.


1.7 Scope of the Study

The primary focus of this study is to investigate the influence of peer group socialization on JSS3 students academic achievements in social studies education. Geographically, this study will be carried out among junior secondary schools in Owerri, Imo State.


1.8 Limitation of the Study

Finance for the general research work will be a challenge during the course of study. Correspondents also might not be able to complete or willing to submit the questionnaires given to them.

However, it is believed that these constraints will be worked on by making the best use of the available materials and spending more than the necessary time in the research work. Therefore, it is strongly believed that despite these constraint, its effect on this research report will be minimal, thus, making the objective and significance of the study achievable.


1.9 Definition of Terms

Word change meanings when used in different contexts. For the study, the following terms are defined the way they were used:

Peer Group:

Peer group being group of people of the same age bracket sharing similar interest which can affect the behavior of the individual student in school or environmental setting.

Influence:

Means, the power to affect, control or manipulated students’ achievement in selected aspects of mathematics on their achievement in mathematics.

Students’ Achievement:

Refers to the knowledge attained or skills develop in mathematics subject by test scores.


1.10 Organization of the Study

The study is categorized into five chapters. The first chapter presents the background of the study, statement of the problem, objective of the study, research questions and hypothesis, the significance of the study, scope/limitations of the study, and definition of terms. The chapter two covers the review of literature with emphasis on conceptual framework, theoretical framework, and empirical review. Likewise, the chapter three which is the research methodology, specifically covers the research design, population of the study, sample size determination, sample size, abnd selection technique and procedure, research instrument and administration, method of data collection, method of data analysis, validity and reliability of the study, and ethical consideration. The second to last chapter being the chapter four presents the data presentation and analysis, while the last chapter(chapter five) contains the summary, conclusion and recommendation.


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations:

5.1 Introduction

This chapter summarizes the findings on the influence of peer group socialization on JSS3 students academic achievements in social studies education using some selected junior secondary schools in Owerri, Imo State as a case study. The chapter consists of summary of the study, conclusions, and recommendations.


5.2 Summary of the Study

In this study, our focus was to examine the influence of peer group socialization on JSS3 students academic achievements in social studies education using some selected junior secondary schools in Owerri, Imo State as a case study. The study was specifically set to determine whether there is a significant relationship between peer socialization and students academic achievements in social studies education, determine if there exist significant difference between influence of peer socialization on male students academic achievements in social studies education and female students academic achievements in social studies education, and determine the influence of peer socialization on students’ achievement in social studies education.

The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 150 responses were validated from the enrolled participants, where all respondent are students of some selected junior secondary schools in Owerri, Imo State.


5.3 Conclusions

Based on the findings of this study, the researcher made the following conclusion.

  1. There is a significant relationship between peer socialization and students academic.
  2. There is a significant difference between the influence of peer socialization on male students academic achievements in social studies education and female students academic achievements in social studies education.
  3. Peer socialization influences students’ achievement in social studies education as it influences students study habit, influences student active participation in the classroom, influences students interest in education, influences students learning outcome.

5.4 Recommendation

Based on the findings the researcher recommends;

  1. School counsellors should provide usable and adequate information both to the students and their parents about forms of peer pressure in public secondary schools.
  2. Conferences, seminars and workshops should be organized for teachers, students, parents and guidance to reduce peer pressure in the society at large.
  3. The parent-child relationship should be cordial enough to permit adolescents to discuss their issues with their parents.
  4. School authorities/teachers should pay attention towards encouraging peer group activities in schools especially in the area of group discussion.
  5. Teachers should use teaching method that will encourage competition among the students.
  6. The students should be assisted by counselors in the choice of friends he/she makes as this would go a long way to shaping his/her future and preventing negative attitudes.
  7. Students and school stakeholders should be made aware of the benefits of peer group prior achievements as it greatly influences academic performance of students in secondary schools.

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